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BURNLEY 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC CLUB. 



TRANSACTIONS. 



VOL. I. 

1874 to 1883. 

MEMBER'S COPY. 



BUKGHOPE & STEANGE, 
ST. JAMES'S STREET, BURNLEY. 

MDCCCLXXXIV. 



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BURNLEY 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC CLUB. ,^ 



TRANSACTIONS. 



VOL. I. 
1874 to 1883. 

MEMBER'S COPY. 



BUKGHOPE & STEANGE, 
ST. JAMES'S STREET, BURNLEY. 

MDCCCLXXXrV. 



:BurnIe)2 Xiterari? Si Scientific Club. 



ESTABLISHED 1873. 



President: 
HENEY HOULDING. 



Vice-Presidents: 

J. C. Brumwell, M.D., J.P. 
J. W. Anningson, L.E.C.P. 
J. Langfield Wakd, M.A. 
Fred. J. Grant. 
W. A. Waddington. 
Alfred Strange. 



Treasurer: — JAS. KAY. 



Connmittee: 
W. Lewis Grant. 

J. MONCKMAN, D.Sc. 

B. Sagar. 
Jas. Lancaster. 
P. E. Roberts. 
Fred. H. Hill. 



Secretary: 
J. MACKENZIE, M.D , 

68, Bank Parade, Burnley. 



INTRODUCTORY REPORT. 



In presenting for the first time in the history of 
the Burnley Literary and Scientific Club a record of its 
work, it will be appropriate that some general remarks 
be made respecting the foundation of the Club, its 
progress and present position. That ten years should 
have been allowed to pass without there having been 
secured in some permanent form a systematic account 
of the doings of the Club, must to those really in- 
terested in the Club's welfare, be considered a mis- 
fortune. Generally speaking, the regular chronicling 
of the transactions of Societies like om-s is regarded 
as a necessary part of their work, and as a justification 
of their existence. Any publication therefore which 
shall aim at recording the proceedings in some con- 
nected form, must be welcomed by the members as a 
distinct gain to the Club, and a valuable addition to its 
usefulness. The difficulties, and it might be added, 
the impossibilities, attending any attempt after the 
lapse of a decade to compile a history which should 
not only be complete in its catalogue of events, but 
should present a brief account of the papers read, 
excursions made, and the manifold work accomplished, 
will be readily recognized. Indeed, were only the 
materials which are available, to be made use of, great 
labour would necessarily be involved, and the result 
would be a book far too voluminous and costly to 
render its publication expedient. It is therefore pro- 
posed in the first issue to do little more than insert a 
list of the members and officers of the Club from its 
commencement ; recite the contents of the syllabuses 
which from time to time have been put forth ; and 



fmiiish brief statistics respecting the finances of the 
Club. A selection of a few papers of special local 
interest has been made. These are presented mostly in 
condensed form, and will undoubtedly prove an accept- 
able supplement to the bare statistics of the pages 
which precede them. With respect to the futm-e, it is 
the pm-pose of the Committee to publish annually in 
January, a volume of transactions, which shall con- 
tain reports of the papers read and discussions held, 
accounts of Excursions, reports of sectional work, and 
other particulars relating to the Club's proceedings. 
Members will thereby be put in possession of an 
interesting record of the year's work in permanent 
and systematic form, which will prove advantageous 
for purposes of reference, and in other ways. And 
so, while ministering as heretofore to the intelligent 
pleasures of the members, the Club will carry on a 
work of more definite usefulness, not only to the 
members, but to the public. 

The establishment of the Club dates from Decem- 
ber 1873. It is remarkable that Burnley, with a 
population, which in that year was about 40,000, should 
not previously have possessed an Association with 
objects similar to those of the one now in existence, 
and adapted, by being established on a wide basis, to 
embrace all interested in the study of literature and 
science, and to prove worthy of the toAvn. The want 
of such an institution had however been long felt ; 
and, to quote the words of the circular which was 
issued as the first step towards the formation of the 
Club, there existed "in the minds of many the con- 
viction that an attempt to promote interchange of 
thought on subjects of general interest would be 
attended with success." The circular alluded to was 
dated December 12th, 1873, and signed by W. M. 
Coultate, F.E.C.S., J.P., J. C. Brumwell, M.D., and 
W. A. Waddington. Its object was to request attend- 
ance at a meeting to be held in the Mechanics' 



Institution, on December 17th, " with a view to the 
establishment of a ' Burnley Literary and Scientific 
Club.' " As the sequel ehews, this circular was the 
formal instrument which brought about the establish- 
ment of that Society, whose tenth anniversary is now 
celebrated. 

To two of those from whom the circular emanated, 
belongs the chief honour of originating the Club, and 
placing it on soimd lines and a solid foimdation ; and 
the publication of this volume will have fulfilled an 
act of justice in putting on record the eminent services 
which they rendered. In recognition of Mr. Wad- 
dington's exertions towards the formation of the 
Club, and of his indefatigable labours as the first 
Secretary, a Testimonial was presented to him at a 
meeting of the members held May 1st, 1877. The 
Eev. E. C. Maclui-e, M.A., occupied the chair on the 
occasion, and Dr. Brumwell made the presentation. 
Dr. Brumwell, who at the very outset was elected a 
Vice-President, and whom the members have upheld 
in that office, with the exception of the three years 
of his Presidentship, has displayed an ardent solici- 
tude for the prosperity of the Club, and has taken a 
leading share in its diverse operations. It is a matter 
of satisfaction that the Club still numbers these two 
of the founders amongst its Officers, and can count 
upon theii- valuable and willing assistance. 

The following are the names of the thirty-eight 
gentlemen who were present at the preliminary meeting 
to which reference has been made : — Eev. J. W. Allen 
Dr. Anningson, Mr. Thos. Bell, Dr. Brumwell, Messrs'. 
W. B. Bryan, Wm. CoUinge, John S. CoUinge, E. 
Crawshaw, H. Dean, Dr. Dean, Eev. J. S. Doxev 
Messrs. Geo. Gill,_H. T. Gill, N. P. Gray, Dr. Spencer 
T. Hall, Messrs. J. 8. Horn, Henry Houlding, James 
Kay, S. P. Leather, Eichd. Nelson, Thos. Nowell 
Hemy Nutter, Thos. Preston, J. Preston, W. T. Eead' 
T. Ehodes, Thos. Simpson, T. P. Smith, P. Southern' 



T. B. Spencer, Alfred Strange, W. Sutcliffe, John 
Thompson, Wm. Thompson, jnnr., W. A. Wadding- 
ton, T. Watson, John Whittaker, jnnr., Wm. Witham. 
Letters of apology for non-attendance Avere read from 
Dr. Conltate, Eev. E. C. Maclnre, M.A., Eev. John 
Stroyan, who expressed a desire to become members ; 
and the following had also intimated a similar wish : 
Messrs. J. G. Broxnp, Jolin Howorth, J.P., J. W. 
Phillips, W. Eobinson, J.P., C. Slater, Saml. Small- 
page, H. Uttley, T. T. Wilkinson, F.E.A.S. Dr. 
Brnmwell presided, and after the objects sought to be 
promoted by the Society were stated, rules were 
formed, members were enrolled, officers were elected, 
and the date of the first meeting was fixed. The 
Committee subsequently met and arranged the first 
syllabus, and settled other matters connected with the 
working of the Club. 

The Inaugural Address was delivered by the 
President, Alderman Conltate, on the occasion of a 
dinner held in the Bull Hotel, January 6th, 1874, 
which was attended by sixty-two persons. 

With respect to the objects of the Club, which 
were clearly set forth in the admirable speeches made 
at the initiatory gathering, it may be stated that it 
was not proposed to aim at exalted literary achieve- 
ments, or prosecute elaborate scientific researches. 
The design of the founders was rather to encourage, 
stimulate, and diffuse a taste for literature and 
science ; to facilitate the interchange of ideas ol 
these subjects ; and to provide a common meeting- 
ground for the purpose of intellectual recreation and 
social intercourse. These aims have been iiniformly 
kept in view from the commencement ; and those who 
are cognizant of the Club's work will testify to the 
success which has attended the endeavours to carry 
into effect the original designs. 

The subjects introduced have been of a most 
varied and comprehensive character ; for it must be 



remembered that though the title of the Club ma}'- 
give no indication of it, yet papers not only on liter- 
ature, but the sister arts, are welcomed as being 
perfectly consistent with the purposes of the Society. 
Of the great attainments of many of those who have 
shared in the work of the Club, and of the number of 
original and scholarly productions which have been 
called forth by its establishment, there is not now 
space to speak. It would be unpardonable however, 
not to express the deep indebtedness of the Club to 
its president, Mr. Hem'3^ Houlding. From the very 
beginning he has been untiring in his devotion to its 
interests. To him was allotted the first evening after 
the inaugural dinner, when he gave the memorable 
paper on " Greoffi'ey Chaucer ; " and he has on numer- 
ous occasions since, given the members the benefit of 
his singularly extensive acquaintance with English 
Literature. In respect of number of contributions 
Mr. Houlding, Dr.Brumwell, andMr.F. J. Grant occupy 
a position pre-eminent amongst the members. 

It is an extremely gratifying fact that the great 
majority of the contributions have been supplied by 
the ordinary members, and that comparatively little 
help has been sought from outside. The policy of the 
management in thus mainly relying upon local aid, 
has conduced in no small degree to the unbroken pros- 
perity of the Club's career. 

It is not within the province of these introductory 
observations to give more than the briefest outline of 
the general nature of the Club's proceedings. But 
there are several matters to which special allusion may 
properly be permitted. 

A new avenue of public usefulness was opened 
out by the providing of the two series of Lectures in 
connection with the Gilchrist Trust. The Lecturers 
whose services were obtained through the medium 
of this admirable institution, were men of the highest 
distinction in their respective departments of science ; 



10 

and it will be admitted that the lectures have not been 
ephemeral in their effects. 

The Excursions have supplied means of obtaining 
extended and accurate knowledge of the objects and 
phenomena which give charm to the country, and of 
contemplating and studying the treasures of art and 
antiquity. Moreover, the active, open-air life of the 
excursions, the change of scener}", and genial com- 
panionship conduce to healthful enjo^^ment ; and the 
memory is filled with pleasant impressions which tend 
to enrich the life. 

It is to be regretted that the formation of Sec- 
tions for the pursuit of definite aims of an artistic, 
archffiological, botanical, or geological character, has 
not so far met with large success. A scheme is how- 
ever at present under revision by which it is hoped to 
develope this department of the Society's work so that 
more practical results may be secured. 

One of the most noteworthy episodes in the annals 
of the Club and one which may fittingly be here re- 
corded, was the interview with Mr. Philip Gilbert 
Hamerton, the eminent author and artist, which took 
place in the Council Eoom, on October 28th, 1882. 
Addresses were given expressive of the gratification 
felt at Mr. Hamerton' s presence amongst them, and 
recognizing the great services he had rendered to 
literature and art. Mr. Hamerton, in responding, nar- 
rated many interesting incidents in the course of his 
eventful literary career ; and stated that he looked 
uj)on those before him as " servants of civilization" — 
a civilization that meant not only the higher culture 
of the mind, but everything which tended to promote 
the comfort and well-being of the people. He declared 
how proud he was of his connection Avith Burnley, 
and added that in all his life that occasion was the 
most pleasurable one he had ever experienced. 

During the ten years of its existence, the Club 
has had to deplore the loss by death of some of its 



11 

most prominent members. Of these may be mentioned 
Alderman T. T. Wilkinson, F.E.A.S., one of the 
two Vice-Presidents first appointed, whose connection 
with the Club though unfortunately brief, was of great 
advantage ; — the " venerable and cheery " Mr, T. B. 
Spencer, who was remarkable for his powers as an 
elocutionist and his keenness in debate ; — Alderman "W". 
Eobinson, J". P., for seven years a Yice-President, and 
a man of wide sympathies and high culture; — Alder- 
man W. M. Coultate, F.E.C.S., J.P., the President 
of the Club for the first five years of its existence, 
whose pithy criticisms and characteristic observations 
always commanded the closest attention. 

Amongst those whose association with the Club 
has been severed by their removal from the district 
may be named : Mr. Joseph Hough, M.A., F.E.A.S., 
who was specially distinguished in his astronomical and 
mathematical elucidations ; and Mr. DanielMorris, B. A., 
F.G.S., whose mastery of botany and geology proved 
of such worth to the members, and who since leaving 
Burnley has gained wide distinction, and been pro- 
moted to important positions under the government. 

Some particulars must here be given of the 
position of the Club in regard to the number of its 
members. The total number from the cemm^cement 
to the close of 1883 amoimts to 553, which with the 
23 honorary members is increased to 576. There are 
at present 210 ordinary members, a number not so 
large as that attained a few years ago, when the mem- 
bership list reached 280. 

Of the 676 who have been members at one time 
or other, 119 have read papers, introduced discussions, 
or conducted soirees. Eight non-members have also 
contributed, making a total of 127. During the ten 
years the number of papers read, discussions and 
soii'^es held (exclusive of Conversaziones) has reached 
313. These have been divided therefore amongst the 
127 just mentioned. 62 of these, or nearly one-half, 



12 

have only appeared once as contributors or directors, 
leaving therefore 251 appearances to be apportioned 
amongst the remaining 65. These figures make it 
obvious that the prominent work of the Club has 
fallen almost exclusively upon a very small proportion 
of the members. 

One word must be said as to the Finances. From 
the statement of accounts it will be perceived that the 
Club cannot boast of an accumulation of funds. For 
several years the chief expenditure was in providing 
the Conversaziones. The outlay in this dii-ection in- 
creased yearly to such an extent that the small annual 
subscription of members proved insufficient to meet 
all expenses. IsTo Conversazione has been held in 
1883 ; and it is not at present intended to hold one in 
the ensuing year. Though the publication of this 
volume will involve the Club iu considerable expense, 
yet it is estimated that the income will be sufficient 
to provide for the outlay required. 

In conclusion, there is ample ground for congrat- 
ulation in reviewing the progress of the Club ; and in 
the successes of the past is to be found a trustworthy 
augu^ry for the future. The Burnley Literary and 
Scientific Club has become a recognized institution in 
the town ; and whilst it has accomplished much in 
furthering the study of the Arts and Sciences, in the 
contemplation of the beauties and wonders of whose 
vast fields such true enjoyment is to be derived, it has 
also done much to promote that pleasant fellowship 
which comes of kindred pursuits. It is to be hoped 
that the issue of this volume may awaken a deeper 
interest iu the proceedings of the Club, an interest 
which shall be evinced in a more general readiness to 
furnish papers, — in drawing forth papers of greater 
value, evidencing deeper thought and research, — in 
willing and hearty co-operation in any schemes put 
forward for the advancement of the work of the Club, 
— and in improved attendances at the meetings and 



18 

excursions. Let each member feel that he is respon- 
sible for the success of the Club, and be animated by 
a desire and determiaation to take his proper share m 
its work, and the future of the Burnlei/ Literanj and 
Scientific CM will be characterized by increased 
strength and utility. 




14 



RULES. 



Kule 1. That the Society be named the " Burnley Literary 
AND Scientific Club." 

Eule 2. That the objects of the Ckib shall be the instruction 
and mental recreation of its members by means of 
original papers, discussions, and conversation of a 
Literary and Scientific character. Party Politics and 
Religious controversies to be excluded. That arrange- 
ments be made during the Summer for Excursions to 
places of Historic and Natural interest. 

Rule 3. That the Club consist of Ordinary and Honorary 
members. That the Committee shall liave power to 
accept the services of others than members. 

Rule 4. That the Club meet on Tuesday evenings at 7-45, the 
meetings being weekly from September to April. Any 
meetings held in the Summer months to be prepara- 
tory to the Excursions. 

Rule 5. That the Secretary shall commence the proceedings of 
each meeting by reading the minutes of the last meeting. 

Rule 6. Candidates for membership to be proposed and second- 
ed at one meeting, and balloted for at the next ; a 
majority of three-fourths of the members present 
being required to secure the election. Candidates for 
Honorary Membership shall be proposed only after a 
recommendation from the Committee. 

Rule 7. That the officers consist of a President, six Vice- 
Presidents, Treasurer, Secretary, and a Committee of 
six members, who shall manage the affairs of the Club ; 
four to form a quorum. Such officers to be chosen 
by Ballot at the Annual Meeting which shall be held 
on the first Tuesday in April. Nominations to be 
received only at the three meetings next preceding 
the Annual Meeting. 



15 

Eule 8. That the reading of any paper shall not occupy more 
than one hour, the remaining portion of the time, up 
to ten o'clock, to be spent in conversation and discus- 
sion. No speaker to occupy more than five minutes, 
or to speak more than once, except by permission of 
the Chairman. 

Eule 9. That a Sessional Programme shall be prepared by the 
Secretary, and printed, in which the business of each 
evenmg shall be stated. All subjects proposed to 
be brought before the Club to be approved by the 
Committee of Management. 

Eule 10. Each member shall have the privilege of introducing 
a fi'iend,* but no person so introduced, shall be allowed 
to take part in the proceedings, unless invited by the 
Chairman, to whom the said person's name shall be 
communicated on his entrance into the room. The 
Committee shall have power to declare any meeting 
" Special," and to make such arrangements as to 
admission of friends at such meeting as they shall 
think proper. 

Eule 11. That an annual Subscription of 10s. be paid by 
ordinary members, and any person whose subscription 
is in arrear for three months shall cease to be a mem- 
ber of the Club. 

Eule 12. The Accounts of the Club shall be made up by the 
Treasurer to the end of December in each year ; and 
a Balance Sheet shall, after having been audited, and 
passed by the Committee, be printed, and sent to the 
members before the Annual Meeting. 

Eule 13. That the Eules be altered only at the Annual Meeting 
in April, or at a Special Meeting ; in both cases a 
fortnight's Notice shall be given to the members, 
stating the nature of the proposed alteration. The 
Secretary shall be empowered to call a Special Meeting 
on receiving a requisition signed by six members. 

* No gentleman residing within the parliamentary borough, 
not being a member, will be eligible for admission. 



16 

LIST OF OFFICERS, 

PAST AND PRESENT. 

PRESIDENTS. 

W. M. Coultate, F.R.C S., J.P., 1874—1879. 
J. C. Brumwell, M.D., J.P., 1879—1882. 
Henry Hoiilding, 1882. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

J. C. Brumwell, M.D., J.P., 1874—1879, 1882. 

T. T. Wilkinson, F.E.A.S., 1874—1875. 

^Y. Eobinson, J.P., 1874—1881. 

Rev. E. C. Maclure, M.A., 1874—1878. 

Thos. Dean, M.D., 1874—1879. 

Rev. John Stroyan. 1875—1877. 

Henry Honlcling, 1878—1879, 1881—1882. 

J. Laugfield Ward, M.A., 1879. 

N. P. Gray, 1879—1881. 

J. W. Amiingson, L.R.C.P., 1879. 

F., J. Grant, 1879. 

W. A. Waddington, 1879. 

Alfred Strange, 1881. 

TREASURERS. 

N. P. Gray, 1874—1879. 
Geo. Gill, 1879—1881. 
James Kay, 1881. 

SECRETARIES. 

W. A. Waddington, 1874—1879. 
W. Lewis Grant, 1879—1883. 
J. Mackenzie, M.D., 1883. 

COMMITTEE. 

Henry Houlding, 1874—1878. 

Thos. Nowell, 1874—1879. 

Thos. Dean, M.D., 1874—1879. 

S. P. Leather, 1874—1879. 

W. B. Bryan, 1874— 187G. 

Rev. J. S. Doxey, 1874—1875. 

D. A. O'Sullivan, L.R.C.P., 1874—1876. 



17 

COMMITTEE Continued. 

J. S. Horn, 1875—1883. 

J. W. Anningson, L.E.C.P., 1876—1879. 

F. J. Grant, 1876—1879. 

J. Monckman, D.Sc. 1878. 

Alfred Strange, 1879—1881. 

L. Clement, 1879—1880. 

B. Sagar, 1879. 

J. Greenwood, 1879—1880. 
A. Lancaster, 1881—1882. 
J. Mackenzie, M.D., 1881—1883. 

C. M. Foden, 1881—1882. 
Jas. Lancaster, 1882. 

P. E. Eoberts, 1882. 
W. Lewis Grant, 1883. 
F. H. HiU, 1883. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS, 

PAST AND PRESENT. 
Year of 
Election. 

1874 Eev. Edw. Boden, M.A., Clitheroe. 

1874 Col. Fishwick, F.S.A., Rochdale. 

1874 Jas. Kerr, L.S.A.L., Crawshawbooth. 

1874 Thos. Mackeretb, F.R.A.S., Manchester. 

1874 Eev. Geo. Eowe, M.A., York. 

1875 Eev. J. S. Doxey, Whalley. 

1876 William Naylor, Wlialley. 
1876 Philip Gilbert Hamerton. 

1876 W. B. Bryan, C.E., London. 

1877 F. J. Faraday, F.S.S., F.L.S., Manchester. 
1877 C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., Huddersfield. 
1877 Edwin Waugh, Manchester. 

1877 J. H. Nodal, Manchester. 

1877 Samuel Laycock, Blackpool. 

1877 E. E. Bealey. 

1877 W. A. Abram, F.E.H.S., Blackbm:n. 

1877 D. Morris, B.A., F.G.S. 

1877 Joseph Hough, M.A., F.E.A.S. 

1878 Alf. H. Mason. F.C.S., Livei-pool. 

1879 H. Stolterfoth, M.A., M.D., Chester. 

1879 Jno. Edw. Price, F.S.A., F.E.S.L., London. 

1880 Chas. Eowley, Jun., Manchester. 

1881 Jas. Croston, F.S.A., Prestbuiy. 



IS 



LIST OF ORDINARY MEMBERS, 

PAST AND PRESENT. 

Present Members are distinguished by an Asterisk. 
Year of 
Election. 

1874 AUeu, Eev. W. H. 

1874 *Anumgson, J. W., L.R.C.P., Yorksliii-e Street. 

1874 „ Tliirkill, M.R.C.P. 

1874 Appleby, John, Senr. 

1874 

1877 *Aruold, James, Cuerden Terrace. 

1876 Ashworth, Eev. W. 

1878 Astley, J. W. 
1878 Atkinson, W. H. 

1878 „ Wm. 

1880 „ Isaiah. 

1881 Adamson, John. 

1881 Astwood, George, Junr. 

1881 *Aspinall, Wm., Todmordeu Eoad. 

1882 Ambler, E. 

1879 Astin, Andi'ew. 

1880 Astin, Arthur. 
1878 Bristow, L. V., B.A. 

1874 *Bailey, Chas., Manchester Eoad. 

1877 Baldwin, A. 

1877 Barker, John. 

1875 *Baron, John, Manchester Eoad. 

1878 * ,, Arthur, 

1878 Bell, Benj. 

1874 * ,, Thos., Nicholas Street. 
1877 *Berry, Jas., Palatine Square. 

1875 „ John. 
1874 Bibby, Jas. 
1874 Bu-kett, John, 

1877 Bolton, Wm. 

1879 „ Thos. 

1878 Bond, W. E. 
1874 Booth, Wm. 

1876 Boyden, Eev. W. 

1877 Bracewell, W. 

1874 *Bradley, John, St. James's Street. 

1874 Briggs, B. W., J.P. 

1874 * „ Hy., M.D., Bank Parade. 

1874 Brims, James, M.D. 

1874 *Brumwell, J.C, M.D., J.P., Hargreaves Street 

1877-82 *Bulcock, H., Ormerod Street. 



19 

1874-82 *Bulcock, Jas., Manchester Road 

1876 Butterfield, John. 
1878 Boyden, Thos. 
1878 Boyden, Alfred. 
1874 Bryan, W. B., C.E. 

1874 *Burns, John, L.R.C.S., PuUedge House. 
1874 Biu-ton, C. 
1874 Bottomley, J. W. 
1874 Bannister, William. 

1878 „ T. 

1879 *Butterworth, John, Junr., Brooklands Road. 
1879 Buck, WilUamson. 

1878-83 *Broxup, J.G., Gannow House. 
1879 Birley, Arthur-. 
1879 Brown, John, M.A., M.D.. &c. 
1879 *Bell, Rohert, Nelson Square. 

1879 Blakey, James. 

1880 *Birnie, Joseph, Post Office. 

1880 Brotherton, George. 

1878 Berry, Benj. 

1881 Brown, Wm. 

1881 Bell, J. C. 

1882 Bulcock, John, Junr. 

1882 *BuiTOws, Thos, Padiham Road, 
1882 *Blezard, Walton, Rosegrove. 
1882 Belhngham, A. N. 

1882 *Barlow, J. A., Padiham Road. 

1883 *Booth, James, Manchester and Co. Bank. 
1883 *Broxup, John, Gannow House. 

1877 Carr, Thomas. 
1876 Chaffer, Benjamin. 
1876 Charles, Rd. 

1879 „ F. W. 

1874 ^Clement, Leonard, Nelson. 

1875 *Colbran, W. H., Brown HiU. 
1874 *Collinge, Jas., St. James's Street. 
1874 * „ J. S., J.P., Park House. 

1876 „ Luke. 

1874 - „ Wm., Wood Nook. 

1875 ,, Jas. 

1881 '' ,, John, Spring Hill. 
1875 *Cook, Samuel, Nelson Square. 

1874 Coultate, W. M., P.R.C.S , J.P. 
1879 „ Arthur W. 

1875 *CowgiU, B. H., Manchester Road. 
1874 Creeke, A. B. 

1878 Creeke, A. B., Junr. 



1877 *Crook, Thos., Palatine Square. 

1878 Cowell, Wm. , , -d j 

1878 -Cunningham, J. M., Manchester Road. 
1874 Crawshaw, EcT., 

1874 Crosbie, Eev. H. A., M.A. 

1874 Croulcshaw, John. 

1874 Cranbrooli, Rev. J. ,, , ^ ^ 

1879 -Crabtree, Robert, Brooklands Road. 

1879 „ Jas. 

1880 Coulston, James. 

1881 *Chadwiclv Benj., Chfton Street. 
1881 Calverley, Lewis. 

1881 Chaffer, F.J. 

1882 --Calvert, A. E., Towneley Villa. 

1882 *Crook, Campbell, Rose Hill RojJ- 

1883 *Corder, Ed. Manchester Road Station. 
1874 -Dean, Thos., M.D., Manchester Road. 
1878 „ Hy. 

1874 Denbigh, A. G. 
1874 Duckett, Alfred. 

1874 )) James. 

1877 *Duckworth, Joshua, Manchester Road. 

1875 Dugdale, Adam, J. P. 
1874 „ . Theophilus. 

1877 „ Stephen. 

1876 „ Wm. 

1874 >. Jonas. ^ 

1874 *Dunkerley, EUas, St. James s Street. 

1879 * .. Elijah "W., >> 

1878 Dibbin, H. F. 
1874 Doxey, Rev. J. S. 
1874 Duerden, James. 

1879 Dent, John P. 

1880 W^m. 

1881 ^Dickinson, Alfred, Rose Cottage. 

1881 * „ W. R., Manchester Road. 
1874 . ',', W. 

1879 „ Chas. 

1882 Dean, C. W. 

1882 Dawson, G. A. 

1883 -Dall, T. N., Shakspeare Terrace. 
1877 Easton, W. , ox ^■ 
1874 *• Eastwood, Hy., St James s Street. 
1877 „ Geo. 

1881 „ Rcl. 

1877 *Ecroyd, John, Lomeshaye. 

1874 Edmondson, Bernard. 



1876 ^Edmondson, Thos., Fern Hill. 

1881 * ,, Stephen, Nicholas Street. 

1881 „ H. W. 

1876 Edwards, J. V. 

1874-81 Emmett, Jas. 

1880 Emmison, James. 

1879 *Evans, L.C., Brighton ViUa, Nelson. 
1874 Farrar, Cornelius. 

1883 *Fletcher, John, M.E.C.S. 
1888 *Finn, Eev. A. H., Stoneyholme. 
1874 Fielden, John J. 
1874 Flack, W. H. D. 

1880 „ W. G. J. 

1876 „ F. W. C. 

1874 *Fletcher, Sam., St. James's Street. 

1874 Foden, J. H. 

1877 * „ C. M., Sefton Terrace. 

1875 *Folds, Jas., Jim., Fair View Road. 
1874 * ,, Obadiah, Brimshaw House. 

1877 =i=Frankland, Geo., Bull Street. 
1879 Fisher, Fred. 

1874 Fotherby, C.T. 

1878 Freeland, F. A. S., B.A. 
1878 Fox, E. 

1877 * „ Chas., Nicholas Street. 

1878 Francis, Chas. 
1878 Fingland, J. 

1877 Gaukrodger, Chas. 
1874 *Gill, Geo., Woodleigh. 
1874 „ H. T. 

1878 „ Eev. Geo. 
1874 Grant, W. M. 

1874 * „ F. J., Bank Parade. 

1877 * ,, W. Lewis, St. Matthew's Street. 

1875 * ,, James, Manchester Eoad. 

1878 „ John H. 

1882 * „ A. E., Palatine Square. 

1876 Grave, Geo. 

1874 *Gray, N. P., Healey Grove 

1879 *Gray. Eev, E. D. H., M.A., BriercUffe Vicarage 

1877 Grey, T. E. 

1874 *Greenwood, Jas., Cumberland Place. 
1874 Grimshaw, John, J. P. 
1874 Gulland, Sergeant-Major. 

1878 Goode, F. B. 
1878 GibUn, T. 
1878 GiUooly, T. 



1878 Giles, Rev. E. H., B.A. 

1879 Greaves, W. 0. 

1880 *Greenhalgli, John, Juiir., Rectory Road. 
1877 Gregory, W. G. 

1882 *Granger, H. B., Craven Bank. 

1876 Garside, W. F. „, -.. m 

1874 Hall, Spencer T., M.D.Ci., M.A., Ph.D., Tu. 

1875 Halstead, Alfred. 

1875 Hargreaves, Hy. 

1876 * ,, Jas., Palatine Square. 
1875 * ,, W. Carey, Bankfield Villa. 

1877 ,, Joshua. 
1877 Harker, Edward. 

1877 ^Harrison, James, Carlton Road. 

1875 Hartley, Francis. 

1876 „ James. 

1876 „ John. 

1877 Heaton, Thos. 

1877 *Hesketh, Jas., St. James's Street. 
1875 Hey, Alfred. 

1874 ,, Horace. 

1875 "Higgin, Cain, Rectory Road. 
1877-83 =■' Hirst, Fred W. Cai'lton. Road. 
1874 '•' „ T. A., Colne. 

1877 *Hitchin, Robert, St. James's Street, 

1877 Hocking, Rev. Silas. 

1874 *Hoghton, Thomas, Carlton Road. 

1874 ^'^Holden, Ralph, Brooklands. 

1875 „ Samuel. _ 

1874 *Horn, J. S., Palatme Square. 
1874 Houlding, E. Junr. 

1874 * „ Hy., Byerden Terrace. 

1875 Howard, G. M. 

1877 „ Wm. R. 

1878 „ WilkinsR. ^ . ^ , 
1874 *Howarth, John, J.P., Sprmg Bank. 
1874 Howarth, Wm. 

1877 ='^Hudson, Samuel, St. James's Street. 

1874 Hurtley, R. J. • 

1874-80 *Horner, W C, Manchester Road. 

1874-81 *Hodgkinson, W. A. T., Craven Bank 

1874 Holmes, Marmaduke. 

1874 Hopwood, Jas. 

1874-83 *Holden, Thos., Hargreaves Street. 

1874 Hough, Jos., M.A., F.R.A.S. 

1874 Hargreaves, Benj. , o^ ^ 

1878-81 *•' Hargreaves, Thos., Clmrch btreet. 



1878 *Hargreaves, A. F., F.C.S., Colne Eoad. 

1875 Hartley, S. 

1878 *Hartley, Job W., Westgate. 

1880 ^Hartley, Edmund, Padiham Road. 
1878 Hartley, Wilkinson. 

1878 Hirst, Thomas. 

1878 *HiU, F. H., Fail- View Eoad. 

1879 Holden, Thos. 
1879 Holroyd, Joseph. 

1878 *Holgate, Thos., Gas Works. 
1878 Holgate, Jas. 

1881 *Holgate, Albert, St. James's Street. 
1878 *Horner, Thos., Eectory Eoad. 
1878 *Han-ison, John, Bridge Street. 
1878 Heaton, John. 

1878 *Haslam, Tom, Carlton Eoad. 

1879 Hanison, Eobert. 

1882 *Hanison, J. Dilworth., Sunny Bank. 
1879 Hodgson, F. 

1879 *Haslam, W. H., Lark HiU. 

1880 *Hardman, Albert E., Osborne Terrace. 

1880 *Holyoake, Wm., Workhouse. 

1881 Hindle, Wm. 
1831 Haslam, Eobert. 

1881 Heap, Hy. 

1879 *Hey, CoUu, Lark Hill. 

1882 *Halstead, Edmund, Junction Street. 

1882 *HoiTocks, Thos. M.E.C.V.S. 

1883 *Harwood, Sep., M.B., Wilfield House. 
1883 *Hedge, Alfred, Healey ViUa. 

1883 *Holdsworth, Wm., Accrington Eoad. 

1878 Heyhurst, J. P. 

1875 Ingham, Ed. 

1878 Ideson, J.J. 

1874 *Jackson, Thos., Hargreaves Street. 

1877 „ Hartley. 

1878 „ Alfred. 
1878 Jones, Edward. 

1878 *Jobling, A., Spring Wood. 
1874 *Kay, James, Towneley Villa. 

1879 * „ W. E. 

1874 *Keighley, Geo., Woodfield. 
1874 *King, A. S., Carlton Eoad. 

1877 Kippax, Jeremiah. 

1878 ■ „ Luke. 

1880 * ,, John, Parker Lane. 
1878 Kirk, Hugh. - 



u 

1880 Knowles, T. H. 

1881 Kellet, Eobert. 

1874 ^Lancaster, Alli-ed, Manchester Eoad. 

1874 * ,, James, Palatine Square. 

1875 -i= ,, Wm., Juur., Carlton Eoad. 
1877 Law, Henry. 

1877 Lawson, Sam. 

1878 *Lawson, S., L.F.P.G., Brierfield. 

1879 Lawson, J. W. 

1874 *Leather, S. P., Gas Works. 

1878 * „ J. P. 
1874 Lister, Thomas. 
1874 Lomas, Thomas Hy. 

1874 „ Wm. 

1875 *Lupton, J. T., Manchester Eoad. 

1879 - ,, Arthur, Manchester Eoad. 

1877 „ John 
1874-82 * „ Wm. 
1874 Lord, Ed. 

1878 Lynch, E. W. 
1874 Lee, Ed. 

1878 „ W. 

1876 „ W. Austin. 

1881 * „ Eichard, Parker Lane 
1876 * „ Ed., Parker Lane. 

1879 Leach, John G. 

1879 ^Leyland, Eev. T. 

1883 *Lloyd, T., Grammar School. 
1874 Maclure, Eev. E. C , M.A. 

1876 MacNamara, J., L.E.C.P. 
1874 Massey, John, J. P. 
1874 „ C. J 

1874 „ E. S. 

1874 *Metcalfe, C., Palatine Square. 

1877 *Monckmari, Jas., D.Sc, Palatine Square. 
1874 *Moore, Benj., Palatine Square. 

1874 „ John. 

1874 Morris, Dan, B.A., F.G.S. 

1878 Marsden, Wm. 
1878 Marriott, Eev. C. 
1878 Moss, Eev. E. Waddy. 

1877 Marquis, J. T. 

1878 *Mossop, Wm., Bank Parade. 

1880 McKay, James. 

1880 ^Mackenzie, James, M.D., Bank Parade. 

1880 Marie, Eobt. 

1881 *MidgIey, Tom, Eectory Eoad. 



25 

1882 *Midgley, C. W., Fail- View Koad. 

1881 *Myers, Fred, St. James's Street. 

1882 =;=Mellor, T., Hargreaves Street, 

1879 Mitchell, E. 

1878 Mui-gatroyd, Eobert. 

1876 Martin, J. H. 

1874 *Nelson, Richard, St. Jaraes's Street. 
1874 *Nowell, Thos., Healey Grange. 

1877 „ Jas. 

1880 „ Saml. F. 

1874 *Nutter, Hy., Manchester Eoad. 

1878 Nutter, Chas. 

1879 Norton, Hy. 

1874 Oldman, Geo. 

1875 *Ogden, Geo., Thorn Hotel. 
1874 *Ogle, A., Albion Ten-ace. 
1874 „ A. H. 

1874 *0'Sullivau, D. A., B.A., L.E.C.P., Westgate. 

1874 Palmer, W. J. 

1875 Parkinson, Milton W. 
1878 Parkinson, Wm. 

1877 *Parsons, John, L.E.C.S., Westgate. 

1881 *Parsons, Chas., Grimshawe Street. 
1874 Pickup, Peter, F.G.S. 

1874 „ Wm. 

1882 * „ Peter, Bridge End. 
1875-79 *Polding, Jas. B., Nicholas Street. 
1874 PoUard, Ed. 

1874 Pollard, Geo. F. 

1874-78 *PoppleweU, Alfi-ed, Craven Bank. 

1874 *Preston, Hy., Manchester Eoad. 

1874 * „ Thos. 

1874 „ J. 

1876 *Pritchard, Thos., Worsthorne. 
1874 Parker, Eev. Canon, M.A. 
1874 PhiUips, J. W. 

1874 Pickard, Alf. 

1877 Proctor, John 

1878 *Procter, Ed., Westgate. 

1878 Priestley, J. 

1878 *Pickles, Joseph, Allen St. 
1878 Pattison, Eev. J. B. 

1878 Pickles, Jas. 

1882 *Pomfret, Thos., Olive Mount. 
1882 Palmer, Hy. 
1881 Parker, E. H. 

1879 Proctor, Ed. 



26 

1874 Race, Joseph. 

1874 *Ratcli£fe, Abm., St. James's Street. 

1874 * „ David, Carlton Road. 

1874 *Rawclifre, Jas., H., Manchester Road. 

1877 „ Thos. H. 
1874 „ John 

1878 * „ Jas., Oak Mount. 
1882 - „ Geo. B., Godly Street. 
1874 *Eawlinson, Joshua, Oak Bank. 
1874 Read, W. T. 

1880 „ Geo. 

1879 „ Ashworth. 

1880 „ Jas. Ed. 
1874 Riley, Holden. 

1874 *Roherts, P. E., St. James's Street 

1874 Roberts, Hy., M. A. 

1879 *Roberts, Thos., Bank Parade. 

1878 Roberts, Harry. 

1881 Roberts, T. H. 

1874 Robinson, Rev. H. H., M.A. 
1874 „ W., J.P. 

1874 Reynolds, Rev. T. 

1874 Rhodes, T. 
1874-78 Rigby, Geo. 

1874 Reid, Rev. J. 

1879 Rycroft, John. 

1875 Riley, C. E. 

1882 * „ Thos., Manchester Road. 
1874 *Sagar, Benj., Thorn Hill. 
1874 „ Geo. 

1874 „ W. F. 

1877 * „ Wm., Sunny Bank. 

1878 „ John, A. 
1874 „ Elijah. 
1874 Scott, J. H., J.P. 

1874-79 -Scowby, Francis, Craven Bank. 
1874 *Sharrocks, John, Bank Hall Terrace. 
1874 Shepley, Thos. 

1876 Shipley, John H. 
1878 Shipley, Wm. 
1878 Shipley, J. B. 
1874 Simpson, Thos. 

1874 -Slater, Christopher, Manchester Road. 

1874 Smallpage, Alf. 

1874 „ Samuel. 

1874 ,, James. 

1878 ,, Isaiah. 



27 

1875 *Smith, Cicero, Oornholme. 
1874 „ John H. 

1874 „ T. H. 

1874 „ T. P. 

1874 ,, William. 

1880 „ John. 

1881 * „ Denis, St. James's Street. 

1881 „ E. B. 

1882 * ,, David, Deny Street. 
1879 „ Frank. 

1881 „ Ed. 

1874 Spencer, T. B. 

1876 Standing, Jas. 

1874 Stamer, Rev. H., B.A. 

1874 Steer, Chas. 

1875 Stephens, Rev. H. J., B.A. 

1874 *Stonehouse, Chas., Piccadilly Road. 
1881 * „ Wm., PiccadiUy Road. 

1876 * Storey, Geo., Brunshawe. 

1874 *Strange, Alfred, Craven Lodge. 

1875 *Sutcliffe, Alfred, L.R.C.P., Trinity House. 



1874 




, Chas. 


1874 


* 


Geo., J.P., Oak Hill. 


1874 




Wm. 


1876 


* 


, John, Manchester Road. 


1874 




, Joseph. 


1874 




, J. Stansfield. 


1880 


* 


R. T., Nicholas Street. 


1881 


* 


Ed., Holme View. 


1879 




Fred C. 


1879 




Chas. 


1883 


* 


, Jas., Bull Hotel. 


1878 


Shaw, John. 


1878 


Stansfield, John, Junr. 


1879 


Stuttard, Martin. 


1879 


Thos. 


1879 


* Shepherd, Walter, Carlton Road. 


1878 


Stephenson, J. 


1878 


Sharpies, Joseph. 


1874 


Southern, PhiUp. 


1874 


Stroyan, Rev. John. 


1874 


Southern, Walter. 


1879 


Steel, W. F. 


1879 


Stuttard, Sampson. 


1880 


*Shawcross, John T., Nicholas Street 


1881 


*Shaw, Smith, St. James's Street. 


1878 


Spa 


ckman, Chas. 



28: 

1879 Scaife, Cyrus. 

1877 *Taylor, Thos., Colne Road. 

1876 „ Thos. 

1877 „ John. 
1874 Temple, Eobt. 

1874 *Thompson, James, Cuerden Street. 

1874 „ John. 

1874 „ John. 

1874 * ,, Jas. W., Oak Bank. 

1874 * „ Wm. 

1878 „ Thos. 

1882 * ,, James, St. James's Street. 

1876 Thomas, Rd. 

1876 *Thorp, Thos., Manchester Eoad. 

1875 Tunstill, W. Junr. 
1878 Turner, Hy. 

1878 „ Eev. T. A., B.A. 

1879 „ Ed. 

1877 Towler, Geo. 

1879 *Thoruton, John, Craven Bank. 

1881 Tattersall, A. W. 

1878-81 *Thornber, Thos., St. Matthew's Street. 

1882 *Tunstill, Hy., Oak Mount. 
1882 *Titmus, H. V., Eectory Eoad. 
1874 Uttley, Hiram, J.P. 

1876 Varley, Hy. 

1874 *Waddington, Jas. A., Thorn Hill. 

1877 „ J. C. 

1877 „ Thos. 

1874 * ,, Wm., Thorn Hill. 

1874 * ,, W. A., Carlton Eoad. 

1874 ., W. H. 

1878 * ,, G. C, Albert Terrace. 

1879 „ Thos. 

1881 * „ J. C, Thorn Hill. 

1877 Walmsley, Josias. 
1874 * „ George, Highfield Terrace. 
1881 * „ Thos., Coke Street. 
1877 Walsh, Fred. 

1877 *Ward, J. Langfield, M.A., Grammar School. 
1874 „ Hy. 

1874 * „ H. T., Pickup Terrace. 

1876 Waterhouse, Joseph. 

1878 ^'Watson, Eichard, Hargreaves Street. 
1»S1 *Watson, A. A., L.E.C.S. Colne Eoad. 

1879 Watson, Thomas 

1877 Watson, Matthew. 



29 

1874 Watson, Thos. 

1877 ,, Thos., Junr. 

1877 Westerby, Eev. W. M. 

1876 Weston, W.A. 

1875 Whitehead, Virgil. 

1880 „ Jas. 
1H74 „ W. 

1877 * ,, W. Eennie, Carr Eoad, Nelson. 
1874 *Whitney, Thos., Healey Villa. 

1874 *Whittaker, Bartholomew, Colue Road. 
1874 * ,, Jno., Junr., Carr Road, Nelson. 

1876 „ Wm. 

1878 „ Sagar. 

1881 ,, L. Albert. 

1876 *Wliitaker, J. H., Wilfield Terrace 

1877 Whittingham, Wm. 

1876 Witham, Frank. 

1874 *Witham, Wm., Carlton Road 

1878 *Whitham, Lawrence, Albion Street, 

1877 *Wilks, Maurice, St. Matthew's Street. 
1876 Windle, John. 

1874 Wood, Jas. 

1879 Wood, Jas. 

1879 Wood, Wm. 

1883 *Wood, Martin, Westgate. 

1874 Waring, Jacob. 

1874 Willis, T , M.E.C.S. 

1876 WilUs, T. Wm., B.A. 

1874 Wilkinson, T. T., F.R.A.S. 

1874 WilUams, John. 

1880 Williams, Wm. 

1878 Waterson, R. W. 

] 881 Waterson, Jno. W. 

1878 WHson, Rev. W. H., B.A. 

1879 Wilson, WiUiam. 
1876 Walters, Rev. G. F. 
1878 Walton, Robert. 
1878 Walton Robert. 
1882 West, John. 

1875 Yarwood, W. 
1875 Yates, Thos. 
1878 Yates, William. 



LIST OF MEETINGS 

TEN YEARS.-1874 to 1883. 



The Committee regret that they are unable to give reports of 
many of the papers that have been read. Some of the papers 
enumerated in this List are reprinted in this vohime, and it is 
contemplated to introduce digests of others in succeeding vol- 
umes. As a great number of the papers have been reported at 
length in the local newspapers, the present reproduction of the 
Syllabuses will, at least, serve to facilitate reference to them. 

1874. 

Jan. 6— Presidential Addi-ess, W. M. Coultate, F.R.C.S., J.P. 
,, 13 — Paper, " Chaucer" (afterwards published by the Club) — 

H. Houlding. 
„ 20 — Numismatic Soiree, with a paper on History of Coins, 
&c. — Dhector, Rev. J. S. Doxey, (Jas. Kerr, L.S.A.L. 
assisted). 
,, 27 — Paper, "The Philosophy of Recreation" (afterwards 
pubhshed)— J. G. Brumwell, M.D. 
Feb. 3 — Botanical Soiree, with a paper on the Local Flora — 
H. Houlding. 
,, 10 — Paper, "Observations on the Lancashii-e Dialect" — 

T. T. Wilkinson, F.R.A.S. 
,, 17 — Photographic Soiree — Directors, W. B. Bryan and 

W. A. Waddington. 
,, 24 — Paper, " The duties of the State towards the private 
Citizen " — W. Robinson, J.P. 
Mar. 3 — Natiu'al Curiosity Soiree-Director, J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 
,, 10 — Paper, "Origin of Copyholds" — T. Nowell. 
,, 17 — Geological Soiree — Director, George Rigby. 
^^ 24 — Paper, •' The Microscope" — S. P. Leather. 
,, 31 — Microscopic Soiisee — Director, S. P. Leather. 
AprU 7,- — Annual Meeting. 

,, 21 — Discussion, " The prohibition of the Liquor Traffic : — 
is it just and politic'?" answered affirmatively — 
T. H. Smith. 
May 5 — Paper, " The relation of Living Beings to Inorganic 
Matter "—J. W. Anningson, L.R.C.P. 
^^ 19 — Bibliographic Soiree — Director, Rev. J. S. Doxey, 
(Lieut.-Col. Fishwick, F S.A., assisted.) 
June 2 — Discussion, "The Gulf Stream" — T. Dean, M.D. 
„ 30 — Numismatic Soiree, " Saxon Coins " — Director, Major 
Creeke. 
July 28 — Portrait Soiree— Director, W. CoUinge, with paper on 
" Portraiture " by J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 



/. 



ai 

Aug. 11 — Disciissiou, "The principle of the Greatest Good " — 

T. B. Spencer. 
Sep. 29— Paper, "The theory of Evohition "— Eev. H H. 

Eobinsou, M.A. 
Oct. 6 — Microscopic Soiree — Director, R. M. Holmes. 

,, 13 — Paper, " The Historical aspect of the Transit of 

Venus "— T. T. Wilkinson, F.E.A.S. 
,, ,, — Paper, " The Mathematical aspect of the Transit of 

Venus "—J. Hough, M.A., F.E.A.S. 
,, 20 — Discussion, "Is Phrenology true?" answered nega- 
tively— J. C. Brumwell, M D. 
,, 27 — Paper, " The History of Mesmerism " Spencer T. 

Hall, M.D.Ci., M.A'., Ph.D.Tu. 
Nov. 3 — Ornithological Sohee, with paper on " The Haunts 

and Habits of various British Birds" — Director, 

T. Ehodes. 
,, 10 — Paper, "The ^Esthetics of Large Towns" — Eev. 

E. C. Maclure, M.A. 
„ 17— Paper, " The History of the Poor Law "— H. Uttley, J.P. 
,, 24 — Sou-ee, " Textile Fabrics — Cotton " — Director, A. 

Ogle. 
Dec. 1 — Paper, "Iron, from the Ore to the Metal" — J. 

Kerr, L.S.A.L. 
,, 8 — Paper, " On local aids for promoting the Culture of 

Art, Science, and Literature " — Eev. John Stroyan. 
,, 15 — Discussion, "Taxation" — B. Moore. 
,, 22 — Paper, " Carbon and Carbonic Acid, their forms, 

properties and uses " (Illustrated by experiments) — 

L. Clement. 
,, 29 — Literary and Musical Soiree — Directors, H. Houlding 

and T. Nowell. 

1875. 

Jan. 5 — Paper, "Variety essential to beaiTty " — Eev. George 

Eowe, M.A. 
,, 12 — Photographic Soiree — Director, J. Howarth, J.P. 
,, 14 — Dinner. 
,, 17 — Paper, "Sanitary Legislation and Science" — W. B. 

Bryan, C.E. 
,, 24— Paper, " On Atmosphere " — T. Dean, M. D. 
Feb. 2 — Ceramic Soiree — Director, Eev. J. S. Doxey. 

,, 9— Paper, " The study of Biography" — Eev. W. H. Allen. 
,, 16 — Paper, " The Life and Labours of Jeremiah HoiTocks, 

with an account of the late Transit of Venus ' ' 

written by the late T. T. Wilkinson, F.E.A.S., and 

read by the Secretary. 



S2 

Feb. 23 — Literary Soiree, " Modern Humour " — Selections were 
read by J. C. Brumwell, M.D.,fi-om Thomas Hood ; 
T. NoAvell, fi'om Bret Harte ; and T. Ehodes, from 
Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
Mar. 2 — Paper, " Some remarks on the history of certain Fossil 
Genera " — Kev. J. Cranbrook, B.A. 
,, 9 —Paper, "Life and Works of Albert Diirer " — Lieut. 

Col. Henry Fishwick, F.S.A. 
,, 16 — Artistic Soiree, " Water Colour Drawings " with 
Paper on the History of Water Colour Painting — 
Director, W. J. Palmer. 
,, 2.S— Paper, " A decimal system of Money, Weights and 

Measures " — J. S. Horn. 
„ 30 -Paper, " Cicero "— D. A. O'Sullivan, B.A., L.R.C.P. 
Aprl. 6 — Annual Meeting. 

,, 20— Discussion, " The Smoke Question " — J. C. Brumwell, 
M.D. 
May 4 — Paper, " Cremation " — P. E. Eoberts. 
Jun. 15 — Cryptogamic Soiree — Director, H. Houlding. 
July 13 — Geological Soiree — Du-ector, J. Kerr, L.S.A.L. 
Aug. 10 — Paper, " Milk and its Adulterations " — Ed. Crawshaw. 
Sept. 7 — Paper, " Recent Explorations in Palestine," illustrated 
— J. Howarth, J.P. 
„ 21 — Paper, *' The Chemistry of Coal Gas " (with Experi- 
ments) -S. P. Leather. 
Oct 5 — Microscopic Soiree, "The Anatomy and Physiology of 
a Butterfly "—Director, J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 
,, 12 — Paper, " Parhamentary Representation in the Saxon 

Period " — Major Creeke. 
„ 19 — Paper, " The Anatomy of the Brain " — Thirkill 

Anniugson, M.R.C.P. 
,, 26— Paper, "Edmund Spenser" — H. Houlding, (after- 
wards published). 
Ntov. 2 — Readings fi-om " English Literature " — by Members. 
,, 9 — Paper, " Lead Mining in the districts of Stanstield, 

Cliviger, and Rossendale " — James Kerr, L.S.A L. 
,, le^Paper, " OHver Goldsmith " — Fred. J. Grant. 
„ 23 — Discussion, " Can England maintain her Commercial 
Supremacy ? " — answei'ed affirmatively, James 
Greenwood. 
,, 30 — Paper, "Insects in relation to Plants"— D. Morris, B.A., 
F.G.S. 
Dec. 7 — Paper, "Dickens's place in Literature" — Rev. H. H. 
Robinson, M.A. 
,, 14 — Exhibition of Mechanical Models — Director, Alfred 

Lancaster. 
„ 21 — Paper, "Vivisection " — Alfi-ed Strange. 



33 

Dec. 28 — Musical Soiree — Director, Thos. Nowell, who also read 
a Paper on "Haydn, and liis Comiwsitions," and 
several pieces by this composer were rendered. 

1876. 

Jan, 4 — Paper, "Popular Satirists" — Eev. H. J. Stephens, 

B.A. 
,, 11 — Entomological Sokee— Director, H. T. Ward. 
„ 18 — Paper, " The Condition of the Negroes " — Eev. Geo 

Eowe, M.A. 
,, 25— Paper, " Numismatology as a source of History " — Eev. 

Ed. Boden, M.A. 
,, 28 — Conversazione (see subsequent notice). 
Feb. 8— Paper, " Molecular Motion "—J. Hough, M.A, F.E.A.S, 
,, 15 — Microscopic Sou-ee — Director, E. M. Holmes. 
„ 22— Paper, " Lord Byi'on "—Spencer T. Hall, M.D., Ci., 

M.A., Ph. D. Tu. 
,, 29 — Eeadings from " English Literatm-e " — by Members. 
Mar. 7 — Paper, " Colour " — T. Dean, M.D. 

,, 14 — Paper, " The Eise and Progress of Burnley " — Joshua 

Eawlinson. 
„ 21— Artistic Soiree, "Chromolithographs" — Direclipr, W. 

A. Waddington. 
,, 28 — Paper, " High Pressure Steam in the Steam Engine " 

— James Wood. 
April 4— Annual Meeting. 

,, 11 — Paper, " Opium and the Opium Trade " — Chas. Burton. 
,> l!^ — Paper, " Eeflex Nervous Action ; Are Animals Auto- 
mata ? "■ — J. W. Anniugson, L.E.C.P. 
,, 25 — Literary Evening— Eeadings by T. B. Spencer, and F. 

J. Grant. 
Sep. 12 — Microscopic and Micro -Photographic Soiree — Director, 

J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 
„ 19— Paper, " The History of Newspapers " — Jas. Grant. 
„ 26 — Paper, " WilUam Sbakspeare " — H. Houlding. 
Oct. 3— Paper, " Idylls of the King "— H. T. Gill. 

„ 10 — Paper, " Capillary Attraction " — J. Hough, M.A., 

F.E.A.S. 
,, 17 — Artistic Soiree, " Oil Paintings " — B. Sagar. 
„ 24— Paper, "Poets, — their mission" — Eev. G. F. Walters. 
„ 81 — Discussion, "Have the People of Lancashire dete- 
riorated physically?" — Answered negatively, Jas. 

Greenwood. 
Nov. 7— Paper, " Thomas Carlyle "—Alfred Halstead. 
„ 14— Paper, "Glacial Action"— D.Morris, F.G.S. " 
,, 21 — Numismatic Soiree— Director, Major Creeke. 



Nov. 28 — Readings from Lancashire Poets, by Members — Director, 

H. Nutter. 
Dec. 5 — Paper, " Early Engineering "—J. V. Edwards. 
,, 12 — Paper, " Samuel Johnson" — F. J. Grant. 
,, 19 — Discussion, "On the Conduct of Debate" — T. B. 

Spencei*. 
,, 26 — Musical Soiree— Director, T. Nowell. 

1877. 
Jan. 2 — Paper, "The Economical Combustion of Gas" — S. P. 
Leather. 
„ 9 — Paper, "A gossip on the Queen's English" — Eev. W. 

Boyden. 
,, 16 — Discussion, "The Depreciation of Silver" — Joshua 

Eawlinson. 
,, 23 — Paper, "Robert Burns," illustrated by selections of 

vocal music — Hy. Nutter. 
,, 24 — Conversazione (see subsequent notice). 
„ 30— Paper, "Jean Paul Richter"— J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 
Feb. 6 — Soiree, " Photographs" — W. Sutcliffe. 

,, 13 — Paper, " Popular Diarists " — Rev. H. J. Stephens, B.A. 
,, 20 — Readings by Members. 
,, 27 — Discussion, "Vaccination" — T. H. Smith. 
Mar. 6 — Paper, " The chief sources of the English Language " 
— W. Robinson. J. P. 
,, 13 — Paper, "Lancashire in the time of Elizabeth," — Col. 

Fish wick, F.S.A. 
,, 20 — Soiree, "Scientific Instruments"^ — J. W. Anningson, 
\ L.R.C.P. 

. / ,, 27 — Paper, "Art in the Manufacturing Districts" — P. G. 
^ Hamerton, (read by the Secretaiy). 

April 3 — Annual Meeting. 

,, 10 — Discussion, " Spiritualism" — T. B. Spencer. 

,, 17 — Paper, "The lufiueuce of the Drama" — Rev. E. C. 

Maclure, M.A. 
,, 24 — Readings, "Lancashire Authors" — by Members ; Mr. 
Edwin Waugh was present and read some of his 
prose writings. 
,, 27 — Public Lectui'e on "Spectrum Analysis" by Prof. 
Roscoe, in the Mechanics' Institution. 
Sep. 4 — Paper, " The Antiquities of the Ribchester District " — 
W. A. Abram, F.R.H.S. 
,, 11 — Scientific Exhibition — conducted by Messrs. Armstrong 

and Mottershead, of Manchester. 
,, 18 — I'aper, " Scientific Toys : Sound " — J. Monckman, B.Sc. 
,, 25 —Paper, " The Correlation of Force " — J. W. Anningson. 
L.R.C.P. 



85 

Oct. 2 — Paper, "Mozart" (with vocal and instrumental selec- 
tions) — John Sbarrocks. 
^^ 9 — Paper, " Minin^-ij and Mineralogy "— Eev. S. Hocking. 
,, 16 — Paper, " John Milton" — Henry Houlding. 
„ 23 — Discussion, "The Wages Question" — Benj. Moore. 
^^ 30 — Soiree, " Autographs "—Eev. W. Boyden. 
Nov. 7 — Gilchrist Lecture, "life in the Earhest Ages of the 

Earth " — Prof. Williamson. (The Gilchrist Lectures 

were held in the Mechanics' Institution.) 
^^ 14_Gilchrist Lecture, " The Energies within the Earth : 

Mountain making " — Prof. Duncan. 
,, 21— Gilchrist Lecture, " The Energies within the Earth : 

Volcanoes " — Prof. Dimcan. 
„ 27— Discussion on the foregomg Lectures, introduced by 

Dr. Brumwell. 
,, 23 — Gilchrist Lecture, "Land Animals of the Coal Period" 

—Prof. Miall. 
j)ec. 4 — Discussion on the previous Lecture. 

,, 5 — GUchrist Lecture, " Sound, with special reference to 

the Telephone " — Prof. Core. 
,, 11 — Discussion on the jprevious Lecture. 
,, 12— Gilchrist Lecture, "The Gulf Stream: what it does, 

and what it does not " — Dr. Carpenter. 
^^ 18— Discussion on the previous Lecture, introduced by J. 

W. Anningson, L.R.C.P. 

1878. 

Jan. 8 — Paper, "Ventilation: its importance to health" — W. 
H. Colbran. 
,, 15 — Paper, " Alexander Pope " — F. J. Grant. 
,, 22 — Speeches and Eeadings on miscellaneous topics. 
,, 29 — Paper, " Liquiries into the Knowledge of Prehistoric 
Man "— F. J. Faraday, F.S.S. 
Peb. 5 — Discussion, "Prehistoric Man" — introduced by J. C. 
Brumwell, M.D. 
,, 12 — Discussion, " Variations of Climate" — J. Monckman, 

B.Sc. 
,, 19 — Paper, "The Knights of Aristophanes" — J. L.Ward, M. A. 
,, 26 — Paper, " Our Saxon Forefatiaers " — Eev. W. Boyden. 
^^ 28 — Conversazione (see subsequent notice). 
Mar. 5 - Paper, " Winds"— J. S. Horn. 

,, 12— Paper, " Eainfall : its importance and peculiarities " 

— Jas. Greenwood. 
,, 19. — Paper, "Lancashire in Fiction: the Story of the 

County, as told by the Novelists " — J. H. Nodal. 
,, 26 — Artistic Soiree, "Japanese Art" — W. A. Waddington. 
April 2 — Annual Meeting. 



36 

Apr. 9 — Paper, " Geographical Names" — W. Lewis Grant. 
,, 16 — Paper, " Salt and Salt Mines "— Jas. Kerr, L.S.A.L. 
,, 23 — Literary Soiree, " Lancashire Authors " — Hy. Nutter. 
Sept. 3 — Scientific Soiree — Telephone, Microphone, and Phono- 
graph — Director, J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 
,, 10 — Paper,"Telegraphy, "(illustrated)-- Jas. Monckman, B.Sc. 
,, 17— Paper, " Modern Materialism " — Eev. W. M. Westerby. 
,, 24 — Readings in Shakspeare — H. Houlding. 
Oct. 1 — Paper, " Air and Water, — their Sanitary Uses and 
Abuses " — W. H. Colbran. 
8— Paper, " The Fate of Aboriginal Paces "-J. L. Ward, M.A. 
,, 9 — Gilchrist Lecture, " Corals and' Coral Islands " — 
Professor Duncan. (The Gilchrist Lectures were 
held in the Mechanics' Institution.) 
,, 15 — Scientific Soiree, " Inorganic Chemistry " — Director, 

H. T. Ward. 
,, 22 — Discussion on previous Gilchrist Lecture. Introduced 

by J. Monckman, B. Sc. 
,, 23 — Gilchrist Lecture, " Our earliest Ancestors in Britain " 

— Professor Dawkins. 
,, 29 — Paper, " The Antigone of Sophocles " — Eev. R. H. 
Giles, B.A. 
Nov. 5 — Discussion on previous Gilchrist Lecture. Introduced 
by J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 
,, 6 — Gilchrist Lecture, " The Sun," — Mr. Proctor. 
,, 12 — Musical Soiree (held in the Mechanics' Institution) — 

Director, N. P. Gray. 
,, 19 — Discussion on previous Gilchrist Lecture. Introduced 

by Eev. W. M. Westerby. 
,, 20— Gilchrist Lectiu-e, " The Sun's Distance from tl]£ 

Earth " — Professor Core. 
,, 26 — Paper, " Gas-Tar and its products " — Leonard Clement. 
Dec. 3 — Discussion on previous Gilchrist Lecture. Introduced 
by J. L. Ward, M.A. 
,, 4 — Gilchrist Lecture, "Insectivorous Plants and Plant 

Digestion " — Professor Williamson. 
„ 10— Paper, " The Talmud "—Rev. H. H. Robinson, M.A. 
,, 17 — Discussion on previous Gilchrist Lecture. Introduced 

by T. Nowell. 
,, 18 — Gilchrist Lecture, "A Piece of Limestone" — Dr. 
Carpenter. 

1879. 

Jan. 7 — Readings in English Literature by Rev. W. Boyden, 
H. Houlding, and T. B. Spencci. 
,, 14 — Paper, "Disinfectants and Antiseptics " — A. H. Mason, 
F.C.S. 



37 

Jan. 21 — Discussion, " Over-production and Bad Trade " — 
Joshua Eawliuson. 
,, 28 — Paper, "Erasmus Darwin, — the father of Chas. Darwin 
and his Theory "—Spencer T. Hall, M.D., Ci., M.A., 
Ph. D. Tu. 
Feb. 5 & 6 — Conversazione, (see subsequent notice). 
,, 11 — Paper, " John Piixskin " — B. Sagar. 
„ 18 — Paper, " The Antiquity and General Use of Bells " 

— Eev. T. A. Tiu-ner, B.A. 
,, 25 — Discussion, " Tobacco : is its consumption injurious to 
health ?"— P. E. Roberts. 
Mar. 4— Paper, "The Mind of Fishes "—F. J. Faraday, 
F.L.S., F.S.S. 
„ 11 — Artistic Soh-ee, " Cruikshank" — Alfred Strange. 
,, 18 — Paper, "Physiognomy" — Geo. Gill, Jun. 
,, 25 — Paper, " Witchcraft in North East Lancashire " — W. A. 
Abram, F.R.H.S. 
April 1 — Annual Meeting. 
,, 8 — Discussion, "Vegetarianism: will its adojjtion benefit 

the human race?" — T. B. Spencer. 
,, 15 — Paper, " The Founders of the Church in Britain in the 

Second Century" — Eev. E. Waddy Moss. 
,, 22— Paper, "The Manufacture and Properties of Gunpow- 
der and other Explosives" — A. F. Hargreaves, F.C.S. 
,, 29 — Literary and Musical Soiree. Directors, J. L. Ward, 
M.A. and B. Chaffer. (Held in the Mechanics' 
Institution). 
Sept. 2 — Paper, " The Physiology of Temper "—J. C. Brumwell, 
M.D. 
,, 9--Paper, "Eecollections of Old Burnley" — Richard 

Charles. 
,, 16 — Paper, " The Dietetic Use of Alcohol" — J. W. Ainiing- 
son, L.E.C.P. (This paper was pubhshed by the 
author). 
,, 13 — Discussion, "Is life the cause of Physical Organisation?" 
answered affirmatively by the Eev. W. M. Westerby. 
,, 80— Paj)er, " Thomas Moore "— F. J. Grant. 
Oct. 7— Eeadings by Members — Dh-ector, B. Sagar. 

„ 14 — Paper, " Etymology of some local names in Eossendale 

and district " — J. Kerr, L.S.A.L. 
,, 21 — " Notes of a Eamble thi-ough Yorkshire " — J. V. 

Edwards. 
,, 28— Musical Sohee— (held in the Mechanics' Institution)— 
Dh-ector, C. M. Foden. 
Nov. 4— Paper, " African Exploration" — Alf. Lancaster. 

., 11— Paper, " The Eecent History of the Cotton Trade"— 
F. J. Faraday, F.L.S., F.S.S. 



38 

Nov. 18 — Paper, " St. Clirysosfcom and his times " — Eev. E. D. 

H. Gray, M.A. 
,, 25 — Discussion, " Is Africa likely to become a Second 

India Commercially?" answered in tlie negative — 

J. Greenwood. 
Dec. 2 — Paper, " Some Hypotheses of Science i*eviewed " — F. 

H. Hill. 
,, 9— Paper, " EngHsh Cathedi-als " (Illustrated)— T. Bell. 
,, 11 — Public Lecture on " Charles Dickens," delivered in the 

Mechanics' Institution, by Professor Ward, L.L.D., 

of Manchester. 
,, 16 — Paper, " Lancashire in the time of Charles II " — Col. 

Fishwick, F.S.A. 

1880. 

Jan. G — " Readings from English Poets " — Heniy Houlding. 

,, 18 — Paper, " Studies from the Eualish Language " — John 
H . Grant. 

,, 20 — Paper, " Notes on a visit to St. Petersburgh and 
Moscow " — H. Ward. 

„ 27— Paper, " Physical Culture "— W. H. Colbran. 
Feb. 4 and 5— Conversazione (see subsequent notice) 

,, 10 — Paper, " Peasant Proprietorship " — J. S. Horn. 

,, 24 — Paper, " Sketches of the Principal Cities in Central 
Europe " — W. Eobinson, J. P. 
Mar. 2 — Scientific Soiiee, " Light" — John P. Leather. 

,, 9 — Readings by Members. 

,, 1 G — Discussion, "How far are we benefited by our Colonies." 
— C. Bailey. 
Apl. 6 — Annual Meeting. 

,, 13 — Paper, " An Introduction to the study of Shells and 
Shellfish "— H. Stolterfoth, M.A.,M.'D. The Lecture 
was illustrated by diagrams and a valuable collection 
of shells. 

,, 20— Paper, " The later Life of St. Augustine of Canter- 
bury " — Eev. E. Waddy Moss. 

,, 27 — Dramatic Soiree — (held in the Mechanics' Insti- 
tution)— Director, J. L. Ward, M.A. 
Sept 2 1 — Paper, " The Towneley Miracles and Mysteries " — Jas 
McKay. (Lord Norreys lent a valuable Illumi- 
nated Manuscript for inspection by the Members.) 

,, 28 — Paper " Gautama, the Buddha " — Eev. T. Leyland. 
Oct. 5 — Scientific Soiree, "The Chemistry of Calico Printing" — 
A. F. Hargreaves, F.C.S. 

,, 12— Paper, "The Sources of Original Materials for a His- 
tory of Burnley "— W. A. Abram, F.R.H.S. 

,, 19 — Discussion, " Capital Punishment " — B. Moore. 



39 

Oct. 26— Paper, " Some of Faraday's Eesearches in Electricity " 
— J. Monckman, B. Sc. (illustrated by Experiments.) 
Nov. 2 — Paper, " Historical Aspect of the English Cathedi-als " — 
J. Grant. 
,, 16 — Short Papers, " Eobert Browning " — B. Sagar. 
" Emmott Hall " — A. Strange. 
,, 23 — Paper, " Venice " — W. A. Waddington. (illustrated by 
Photographs, Paintings, Mosaics, Venetian Glass, &c.) 
,, 30 — Paper, " Dietetic Reform " — F. Hodgson. 
Dec. 7 — Paper, " Our Sports and Pastimes, their origin and 
survival "—J. E. Price, F.S.A., F.R.S.L. (read by 
the Secretary.) 
„ 14 —Musical Soiree — (held in the Mechanics' Institution ) — 
Director, B. Whitaker. 

1881. 
Jan. 4 — Readings by Members — Director, J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 
,, 11 — Paper, "The Falls of Niagara: have they worked out 
the Channel in which the Eiver flows between 
Niagara and Queenstown ? " — Eev. Geo. Eowe, M.A. 
„ 18 — Paper, " Sydney Smith"— F. J. Grant. 
,, 25 — Paper, " A Trip to Norway" — Alf. Lancaster. 
Feb. 2, 3, 4 — Conversazione (see subsequent notice). 
,, 8 — Readings fi'om Shakspeare — H. Houlding. 
,, 15 — Paper, " Structural Botany" — M. Wilks. 
,, 22 — Paper, " The Burnley Grammar School Library " (after- 
wards published by the Chib) — J. L. Ward, M A. 
Mar. 1 — Discussion, " Is Animal Food necessary to keep up our 
full strength?" answered affirmatively by J. C. Brum- 
well, M.D. 
,, 9 — Paper, " Science Two Hundred years ago" — C. P. 

Hobkirk, F.L.S. 
,, 15 — Short i^apeis, " The Sonnet " — B. Sagar. 

" Glaciers " — Jas. Lancaster. 
,, 22 — Paper, "The Chemistry of War" (illustrated by 

experiments) — E. Marie. 
,, 29 — Paper, "Early Christian Missions in Northumbria" — 
Eev. E. Waddy Moss. 
April 5 — Annual Meeting. 

,, 15 — Paper, " English Surnames " — W. Lewis Giant. 
,, 19 — Dramatic Soiree — Director, E. T. Sutcliffe. 
Sep. 27 — Paper, " Life in Lancashire in the Tudor Reigns " — 

Jas. Croston, F.S.A. 
Oct. 4 — Paper, " The Lower forms of Animal and Vegetable 
Life " — John P. Leather. 
„ 11 — Discussion, " Croll's Climate and Time," defended by 
John A. Sagar. 



40 

Oct. 18— Paper, " The Moon "—J. B. Shipley. Illustrated by 
means of the Lantern. 
,, 25 — Paper, " The Crosses in and around Burnley " — 
J. A. Waddiugton. 
Nov. 1— Short Papers, " Faure's Electrical Condenser" — 
J. Monckman, D. Sc. 
" The Effect of Chmate upon the National Character," 
E. Marie. 
„ 8— Paper, " Mahomet "—Rev. T. Leyland. 
,, 15 — Paper, "Vivisection" — J. Mackenzie, M.B. 
,, 22 — Paper " A ramble in and around Cairo" — W. 

Lancaster, Junr. 
,, 29 — Scientific Soiree, " The Structure of Coal " — B. 
Holgate, F.G.S. (Mr. Ilolgate read a paper and 
illustrated his remarks by the exhibition of Micros- 
copic objects, and the Lantern.) 
Dec. G — Paper, " Ornamental Art " — Thos. Preston, (illus- 
trated by a collection of Casts, Curtains, Wall 
Papers, Photographs, Drawings, &c.) 
,, 13 — Literary and Musical Soiree — Director, Hy. Nutter. 

1882. 

Jan. 3 — Paper, " Edwards, the Scotch Naturalist " — P. E. 
llobcrts. 
,, 10 — Paper, " Moliere " — Jules Merchier, B.A. 
,, 17 — Paper, " Philip Gilbert Hamerton, Author and Artist"— 
J. McKay, (read by the Secretary), illustrated by 
reproductions of Hamerton's Paintings, and copies 
of his works. 
,, 24 — Paper, " Some considerations on the Policy of the Fair 
Trade League " — W. Reunie Whitehead. 
Feb. 2 and 3 — Conversazione — (see subsequent notice.) 

,, 7 — Paper, "A Summer holiday on the Rhine" — J. 

Rawlinson. (read by A. Strange.) 
,, 14 — Paper, " The Decline and Fall of the British Empire" 
Alfred Halstead. 
,, 21 — Soiree, " Photographic Transparencies " — John Butter- 
worth. 
,, 28 — Lecture, "The Pre-glacial Contours and Post-glacial 
Denudations of Lancashire " — C. E . De Ranee, F.G S., 
Assoc. List. C.E., of H.M's Geological Survey. 
Mar. 7— Short Papers, " A Visit to Gibraltar " — W. Witham. 
" Charles Churchill "— F. J. Grant. 
,, 14 — Paper, " A Tour in the Tyrol " — Jas. W. Thompson. 
,, 21 — Paper, " Madi'igals " — J. Sharrocks. A Choir rendered 
a selection of Madrigals in illustration of the Paper. 



41 

Mar. 28 — Paper, " Smoke Combustion" — Alf. Lancaster. 
April 4 — Annual Meeting. 

,, 2G — Dramatic Soiree. — Dii-ector, J. L. Ward, M.A. 
Sept.26 — Keadings in Poetry and Criticism — H. Honlding. 
Oct. 3 — Short Papers, " Om- Geological Excm-sions " — J. 
Monckmau, D.Sc. 
" Moths and Butterflies " — G. B. Eawcliffe. Illustrated 
by a large number of British Specimens. 
,, 10 — Paper, "James Boswell" — F. J. Grant. 
,, 17 — " The efficiencies of Gas and Steam Motors" — Thos. 
Ilolgate. (Published in the Journal of Gas Lighting, 
&c., and reprinted therefrom). 
,, 24 — Paper, " Carlyle's place in History" — F. FT. Hill. 
Nov. 1 — Paper, " The Southampton Meeting of the British 
Association"— J. Brown, M.A., M.D. 
,, 7 — Paper, " Eambles in Devonshire " — J. C. Brumwell, 

M.D. 
,, 14— Paper, "Caves and their Contents" — J. Rhodes 
(Accrington). Mr. Rhodes also exhibited a largo 
number of flint implements and bones that had 
been found in Caves." 
,, 21 — Paper, " Richard Brinsley Sheridan"— R. T. Sutcliffe. 
,, 2S — Short Anonymous Contributions. 
Dec. 12 — Musical Soiree — Director, Jas. A. Waddington. Mr. 
Waddington read a paper on "The Sonata," and 
selections of vocal and instrumental music were given 
to illustrate the subject. 

1883. 

Jan. 9 Paper, " La Fontaine, the French Fabulist : his humoiw.' 
and philosophy " — Jules Merchier, B.A. 
,, 16 — Readings by Members — Dkector, W. Thompson, Jun. 
,, 23 — Discussion, " The proposed Manchester Ship Canal: 
should Lancashire Towns support it?" — Answered 
affirmatively by J. Dilworth Harrison. 
,, 30 — Paper, "Belgium: its Arts and Antiquities " — T.Bell, 
(illustrated by the Lantern). 
Feb. 6— Soiree, " The Violin " — G. Crompton. A number of 
valuable Violins were exhibited and commented on. 
A Quartette Party gave selections of music. 
,, 13 — Paper, "Burns: the Man and the Poet " — A. Halstead. 
„ 20— Paper, " Perfumes"— A. H. Mason, F.C.S.; illustrated 
by experiments and by the exhibition of various 
articles used in the manufacture of perfumes. 
,, 27 — Microscopic Soiree, "Insects" — Directors, H. T.Ward 
and J. P. Leather. 
Mar. 6 — Paper, " Ideal Commonwealths "—J. L. Ward, M.A, 



42 

Mar. 13— Paper, "Charles Lamb "—J. W. Anningson, L.E.C.P 
,, 20 — Paper, " A^accination " — J. Mackenzie, M.D. 
,, 27 — Readings by Members. 
April 3 — Annual Meeting. 

,, 10 — Paper, "Ancient America" — W. A. Waddington, 

(illustrated by the Lantern). 
,, 17 — Dramatic Soiree — Director, J. T. Sliawcross. 
Sep. 25 — Paper, " Vagrancy : will drastic treatment best diminish 

it ? "—John Whittaker. 
Oct. 2 — Readings, select and original, with Critical remarks — 

H. Houlding. 
,, 9 — Paper, " Sketching," (with illustrations) — J. Kay. 
,, 16 — Paper, " Anglo-Saxon Land Tenure " — H. Bulcock. 
,, 23 — Anonymous Papers. 

,, 30— Discussion, " The Channel Tunnel " — F. J. Grant. 
Nov. G — Paper, " The Old Halls on the Western slopes of 

Pendle : their History, Associations, and Present 

Condition," illustrated by Photographs, Engravings, 

Sketches, &c. — A. Strange. 
,, 13 — Paper, " The Analysis of Water," (with experiments) — 

A. F. Hargreaves, F.C.S. 
,, 20 — Paper, " Some American Poets," (with Readings and 

Recitations) — G. B. Rawcliffe. 
,, 27 — Paper, "IMicroscopic Pond Life, " illustrated by means 

of the Oxy- Hydrogen Microscope — A. C. Bowdler, 

F.I.C., &c. and J. D. Geddes, (Blackburn). 
Dec. 4 — Report of the Townelcy M.S.S. Committee — J. L. 

Ward, M.A., F. J. Grant, A. Strange. 
,, 11 — Paper, " History and development of Paper-making," 

(illustrated by a large number of exhibits) Jas. 

Lancaster. 
,, 18 — Musical Soiree — Du-ector, A. Popplewell. 




43 

LIST OF CONVERSAZIONES. 

♦ 

ALL OF THEM HAVE BEEN HELD IN THE MECHANICS' 
INSTITUTION. 

181G.—Januari/ 28th. 

Address by the President, Alderman Coultate, F.E.C.S., J. P. 

The Exhibits comprised objects of interest in Natm-al 

History, Art, Antiquities, &c. — Dkector, W. A. Wad- 

dington. 
Photographic and Microscopic objects were displayed ou a 

Screen, by means of an Oxy-Hydrogeu Microscope. 

Dii-ector, J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 
A Spelling Bee was conducted under the direction of D. A. 

O'SuUivan, B.A., L.E.C.P. 
The Music was under the direction of N. P. Gray. 

1877. — Januarij 8Mh. 

Address by the President, Alderman Coultate, F.E.C.S., J.P. 
The Exhibits included a collection of Arctic Eelics and 
Curiosities, (lent by an Officer of the late Polar Expedi- 
tion), which were described by F. J. Faraday, Esq., 
F.S.fS., F L.S., of Manchester. There were also exhibited 
a collection of Microscopes, Polariscopes, &c.. Water 
Colour Drawings, Photographs, Art-Needlework, Books, 
&c. — Director, W. A. Waddingtou. 

A Series of Scientific Experiments ou Electricity, Light 
and Sound, were given by Mr. Binyon, of Owen's College, 
Manchester. An Entertainment was given, which con- 
sisted of Eeadings by H. Houlding, and T. B. Spencer, 
and selections of Music by Messrs. Ford and Booth's 
Band. 

1878.— Febmanj 28th. 

Address by the President, W. M. Coultate, F.E.C.S., J.P. 
Scientific Department : — Directors, J. W. Anningsou, 
L.E.C.P., J. Monckman, B Sc. 

Art Department : — Directors, B. Sagar, W. Sutcliffe. 

A Series of Scientific Experiments were given by Mr. 
Binyon, of Owen's College, Manchester. A Scioptic 
Exhibition was given under the management of W 
Sutcliffe. 

The Exhibits comprised specimens of Natural History 
objects : Scientific Apparatus, a collection of Oil Paint- 
ings, Etchings and Photographs, &c. 



44 

A Literary and Musical Entertainment was held, which 
consisted of Readings by Hy. Houlding, and J. L. 
Ward, M.A. ; Songs by Messrs Micliael Ingham, and J. 
Sntcliffe ; Glees by a Glee Party, under the leadership 
of J. Sharrocks, and selections by a Band. 

1879. — Febntari/ 5th and 6th. 

Address by the President, W. M. Coultate, F.R.C.S., J.P. 

Scientific Department : — Lecture by Dr. Carnelley, of 
Owen's College, Manchester, on " The Three States 
of Matter," illustrated by a number of Experiments. 

There was also a Microscopical Exhibition, and a collection 
of Air Pumps, Induction Coils, &c. Edison's Electric 
Pen was exhibited, and also an instrument for taking 
Micro-Photographs. Wm. Sntcliffe, conducted a Scioptic 
Exhibition. Messrs. Laird Bros, exhibited Models and 
Plans of Steamships. 

Specimens in Botanical Anatomy were exliibited and ex- 
plained by Mrs Hodgkins, MEN, and A.S., Manchester, 
Geological and Botanical Specimeiis were displayed. 

Art Department : — Lecture by F. J. Faraday, Esq., 
F.S.S.,F.L.S., Manchester, on "Early Art Work," 
illustrated by examples. 

A Series of Water Colour Drawings by R. P. Spiers, 
F.R.I.B.A., was exhibited. There was also a collection 
of Decorative Cartoons, Autotypes, &c. Specimens of 
Oriental Draperies, Embroideries, Enamels, Lacquer- 
Ware, &c., were displayed. 

On the Second Evening there was an Entertainment, 
which consisted of Songs by Miss Pollard ; Readings by 
Messrs. J. Langfield Ward, M.A., T. B. Spencer, and W. 
Chaffer ; and performances by Messrs. Ford and Booth's 
Band. 

The Entertainment was followed by a Dance. 

1880. — Fehruanj Mh and 5th. 

Address by the President, J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 

Scientific Department : — Telephonic and Electrical 
Appliances were exhibited and explained by H. T. 
Ward. 
A Model of the Little Geyser was displayed by F. M. Gill. 
A Collection of Variegated Leaves was sent by the South- 
port Winter Gardens Co. 
Cases of Stone Listruments (Spear Hends, Aitoav Heads, 
&c.), from England, Denmark, and North America ; ex- 
hibited by Mr. R. D. Darbishire, of Manchester. 



45 

Maps, Charts, Photographs, &c , sent by the Committee of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund ; under the Du-ectorship 
of A. Strange. 
Art Department : — Director, B. Sagar. 

The numerous Paintings exhibited were by A. W. Bayes, 
F. J. Shields, J. Aumonier, Jos. Knight, Alfred Parsons, 
Gilbert Hunger, Ford Madox Brown, Van der Voort, Tom 
Griffiths, J. D. "Watson, Mettling, S. F. Mills, Arthur Hill, 
C. A. Storey, Mark Fisher, Miss S. Anderson. 

Messrs. Lamb and Co., of Manchester, contributed speci- 
mens of Modern House Furniture, Draperies, &c. 

There were also exhibited specimens of Linthoi-pe and 
Lambeth Ware, and Indian Metal Work. 

A number of valuable illustrated volumes were also con- 
tributed. 

General Exhibits: — Mr. G. 0. Yates, F.S.A., of Man- 
chester, exhibited a collection of Zulu Curiosities. 
Model of the First Steam Hammer made, lent by Messrs. 

Nasmyth Wilson and Co., of Manchester. 
Selection of Gilt and Silver Epergnes and Fruit Stands, 

exhibited by H. T. Ward. 
Cases of Swedish and Norwegian Peasant Jewellery, lent 

by Mr. R. D. Darbishire, of Manchester, 
Books of Photographs, lent by T. Brassey, Esq., M.P., of 

Battle, nr. Hastings. 
The General Decorations and Furnitm'e requii'ed were sup- 

phed by E. Harrison and Son. 
A Concert was given during the Evening in which Miss 

Tasker, of Accrington, and Mr. W. Lister, of Blackpool, 

gave a number of Songs. The Orchestral Union rendered 

a selection of Music, under the Conductorship of Mr. F. 

Myers. 
On the Second Evening there was a Dance. 

1881.— Fehruan/ 2nd, 3rd, and 4th. 

Address by the President, J. C. Brumwell, M.D. 

Scientific Department : — Directors, J. Monckman, B.Sc, 
Saml. P. Leather, John P. Leather. 

Lecture on " The Structure of Coal " by B. Holgate, Esq., 
F.G.S., of Leeds. 

Lecture on " The Living Objects under the Microscope " by 
J. P. Leather. 

Lecture on " The Manufacture of Coal Gas " by Thos. 
Holgate. The exhibits consisted of a number of Micros- 
copes, shewing chiefly living objects ; Specimens iUus- 
tratiug the Structure and Formation of Coal, lent by 



46 

S. P. Leather and L. Clement ; MIneralogical Specimens 
by W. Hill, of Skipton ; the Principal articles of the 
Pharmacopasia, by A. H. Mason, F.C.S., of Liverpool. 
Art Department : — Director, W. A. Waddington. 

There were displayed Water Colour Drawings, by C. Catter- 
mole, lent by Mr. Walmsley, of Blackburn, and Mr. 
Lightbound, of Weaste ; by Elias Bancroft, lent by the 
Artist ; by J. F. Shields, lent by Mr. C. Eowley. 
Other exhibits were as follows : — 

Photographs of the Old Halls of Lancashire were exhibited 
by Messrs. Sims and Co., Manchester. 

Studies for Decorations of Wall Panels, &g. 

A Scries of Cartoons for Stained Glass, &c., Decorative 
Cartoons, illustrating the " Canterbury Tales," the work 
of Lewis F. Day, Thos. Cutler, W. H. Lonsdale, and 
H. J. Burrow, all of London. 

Specimens of Tapestry Painting, Painting on China, Plaques, 
Stained Glass, &c., and a collection of Modern Pottery, 
contributed by Mr. S. Howe, of Manchester. 

Messrs. Elkington and Co., of l\lanchester, exhibited a 
Magnificent collection of Art Metal work. 

Antiquities Department : — Director, A. Strange. 

There were exhibited a number of Antiquities from Brows- 
holme Hall, lent by Captain Parker, .LP. These com- 
prised Ancient Tapestry, Antique Oak Furniture, Ancient 
Armour and Weapons, Tankards, &c. 

Lord Norreys contributed the Whalley Abbey Vestments ; and 
T. H. Whitaker, Esq., J.P., a collection of Roman Eelics. 
General Exhibits : — ■ 

Dr. Balmain's Luminous Paint. 

The Kinegraph or Curve Writer : A Sikh Chief's Helmet, 
Water Carriers and Carved Elephants' Tusks_ from the 
Congo River, Cases of Brazilian Beetles and Butterflies. 

Curtains and other Draperies along with Oak Furniture 
were supplied by W. and J. S. Collinge. 

Mr. Cruickshank gave selections of Music on the Pianoforte. 

On the Second day, when the exhibits were again open for 
inspection, Mr. H. Lonsdale presided at the Pianoforte. 

On the Third day there was a Da.nce. 

1882. — Febvuanj 2nd and 3rd. 

Addi'ess by the President, J. C. Brumwell, M.D., J.P. 
Address by J. Monckman, D.Sc, on " Recent Advances in 

Electrical Science, and the Instruments exhibited." 
Address by B. Sagar, on " The Paintings and other works 

exhibited." 



47 

Scientific Department : — 

A Microscopical Exhibition was held under the Directorship 
of S. P. Leather, J. P. Leather, and J. B. Shipley. The 
exhibits consisted mainly of Insects. 

The Liverpool Geological x\ssociation contributed numerous 
Geological and Mineralogical specimens. 

There were also exhibited a case of Polished Precious Stones, 
lent by Mr. Thompson, Liverpool ; Griscom's Electro 
Motor, under the Management of A. Lancaster. 

Mr. Tunlis, of Accrington, shewed the process of Electro- 
Plating. 
Aet Department : — Directors, B. Sagar, and Jas. Kay. 

Oil Paintings by W. H. Knight, Solomon, E. Hannah, H. S. 
Marks, E.A., Ersldne Nicol, E.S.A., A.E.A. ; and Water 
Colour Drawings by Holman Hunt, David Cox, and 
Nicholson; were exhibited by Messrs. E. Quaile, Liver- 
pool, Walter Haworth, Manchester, and Jas. Kay. 

Amongst the other exhibits were a Series of Studies in 
Pencil and Water Colours, lent by Mrs. Marie, Engravings, 
volumes of Deuchar's Etchings, a number of Autotypes 
from the London Autotype Co. 

J. Butterworth, Jun., lent Photographs of Scottish Scenery, 
and exhibited Photographic Transparencies. 

Messrs. Walker & Co., of Liverpool, exhibited Webb's Dia- 
chromatized and Inlaid Woods, for floors, walls, &c., and 
Papvrotile for decorative purposes. 
Messrs. Craven, Dunnill i% Co., of Iron Bridge, Shropshire, 

exhibited Slabs of Ceramic Mosaic Tiles. 
Messrs. Bennett Brothers, Liverpool, lent a large collection 
of Hand-painted Tiles, Girondoles, Barbontine Vases, &c., 
and Messrs. G. Hudson & Sons a collection of Brass Ware. 

General Exhibits : — 
Illuminated M.S. in Spanish, dated 1578, lent by Lieut-Col. 
Fishwick,F.S.A., Eochdale. Curiosities from West Africa, 
lent by J. Thompson, Liverpool. Specimens of English 
Printed Cahcoes, contributed by P. E. Koberts. 

The English Tapestries and General Decorations were sup- 
plied by Geo. Hudson and Sons. 

A Selection of Music was rendered by Mr. Ford's Band. 

On the Second Day there was a Dance. 



48 



EXCURSIONS, 1874-1883. 

1874. 

JnnelG — Papers preparatory to Excursion, " Skiptou Castle and 

the Lords of Skipton,"— T. T. Wilkinson, F.R.A.S. 

"Bolton Abbey and Barden Tower"— T. T. Wilkinson, 

F.E.A.S. 
" The Botany of the Neighbourhood of Bolton Woods " 
— H. Houlding 
,, 18 — Excursion to Bolton Woods. 
July 14 — Papers preparatory to Excursion, " Objects of Interest 
on the Downham Route to Pendle " — T. T. Wilkin- 
son, F.R.A.S. 
" The Geology of East Lancashire " — T. T. Wilkinson, 

F.R.A.S. 
" The Flora of Pendle District "— H. Houlding. 
,, 18 — Excursion to Pendle Hill. 
Aug. 23 — Papers preparatory to Excursion, "The Natural and 
Local History of Malliam and Goredale " — T. T. 
Wilkinson, F.R.A.S., and H. Houlding. 
,, 27 — Excursion to Malham and Goredale. 
Sep. 8 — Papers preparatory to Excursion, " Whalley Abbey and 
the Churches of Whalley and Mitton "— T. T. 
Wilkinson, F.R.A.S. 
"The Flora of the Whalley Neighbourhood "—H. 
Houlding. 
,, 19 — Excursion to Whalley and Mitton." 

1875. 

June 1 — Papers preparatory to Excursion, " The Botany of the 
Clapham District "—J. Hough, B.A., F.R.A.S. 
" The Geology of the Clapham District " — D. Morris, 
B.A., F.G.S. 
,, 3 — Excursion to Clapham and Neighbourhood. 
,, 29 — Papers preparatory to Excursion, " The Geology of the 
Neighbourhood of Hoghton Tower " — D. Moms, 
B.A., F.G.S. 
"The Botany of the Neighbourhood of Hoghton Tower" 

— H. Houlding. 
" The History and Architecture of Hoghton Tower" — 
W. A. Waddington. 
July 3 — Excursion to Hoghton Tower. 

,, 27 — Papers preparatory to Excursion, " The Antiquities of 
Gisburn, Bolton, and Sawley." 
" The Natural History of the District." 
,, 29 — Excursion to Gisburn, Bolton-by-Bowland, and Sawley." 



49 

Aug. 24 — Papers preparatory to Excursiou, "The Natural aucl 
Local History of Hardcastle Crags." 
,, 28 — Excursion to Hardcastle Cimgs aud Hebdeu Valley. 

1876. 

May 22 — Stoueylim-st College. 

JunelS — Paper preparatory to Excursion, " The Geology and 

Botany of the Malham and Settle District," with 

remarks on the Victoria Cave — D. Morris, B. A., E.G. S. 

,, 22 — Malham, Gordale, and Settle. 

Aug. 16 and 17 — Brimham Eocks, Fountains Abbey, Eipou, 

Knaresbro', &c. 

1877. 

July 26 — Upper Wharfedale, Grasswood, Kilnaey Crag, and 
Arncliffe. 
(A Paper was read by D. Morris, B.A., F.G.S., prepara- 
tory to this Exciu'sion.) 

1878. 

Aug. 5 — Rh-kby Lonsdale, Castertou Woods, Underley Hall, &c. 

1879. 

May 2i — Ribchester and Stydd — Director, W. A. Abram, 

F.R.H.S. 
Junel9 — Chester. 
July 19 — Eoman Eemains in Briercliffe and Extwistle— Director, 

L. Clement. 
Aug. 4 — AVhitewell and District. 
Sept. 6— Portsmouth and District — Director, J. Monckman, B.Sc. 

1880. 

May 29 — Great Harwood, Whalley, and Gisburn. 
Junel9 — Elslack, Gargrave, and Eshton Hall. 
July 21 and 22 — Alton Towers and Dovedale. 
Aug.l9 — Ilkley and Bolton Woods. 

1881. 

May 28 — Chipping and Parlick Pike. 
June29 and 30 — Stratford-on- Avon, Warwick, Leamington, Kenil- 

worth, and Coventry. 
July 25— Appleby, Penrith, and Lowther Castle. 
Aug.20 — Samlesbury and Walton. 
Oct. 29 — Proposed Site of Corporation Waterworks in the Thm's- 

den Valley. 



60 

1882. 

May 20 — Hebcleu Valley, Harclcastle Crags, and Heptonstall. 
June 27, 28, and 29— Teesdale. 

July 26 and 27— Grange, Cartmel, and Furness Abbey. 
Aug. 26 — Eivingtou Pike and Liverpool Waterworks. 

1883. 

May 26— Hoghton Tower. 

June 19, 20, and 21— Oxford and Blenheim. 

Aug. 25 — The Halls on the Western Slope of Peudle. 



SECTIONAL EXCURSIONS. 

The Committee, having decided to make an effort to estab- 
lish two Sections — the " Art and Antiquities" Section, and the 
" Field Naturalists " Section, — a circular setting forth the views 
of the Committee, and laying stress upon the educational value 
of a thorough working of the scheme proposed, was issued to the 
members on April 23rd, 1880. As a result of this action, about 
30 members joined each of the Sections. A number of excursions 
have been made yearly since that date, principally in connection 
with the "Art and Antiquities " Section, but in many cases, the 
attendances have been unsatisfactory. It is highly desh-able that 
the Geological and Botanical features of the district, as well as 
the places of Architectural and Archseological interest should be 
carefully studied, and by means of Sections their systematic 
investigation can be carried out. It is hoped, therefore, that the 
facihties which it is intended to offer durmg the ensuing summer, 
for the prosecution of work in the method indicated, will be 
more generally utilized, and the Committee's endeavours more 
satisfactorily supported. The following is a list of the Sectional 
Excursions that have been made : — 

AET AND ANTIQUITIES SECTION : - 

1880. 
May 22 — Emmott Hall and Wycollar. 

1881. 

May 21— Whalley Abbey and Church.— Director, W. A. Wad- 
dington. (Each member was provided with an Archi- 
tectural Chart which had been previously explained 
by W. A. Waddingtou.) 

June 11 — Barcroft Hall. 

July 9 — Wycollar. 



51 

Sept. 3— Towueley Hall, 
1882. 

June 3 — Sawley Abbey. 

Aug. 12 — Mellor and Site of Eoman Camp — 

Director, W. A. Abram. 
Sept. 9.— Old Halls in Pendle Forest. 

FIELD NATURALISTS' SECTION :— 
1880. 
June 12 — Elslack and Distiict. 

1882. 

The following series of Geological Excursions — Director, 
J. Monckman, D.Sc. 
June 9 — Mitre Street and Manchester Road. 

,, 10 — Portsmouth. 

,, 16— Pheasantford, &c. 

,, 17 — Portsmouth. 
Aug. 10 — Healey Height and Old Road to Bacup. 

,, 17 — Burnley Lane and Marsden Height. 

,, 19— Barden Lane and Pendle Bottom. 

,, 24 — Towneley Park. 
Sept. 23— The Rock Basins. 

The following Excursions were for Members of both 
Sections — 
1883. 

June 16 — Gorple. 

Aug. 11 — Thornton, Raygill and Lothersdale — 

Director, J. Monckman. D.Sc. 
Sept. 1 — The Heights of Read, Jeppe Knave Grave and Roman 
Camp at Portfield. 



PHILOLOGICAL SECTION. 

A Sub-Committee has been formed for the purpose of 
inquiring into the origin and meaning of words that are peculiar 
to this district. Members are requested to assist in this object, 
by sending such words as they know of, or that come under their 
notice hereafter, to Mr. Ward at the Grammar School. If pos- 
sible it would be desirable to communicate at the same time : — 

1st, The meaning of the word. 2nd, Its origin, if known. 
3rd, The locality in which it is used, and 4th, An illustrative 
sentence wher^iji the word is employed, 



SUMMARY OF TREASURERS' ACCOUNTS. 



January 1st, 1874, to March 31st, 1875. 



•Balance in hand March 31st, 1875, £C3 10s. lid. 



Year Ending March 31st, 1876. 



•Balance in hand March 31st, 1876, £99 19s. 9d. 



Year Ending March 31st, 1877. 



£ s. d. 

Balance brought forward 99 19 9 

Members' Subscriptions 116 

Other Receipts 75 

£290 19 9 



Payments 

Balance in hand 



£ s. d. 
.176 10 7 
.114 9 2 



£290 19 9 



Year Ending March 31st, 1878. 



£ s. d. 

Balance brought forward 1 14 9 2 

Members' Subscriptions 117 15 

Other Receipts 75 3 9 

£307 7 11 



Payments 

Balance in hand 



£ s. d. 
. 193 6 5 
.114 1 C 



£307 7 11 



Year Ending March 31st, 1879. 



£ s. d. 

Balance brought forwardll4 1 6 

Members' Subscriptions 137 

Other Receipts 49 19 1 

£301 7 



Payments 

Balance in hand 



£ s. d. 

.204 3 7 

96 17 



£301 7 



Nine Months Ending 


December 31st, 1879. 






£ s. d. 
Balance brought forward 96 17 
Members' Subscriptions 11 
Other Receipts 61 18 9 

£169 15 9 


Payments 


£ B. 

...157 16 


d. 



Balance in hand . . 


... 11 19 
£169 15 


9 
9 



♦Particulars for this year carnot be supplied. 



53 



Yeah ENrixG December 31st, 1880. 



£ s. d. 

Balance brought forward 11 19 9 

Members' SubscriiDtions 13^ 5 

Other Receipts 101 5 6 

Balance due to Treasurer 7 18 9 



Payments 



£ s. d. 
.253 9 



£253 9 



£253 9 



Yeab Ending December 31st, 1881. 



£ s. d. 

Members' Subscriptions 131 10 

Other Eeceipts 128 7 

Balance due to Treasurer 6 10 



£265 18 



£ s. d. 

Balance brought forward 7 18 9 

Payments 2.57 19 3 

£265 18 



Year Ending December 31st, 1882. 



£ s. d. 

Members' Subscriptions 121 

Other Keceipts 47 14 8 

Balance due to Treasurer 8 10 3 

£177 4 11 



£ s. d. 

Balance brought forward 6 10 

Payments 171 3 11 

£177 4 11 



The large balances in hand shewn by the earlier statements 
are accounted for by the fact that the receipts include the mem- 
bers' subscriptions for a whole year, that is, from January 1st to 
December 31st ; or nine months beyond the date to which the 
expenses are included. Each of the Statements from 1879 is for 
the year ending December 31st, which is the year for which the 
subscriptions are paid. 

It may also be observed that in the year 1882 the nett bal- 
ances only of the Excursions are given, and not the gross Receipts 
and Expenditure, accounting therefore for the diminished totals 
for that year. 



LIBRARY. 

The Publications of the Lancashire and Cheshire Eecord 
Society, as follows : — 

Vol. 1. — 1878. — " Lancashire and Cheshire Clnu-ch Surveys," 

1649 to 1655. 
,, 2. — 1879. — " An Lidex to the Wills and Inventories in the 

Court of Probate at Chester," 1545 to 1620. 
,, 3. — 1880. — " Lancashire Inquisitions," now existing in the 

Public Record Office, London, Stuart Period 

Part I, 1 to 11, James I, 



54 

Vol. 4. — 1881. — " An Index to the Wills and Inventories in the 

Court of Probate at Chester," 1621 to 1650. 

„ 5.— 1881.— " Eegisters of the Parish of Prestbury," 1560 

to 1636. 
,, 6. — -1882.^ — ■" Cheshire and Lancashire Funeral Certificates," 

1600 to 1678. 

,, 7. — 1882. — " Lancashire and Cheshire Eecords," preserved 

in the Public Piecord Office, London, Part I. 

,, 8.— 1882. — " Lancashire and Cheshire Records," preserved 

in the Public Record Office, London, Part 11. 

Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 

Vol. xxxiii., 1880-1. 

Reports and Proceedings of the following Societies : — 
Manchester Field Naturalists and Archfeologists' Society, 1860 

(the year of its formation), to 1879, (1871 excepted.) 
Manchester Scientific Students' Association, (Established 1861), 

1878 and 1879. 
Chester Society of Natural Science, (Established 1872), 1878-9, 

1879-80, 1880-81. 
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society, (Established 1822), 

1878, 1879. 
Liverpool Geological Association, (Estabhshed 1880), 1880-81, 
1881-82. 

A Synopsis of the British Mosses, by Chas. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., 

Huddersfield. 
Catalogue of the Towneley Library, sold in London, June 18th, 

to 26th, 1883. 
Catalogue of the Towneley Manuscripts, sold in London, June 

27tli and 28th, 1883, (containing prices realized.) 
[The following were purchased for the Club, at the Sale of the 

Towneley M.S.S., June, 1883.] 
Baptisms and Anniversaries, &c., 1705. Manuscript, evidently 

the Memorandum Book of a Priest who entered upon his 

duties as Chaplain of Towneley, on the Vigil of St. John 

the Baptist, 1705. 
John Townelcy's Diary, 1807, with Catalogue of his Library. 

Manuscript. 
John Towneley's Account Book, 1601-8. 

The following papers have been read before the Club : — 

*" Geoffrey Chaucer," by Henry Houlding, read January 18th, 

1874. 
*" The Philosophy of Recreation," by J. C, Brumwell, M.D., 
read January" 27th, 1874, 



66 

*" Edmund Spenser," by Henry Houlding, read October 26th, 
1875. 

" The Dietetic Vahie of Alcohol," by J. W. Anningson, 
L.E.C.P., read September 16th, 1879. 
*" The Buruley Grammar School Library," by J. Langfield 
Ward, M.A., read Febnaary 22ud, 1881. 
" Science Two Hundred Years Ago," by C. P. Hobkirk., F.L.S., 

Huddersfield, read March 9th, 1881. 
" The Efficiencies of Gas and Steam Motors," by Thomas 
Holgate, read October 17th, 1882. 

Those marked * may be purchased, price 6d. each. 

Account of Excursion to Irlam Hall, near Manchester, June 
1st, 1878, by the Urmston and Flixton Literary and 
Scientific Society. 

Account of Excursion to Knutsford and Nether Tabley, July 
17th, 1878, by the Urmston and Flixton Literary and 
Scientific Society. 

" Technical Industrial Education in connection with 
Mechanics' Institutions and other kindred Associations," 
by Edward T. Bellhouse, a paper read before the Man- 
chester Statistical Society, April 13th, 1881. 

Photographs may be obtained of the Ancient Market Cross and 
Stocks, Church Street, Burnley, removed May 24th, 1881. 
Old Houses in Church Street, Burnley, pulled down May, 1881. 
Price Is. and 2s., according to size. 




56 



MmSwBhi^sr^^^Si^^^ 1^ ^(^^^s^^^^^Sfyb^ 










HKI^T ' .IjTSyBLSh^^ ^^J^^ 


B^Sii 





[It has been found impossible, in conformity with the scope of this 
publication, to Rive in extensa any one of the late Mr. Wilkinson's contribu- 
tions to the Club, but from his Paper on the Lancashire Dialect, now in the 
Chetham Library, Manchester, a few selections have been made, which, it is 
hoped, will in some degree indicate the extent of his researches, and the 
careful method of his compilations, besides affording the Club a means of 
proceeding to further investigations in an interesting subject.] 



ON THE LANCASHIRE DIALECT: 

More especially as relating to Blackburn Hundred, 
BY T. T. Wilkinson, F.E.A.S. 



[After tracing the waves and wavelets of immigrants which 
in tm-n have overspread Lancashire, and left memorials in the 
nomenclature of the district, ]\Ir Vi ilkinson gives lists of M'ords 
used in conversation which we have received from these. Fu'st 
come the Keltic :] 

KELTIC. 

Boggart a ghost bwg, bwgau 

Berr a sharp run bar 

Brat an apron bratt 

Cant to set on edge cant 

Cart a sledge carr 

Cat a short piece of wood cat 

Ceawr to sit down cwrian 

Clutter to gather in heaps cluder 

Coat a garment cota 

Cob a lump of coal co 

Cob to throw cobian 

Fog after-grass ffwg 

Gown a woman's dress gwn 

Griddle a bakestone greidyl 

Hattock a shock of corn hadak 

Hig a fit of passion igian 

Lick to beat some one llachian 

Lob unevenly sided Hob 

Natter to gnaw naddu 

Oss to try os 

Pert impudent, sauey pert 

Powse dirt, worthless pws 

Pobs porridge pob 

Rasher a slice rhasg 

Sad firm sad 

Slat to spill yslotian 



67 

[Then follows the Saxon list ;] 

ANGLO-SAXON. 

Addle to earn edlean 

Baggin a meal bagge 

Beet to kindle betan 

Bruard rim, edge breord 

Cockers stockings cocer 

Doesum healthful dugsum 

Dree slow, long in coming dreogan 

Fend to labour, provide fandian 

FUte to scold flitan 

Galcar, gelcar an aletub galcaren 

Gang a narrow passage gang 

Gawm to understand, sense gyman 

Gradely right, orderly, properly gerade 

Hosst a cough hwosta 

Hill to cover up helan 

Lite few lyt 

Neb the beak neb 

Nesh tender, soft , nesc 

Scale to clear the fire seylan 

Side, sidth , .long, deep, depth sid 

Snig an eel snican 

Sperr to inquke sperian 

Stewen to bespeak stef nian 

Syle a sieve silian 

Steyle a shaft, handle stela 

Threeap to dispute, wrangle threapian 

Wark to ache weorc 

Wick quick, lively cwic 

Distinctive names of Places are common ; 

ANGLO-SAXON. 

Bury camp burg 

Huncote cot, house cote 

Chfton cliff, house on ton 

Dunham hill, mound dun 

Eamot, Emmott water mouth ea-mut 

Padiham home of Paddi ham 

Musbury moss camp moos 

Ormerod Orme's-clearing royd 

Stubbylee rooty -lee stub 

Towneley house on the ley tun 

The list might evidently be enlarged to a considerable extent, 
but the above may suffice for illustration. 

The Frisic element, indicating the presence of settlers from 
Friesland, is also distinctly represented in our ordinaiy speech. 
This tribe was closely allied to that of the Angles, but their lan- 
guage differed dialectically. We constantly use the following 
words derived from this source, and many others will be found 
in our glossaries ; 

OLD FEISIC. 

Fettle to repair fetla 

Gloppened alarmed glupa 

Stoop , a post . , . . , stup 



58 

OLD FEISIC. 

Haver-cake oat-cake haver 

Weet very wet weet 

Werken to gurgle, to choke querken 

Wye-cawve the calf quie-cuw 

The Danish element is largely infused into our dialect. 
This is naturally to be expected, since the Danes occupied most, 
and sometimes all, of what is now Lancashire, as a portion of 
their kingdom of Northumbria, from the eighth to nearly the close 
of the tenth century. The test-words adduced by Taylor in his 
" Words and Places " are not wanting. Thus we find the 
" Bi/re, or Bije, Laws of Briercliffe "; and among the ancient 
endowments of Burnley Church we have " two little (jarths 
(closes of land) near the Brig of Brun." Mr. Taylor Avas mis- 
taken when he said that "thorpe" did " not occur in Lancashire," 
for we have Gawthorpe, near Padiham, the seat of Sir J. P. 
Kay-Shuttleworth, Bart. "Toft" is constantly found in deeds 
for the transfer of land: — "beck" for "brook" is not un- 
common ;— and " dale" is found in Kossendale, Eibblesdale, and 
elsewhere. Of purely Danish words, or with few exceptions, we 
may instance : — 

DANISH. 

Bigg to build bygge 

Clam to be without food clemme 

Clap-bread thin oat cakes klappe-brod 

Clatch a brood of chickens klekke 

Coaken knob of a horse's shoo koken 

Dab a patting blow dabe 

Deg to sprinkle dugge 

Gainer shorter gienvie 

Gawby a foolish person gabb 

Lennock soft, phable len-likcB 

Ligg to lie ligg 

Either lazy, idle lider 

Laithe a barn latde 

Keggly easily upset kegle 

Kneyve the closed fist nseve 

Skellard out of square skoela 

Snye to turn up the nose snoe 

But there is also conclusive evidence that a large body _ of 
Northmen, or Norwegians, either accompanied the Danish in- 
vaders, or followed them at intervals, and settled in the country. 
The Norse element is consequently both widespread and abun- 
dant in our dialect. Thus we have in common use : — 

NORSE. 

Brass impudence brass 

Brusk rough, lively bruskr 

Clat a pat of dung klatr 

Dub a pool of water dup 

Edge a ridge egg 

Flit to remove fiet 

Gap a passage, opening gap 



59 

Gate a road gata 

Gavle a gable gavl 

Graine a district grein 

How a hill haugr 

Knipe a projecting rock knipr 

Lad a heap of stones hlad 

Ling heather ling 

Mump to chew briskly mumpa 

Nab a scar, a rock knab 

Pike a peak, a mound piaka 

Poke a small sack poki 

Pot a hole in a stone pottr 

Eake a roving journey reik 

Eive to tear rila 

Eossle to wrestle rusla 

Scar a steep craggy rock sker 

Segg hard skin sigg 

Shive a slice of bread skifa 

Slack a hollow slakr 

Slatt to spill sletta 

Slaver to lose spittle slavra 

Snap a piece of gingerbread snap 

Snod smooth snodin 

Sofa sleeping couch, a bed sofa 

Syke occasionally dry watercourse siki 

Tig to touch lightly tegia 

Tramp a homeless traveller trampa 

Tyke a vulgar, cruel person tyk 

Whins furze bushes hwan 

Tlie Norman Freuch Tvords are but few, but tbere are these 
instances : — 

NOEJLiN FBENCH. 

Cale each in turn cule 

Cank a talk cancan 

Gab chatter, talk gaber 

Manchet a small loaf manchet 

Motty words of interference mot 

Niflin faultfinding nifle 

Peyl to strike roughly pelle 

Danish pille 

After giving tliese lists of words, the author turns to the 
changes in pronunciation of vowels and consonants, &c., 
of which the following may be given as a selection : — 

(3) d is dropped before /, as can'le for candle. 

(/ becomes th and vice versa, as mm'ther, farder, for 
murder, farther. 

(4) (Id changes into th, as ladder, lather. 

(5) ea becomes ey, as meyl for meal. 

ea and ce become e short, as chep for cheap. 

(6) ie becomes ee, as dee for die. 

(8) no final g is sounded, runnin' for running. 
(10) becomes oo, as foo-ok for folk. 

oi becomes m, as puzzen for poison. 



60 

(11) / is sounded in would, should. 

(13) sh becomes s, as sail for shall, especially about Colne. 

(14) t becomes (/ at the end of many words, nod for not. 
(IG) possessive cases are missing ; Tom brother for 

Tom's brother. 
(18) our becomes huz ; she is hoo ; it never becomes its ; 

" look at it legs." 
[Mr. Wilkinson concluded his paper with a list of dialectic 
words used by Chaucer and Spenser, and said that at least 121 
in Chaucer, and 97 in Spenser, are still in daily use in this portion 
of our country, although not one of them is to be found in any 
modern dictionary.] 




61 




THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF BURNLEY. 

A paper read by JOSHUA RAWLINSON, March 14th, 1876. 

Although no douht can he entertained of the antiquity of 
Burnley, there are few records in histoiy to make the place known 
to the world. Dr. Whitaker says the basis of the present town was 
unquestionably a Eonian settlement, and the existence of the 
ancient cross in Godly-lane, erected to commemorate the preach- 
ing of Paulinus, one of the Augustine monks, between A.D. 625 
and 631 is strong presumptive evidence that even at that early 
period a not inconsiderable population was gathered together in 
this neighbourhood. 

The proximity of the neighbouring hamlet of Towneley must 
have lent some importance to the place, and tlie history of Burn- 
ley is constantly connected with the Towneley family. The villa 
of Towneley was granted by Eoger de Lacy to Geoffrey Towneley 
about the year 1200, and as Dr. Whitaker says " he became the 
progenitor of a flourishing family yet subsisting after a lapse of 
six centuries, legitimate descendants and representatives at once 
of the ancient Deans of Whalley and Lords of Blackburnshire.'' 

Many ancient families of gentle birth were early located in 
these parts. As far back as the 24th year of Henry VIII, we find 
the following names to an indenture for rebuilding the north and 
south aisles of Bm-nley Church, viz. :— Sir Jno, Townley, Knight, 
John Townley, Esq., Eichard Townley, of Eoyle, Symon 
Haydocke, of Heasandforth, Hugh Habergham of Habergham, 
Nicholas Shuttleworth, of Gawthorpe, John Parker, of 
Extwistle, Eichd. Whitaker, of Holme, and Eobert Barcroft, 
of Barcroft. It is perhaps worthy of mention here that the 
sum stipulated to be paid for the execution of this contract 
was £60, but instead of the north and south the north and middle 
aisles were actually rebuilt, and it was not until 1789 that the south 
aisle was rebuilt at a cost of more than £1000. Nearly the same 
work might have been performed, and was actually contracted for 
at the price of £30, in the reign of Henry III. 

In the 27th year of Henry VIII., 1536, the farms or rents 
of the parish are stated at £12 6s. 2d. 

In the reign of Ehzabeth there were residing in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Burnley twelve principal families, one 
of them of knightly rank, (the Towneleys), and the rest in the 
condition of gentry, all resident in their own houses, and occupying 



62 

considerable portions of their own estates. All the houses but one 
remain to this day, some of them in their original state, but three 
of them are let to tenants, viz. : Barcroft, Extwistle, and Heasand- 
forth ; Habergham Hall has been pulled down ; the others are 
occupied by their respective owners or by families connected with 
them, viz. : Towneley, Bank Hall, Gawthorpe, Holme, Ormerod, 
Eoyle, and Eowley. 

The Manor of Ightenhill became vested in the Crown as parcel 
of the Duchy of Lancaster, and was subsequently granted by 
Charles II. to General Monk, then raised to the dignity of Duke 
of Albemarle from whom it has passed to the present Lord, 
the Duke of Buccleuch. I have been favoured with a perusal of 
the original grant from a copy in the possession of Robert 
Handsley, Esq., J. P., and in the fulsome jargon of the time it 
recites as follows : — 

" The King to all to whom &c. greeting. Whereas the 
sweetest fi'uit which we perceive of our highest power consists in 
the increased opportunity of doing good, and it is most just that 
those who have outshone others in virtue and fidelity towards us 
should likewise be illuminated before others by the most bountiful 
rays of royal munificence and favour. And our most beloved and 
most faithful cousin, and Councillor George Duke of Albemarle 
has so deserved of us that in promoting and daily increasing him 
we seem rather to consult our own honour than to be able 
worthily to reward him inasmuch as when our cause — after our 
exile of so many years, and a tyranny meantime grown up and 
confirmed by the worst acts of bad men for so long a time — had 
become altogether desperate, had not the singular providence of 
God and the divine virtue of one man stood in the way, he with 
wonderful fortune and prudence having seized the turn of events 
with a small force, brought everlasting triumph from Scotland to 
London, and having in a short time brought all the nation into 
his power without bloodshed or condition, all men's affections 
being ready with the applause of this x)resent age and to the won- 
der of posterity he brought us back to our kingdom and restored 
our kingdom to us. We therefore that we may surround such a 
man with greater riches and splendour, and that we may give him 
opportunity of living more wealthily and richly as is meet for 
him and for his king, and that we may show that these benefits 
which we cannot repay are nevertheless acceptable to and never 
to be forgotten by us. Know ye that we of our especial grace and 
of our certain knowledge and mere motion have given and granted 
and by these jDreseuts for us our heirs and successors do give and 
grant to the aforesaid George, Duke of Albemarle, his heirs and 
assigns all that our Castle, Honor, and Lordship of Clitheroe, 
with their rights, members, and appurtenances in our counties of 
Lancaster and York, or either of them parcel of the possessions 



of our ancient Duchy of Lancaster ; and all that our Manor of 
IghtenhuU with its rights, members, and appurtenances in our 
county of Lancaster ; and all our messuages, mills, farms, lands, 
tenements, mines of coals and hereditaments whatsoever in the 
county aforesaid parcel of that Manor ; and all the rents as well 
— of the fee as of the customai-y tenants of the same manor, and 
all other rents and yearly payments for tlie same manors, farms, 
tenements, hereditaments, and other the premises aforesaid, or 
any of them or any part or parcel thereof, or for any licences, 
liberties, commodities, or profits whatsoever heretofore given or 
granted, or in future within that manor to be had and enjoyed 
to us our heirs and successors, reseiTed or payable with their 
appurtenances, and tiie appurtenances of each of them. Which 
same Manor of IghtenhuU and other the premises last aforesaid 
by the particulars thereof to and are estimated to be of the yearly 
value of one hundred and twenty-six pounds and five shillings 
per annum." 

The same grant gives many other Manors, as also the offices 
of Master Forester of Blackburnshire, Collector of Blackburnshire, 
of the Wapentake, of Blackburn, and of the Master Forester of 
Bowland. 

The Merrie Monarch had certainly httle or no idea of the 
vast revenue which would be enjoyed by the representative of his 
faithful cousin and councillor — General Monk — by virtue of this 
grant, in the reign of Her Gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria. 

But the antiquity of the town is, perhaps, most abundantly 
proved by the history and records of the Parish Church. It is 
not my purpose to attempt to give, within the limits of this paper, 
any historical account of the Parish Church ; but it is impossible 
to treat of the rise and progress of Burnley, without touching 
upon some of the many changes and vicissitudes, undergone by 
the mother church of the chapelry, in the stirring and changeful 
times which have elapsed since a chapel-of-ease was opened on 
the banks of the river Brun, more than eight hundred years ago. 
The existence of the Parochial Church can be traced back to the 
reign of Henry I. In the Church were four chantries : first, 
the Eood Altar ; second, the Altar of St. Peter, or the High Altar, 
the officiating piiest of which was, properly, the incumbent of the 
Church ; third, the Altar of St. Mary, and fourth, the Altar of St. 
Anthony. Eeferriug to this order of things. Dr. Whitaker states 
that Burnley, though but a chapelry, resembled a little college of 
priests, aad had no less than four altars well endowed. 

At the dissolution of the Chantries, in the reign of Edward VI, 
the whole of these endowments were taken away ; but it being 
certified to the commissioners, that the Chapel of Burnley was a 
chapel-of-ease far distant from the Church, and, therefore, very 
necessary to be continued, for diverse services, and for admiui- 



64 

stration of Sacraments, it was therefore decreed, that John 
Aspden, the incumbent, should serve there, and should have for 
his wages the sum of £4 8s. lid. The inhabitants, in the year 
1589, preferred a petition to the Chancellor and Council of the 
duchy, praying them to have consideration and care, that some 
godly minister and preacher might be had and provided for their 
better instruction ; and they promised to make up the stipend of 
the minister to 20 marks yearly, at the least. This continued 
till the year 1683, when Robert Hartley, the minister, certified to 
the Commissioners, that the inhabitants of the Chapelry had not, 
for many years past, paid their sum of £8 17s. 9d., to make up 
the said 20 marks; whereupon, the Commissioners decreed that 
the sum should be paid in the following proportions : — 

£ s. d. 

Habergham-Eaves 2 4 3 

Burnley 1 12 5 

Cliviger 2 4 4 

Brearcliffe 2 16 9 

Total £8 17 9 

This, says Whitaker, may be considered as the basis of the 
present endowment. 

Another source of income was the Easter roll, and a third, 
a number of successive benefactions, of which, perhaps, the most 
notable is one of £400 fi-om Edmund Towneley, Eector of 
Slaidburn ; to which the governors of Queen Anne's bounty 
added £400. With these two sums, the estate of Bankhouse was 
purchased from the devisees of Heniy Halsted. For this con- 
sideration also, the advowson was conveyed by all proper parties 
to the said Edmund Towneley, as a benefactor. 

To the great and rapid increase of the town of Bm-nley may 
be attributed the vast increase of the income attached to the in- 
cumbency of St. Peter's. The amount of the present income is 
not known to the public, but it is reported to be a very large sum, 
and no comment on the rise and progress of Burnley is more 
forcible than a comparison of the income of £4 8s. lid. decreed 
to John Aspden, incumbent, and the ample revenue now en- 
joyed by his successor, in the person of the Eev. Canon Parker. 

In the 22nd year of the reign of Edward I., Henry de Lacy, 
Earl of Lincoln, obtained a charter for a market every Tuesday, 
at his manor house of Burnley, as also on the eve, day, and 
morrow after the feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul. It is not 
known how these fairs were altered, but in the early part of the 
present century there were six fairs yearly, which were held on 
March 6th, Easter Eve, May the 9th and 13th, July the 10th, 
and October lltli. There was also a market held every Monday, 
and an annual wool fair held on the second Thursday in July, 
and a horse fair ou the third Thursday in October. 



65 

In 1311, the Townships of Burnley, Habergham -Eaves, and 
Worsthorn contained 53 famiHes, or about 270 inhabitants, and 
by an inquisition held at Blackburn, June 25th, 1650, it was 
found that the families had increased to 300. This would give 
a population of about 1500 inhabitants. The population of 
Burnley within the hmits of the present borough has been esti- 
mated by the Census Commissioners as follows : — 

1801 4840 

1811 6639 increase, 1799, or 37 per cent. 

1821 10068 , 3429, or 52 

1831 12204 „ 2136, or 21 

1841 17520 „ 5316, or 43 

1851 24745 „ 7225, or 41 

1861 34381 „ 9636, or 38 

1871 40858 „ 6477, or 19 

The present population of the borough may be estimated at 
47,000, showing an increase for the last five years of 6,142, or at 
the rate of 30 per cent for ten years, so as to make the com- 
parison uniform with the table given above. The total increase 
of population fi-om 1801 to 1876, a period of 75 years, is 42,160, 
or 871 per cent. 

The rise and progress of the trade of Burnley is essentially 
identified with the rise of the cotton trade. The Peels came 
here in the early history of the cotton trade. They established 
cotton spinning, weaving, and printing at Bridge-end and at 
Lowerhouse. While mentioning Lowerhouse, we cannot help 
remarldng on the singular success attained by the owners of 
those works. From the famUies connected with them have 
sprung a Prime Minister of England, in the person of the late 
Sir Eobert Peel ; two High Sheriffs, in the persons of IMr. James 
Dugdale and Mr. John Dugdale, who have served this ofiice in 
the counties of Warwickshire and Montgomeryshire respectively ; 
and one member of Parliament, in the person of the late lamen- 
ted Mr. Eichard Shaw. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which 
was opened for traffic in 1801, gave a gi-eat impetus to the trade 
of the town. The first steam engine was erected at Bridge-end, 
in a miU belonging to the Peels, which was bm-nt down in 1798. 
In 1824, cotton had obtained a complete ascendancy as the staple 
trade. Formerly the manufactm-es of Biu'nley were confined en- 
tkely to woollens, but at this period only one fulUng mill re- 
mamed as a memorial of the ancient staple, and that ceased to 
work in 1825. At this time 25 fu-ms were engaged in the cotton 
trade ; the number of si^indles in motion was about 60,000, 
besides a number of Jenny spindles. The quantity of yam spun 
weekly was about 80,0001bs., chiefly from 20's to 40's. There 
were from 25,000 to 30,000 pieces of calico manufactm'ed per 
week in the town and immediate neighbourhood. There was 
also a considerable manufactory of coarse woollens, belonging to 



66 

Messrs. Joseph Massey aud Co. The quantity of worsted yarn 
spun was over 7,2001bs. weekly. The transit was by means of 
canal and road. Five coaches were plying to Burnley : one from 
Leeds to Preston, through Burnley, known as the Invincible ; 
three coaches went to Manchester, and one to Skipton. An ad- 
vertisement of the time gives a notice that the Leeds Union Co. 
have a regular set of vessels sail daily (except Tuesday) to Foul- 
ridge, Gargrave, Skipton, liildwick, Bingley, and Leeds ; and a 
fly-boat daily to the above places (except Tuesday). They also 
conveyed goods to Liverpool, through Enfield, Blackburn and 
Wigan. The land carriers went to Manchester every Monday 
and Thursday, returning Wednesday and Satui-day. 

Between the 19th June, 1822, and the lOtli May, 1824, a 
period of one year and 11 mouths only, no fewer than 416 new 
houses had been erected in Burnley. This state of prosperity 
was however rudely stopped by the failure of Holgate's bank, which 
took place in 1824 or 1825. This catastrophe was a great blow to 
the trade and prosperity of the town and several of the manu- 
facturers, and many shop-keepers were brought to ruin by this 
event. It is related in the life of Samuel Hick, the Wes- 
leyan village blacksmith, that he resided here for about three 
months during this period of general distress. He relates 
that one circumstance which affected him almost more than any 
other which came under his observation, was the case of a poor 
child whom he saw sitting and satisfying the cravings of hunger 
by devouring some grains which had been brought from a brew- 
house. When Hick had parted with all the money he had brought 
with him to Burnley, he cast about for further means. He asked 
some friends whether something could not be done by way of 
public subscription. He was answered that the manufacturers 
were equally distressed with the persons they employed, but he 
was informed that there was one gentleman iu the neighbourhood 
of great opulence, who was capable of imparting seasonable and 
adequate relief, but as he was a member of the Eoman Catholic 
Church, he might not be quite accessible to persons making 
Protestant appeals. Sammy, as he was called, was unable to 
induce anyone to accompany him, so mounting his horse he found 
his way to Towneley Hall. He had an interview with the late 
Mr. Peregrine Towneley, to whom he related his tale of woe. 
The owner of Towneley was touched with the simplicity of the 
village blacksmith, and being convinced of his integrity of pur- 
pose he fell in with his views. The result was that a public 
subscription was started which Mr. Towneley headed with a gift 
of £150. This relief was dispensed to the poor, and I have often 
heard old inhabitants speak of this hard year as the " dole " time. 

In the year 1853, within the limits of the present Municipal 
Borough, there were 52 firms engaged iu the cotton trade, and 



67 

they liad running about 404,000 spindles, and 9,400 looms. 

In 1866, just ten years ago, Burnley liad just recovered or 
was just recovering from the more immediate effects of the 
Cotton Famine, and about 80 firms were engaged in the cotton 
trade. The number of spindles running was about 650,000, and 
of looms about 21,000. 

At the present time the number of firms is about 100, and 
the total number of spindles is as nearly as can be ascertained 
882,000, and of looms 26,500. 

The per centage of increase is therefore as follows : — 

Per Per 

Spindles, cent. Looms. cent. 

Increase of 1866 on 1853 146,000 36 11,600 123 
1876 on 1853 478,000 218 17,100 182 
1876 on 1866 232,000 36 5,500 26 

I now come to deal with the question put by our worthy 
president to the meeting of the Club on the 23rd November last. 
*" The President wished to put it to the gentlemen present, many 
of whom were so largely engaged in the staple commodity. Had 
Bumley attained its maximum in cotton manvifactures ? Was it 
going to develope still further or decline? He was officially 
connected with many of the mills in the town, and the reason 
he put his questions was this, that within the last ten year's one 
new mill had been built in Burnley, and probably a few additions 
had been made, but he could name twelve mills that were now 
standing which were running ten years ago." 

The figures I have ah-eady given showing an increase during 
the last ten years of 232,000 spindles and 5,500 looms at work 
within the Borough, the increase being after the rate of 36 and 
26 per cent, respectively are, I ventm-e to submit, a triumphant 
answer to the question put by the president. The large increase 
in the population of the Borough as well as the number of occupied 
houses are all strong confirmations of the same fact. But I have 
taken the 12 mills mentioned by the President, and the total 
capacity of the whole represents 86,852 spindles and 1,149 
looms only. 

In looking over the names of firms engaged in the cotton 
trade at the various periods named, one cannot help being im- 
pressed with the precarious and shifting character of the cotton 
trade. Of all the firms in existence in 1824, only 52 years ago, 
not one exists at the present time, and in four instances only are 
the descendants of the cotton spinners and manufacturers of that 
time now engaged in the same trade as their forefathers. The 
frightful ravages in the ranks of spinners and manufacturers 
caused by the American Civil War are painfully apparent on 
comparing the names on the lists for 1853 and 1876. Of the 

*The late Dr. Coultate who was certifying surgeon under the Factory Acts 
made the statement here given. 



68 

100 firms now in existence four only were constihited in the same 
manner as they are at present in 1853, and 12 only are connected 
with the trade of that period by partnership or by inheritance. 
It is a remarkable and significant fact that of the 100 firms now 
engaged in the cotton trade, 84 had no connection of any kind 
with the staple trade of the town 23 years ago. 

I hope om* President will now take a more hopeful view of 
the Cotton Trade, and in order the fm'ther to convince him and 
other sceptics that we are not quite going to the dogs, I may men- 
tion that there are at present in course of erection three weaving 
sheds which will accommodate over 1400 looms, or 250 more than 
have disappeared in the celebrated 12 mills mentioned by him. 

I may perhaps be allowed to point out that although room 
for 16,000 looms is let off to tenants, as far as I am aware there 
is not room to let for a single loom at the present time. 

One of the other great trades of the town is the coal trade, 
and the output in Burnley and the immediate neighbourhood is 
about 16,000 tons of coal weekly. I am informed on the very 
highest authority that this output can be maintained, from dis- 
coveries already made, for the next 500 years. We need therefore 
be under no apprehension of a coal famine from any scarcity of 
the black diamonds for our time at least. 

The Iron Trade has been long established here, but it is 
now almost entirely confined to loom making, in which 7 firms 
are engaged. Burnley produces weekly about 300 looms, a 
greater number than is produced in any other town in the world. 
in fact Bm-nley is a centre for this industry, and the export 
of looms to foreign countries is becoming a great trade. 

In speaking of the rise and progress of Burnley I feel com- 
pelled to mention as one considerable element in it, the progress 
of the various economical and industrial movements which have 
done so much to further the prosperity of the town. 

Probably the oldest institution of this nature is the Savings' 
Bank, which was established in 1828. In 1852 there were 1,427 
depositors, and the amount deposited was £40,026 19s. 10|^d. 
The next in point of date is the Burnley Building Society, which 
was established in 1850. The number of members in Burnley 
at the end of 1875 was 2,585, and the number of Burnley in- 
vestors was 5,214, with the enormous sum of £343,852 19s. Id. 
to their credit. 

I must now bring before you the Co-operative and Joint Stock 
Companies, the great movement of the time, which is destined to 
carry on and complete the great work of the social and material 
improvement of the people inaugurated by the wonderful inven- 
tions and by the wise legislation of the 19th century. There is 
one Co-operative store with branches, and there are nine joint 
stock companies, the shares of which are bought and sold in the 



69 

market. The following summary shows the position of these 
10 concerns : — 

No. of Shareholders 1,892. 

Nominal Capital £266^115 

Subscribed „ £222,110 

Paid-up , £138,150 

Loan „ £81,251 

When we consider that nearly the whole of this large capital was 
raised in less than two years we must admit that it speaks in no 
uncertain language of the prosperity and wealth of the town. 

WhUe on the suhject of this distrihution of wealth it may 
perhaps be interesting to the Club to be informed that the town- 
ship of Burnley contains about 1,350, and the township of Haber- 
gham-Eaves about 1,530 owners of property which is rated to the 
the relief of the poor. In this return all persons owning property 
in both townships are of course counted twice, but I am informed that 
the property within the municipal limits of the Borough is divided 
among 1,550 owners or thereabouts. I may perhaps be allowed 
to say that I regard the latter as the more reliable figure. 

I have not time to go into a comparison of the amount of 
sitting accommodation, now provided in places of public worship 
with any former period, but I must content myself with giving 
you the following summary : — 

Denominations. Churches or Chapels. Sit. Accom. 

Church of England 6 (inclusive of 5076 

S. Stephen's) 

Baptists 5 3235 

Congregationalists 3 2500 

Wesleyans 5 3950 

United Methodists 4 2545 

Primitive 4 1770 

Eoman Catholics 1 1500 

Other denominations 3 1100 

31 21676 

There was a branch of the Church of the Latter Day Saints, 
or Mormons, some years ago, but on making enquu-y for the 
purposes of this paper I was informed that they had all emigrated 
to the land of the " saints." 

Burnley has every reason to be proud of its Educational 
Institutions. The amount of school accommodation provided 
is in excess of the requirements of the town, and the number of 
children and their attendance at school must be highly satisfac- 
tory to the teachers and managers. At a veiy early period the 
managers of schools took advantage of the grants made by 
Government for Educational purposes and the amount received 
is very large. 



70 

£ s. d. 

The total amount received on account of Building 

Grants to December 31st, 1874, is 4154 

For apparatus, books, maps, and diagrams 181 a 6 

For Annual grants, exclusive of the years 1863 
and 1864, which are not given in the blue 
books to end of 1874 amount to 29938 19 1 

Total amount received from Government in Edu- 
cational Grants exclusive of grants to 
evening classes is 34274 1 7 

The annual grants to schools in 1870, the year prior to the 
establishment of the School Board, amounted to £1,704 3s. lid., 
when the average attendance was 3,317. In 1874 the grants 
amotinted to £3,081 9s. 5d., being an increase of £1,377 5s. 6d., 
or 80 per cent., and the average attendance was 4,694, the in- 
crease being 1,377 or 41 per cent. 1 have not been able to 
ascertain the figures for 1875 as the blue book is not yet published, 
but I have no doubt it will show a veiy satisfactory increase on 
the above. 

I have obtained the following statistics relative to the num- 
ber of Licensed Houses. 

In 1824, when the population within the present municipal 
limits was about 11,000, there were 25 Licensed Houses, being 
one in 440 of population. In 1845, when the population had 
increased to about 27,000, the number of Licensed Houses, had 
increased to 123, being one for every 219 of population. In 1869 
the population was about 40,000, and the number of Licensed 
Houses was 186, being one for every 215 of population. At the 
present time there are 167 Licensed Houses, and taking the 
population at 47,000, it gives us one house for every 281 of 
population. 

The returns of pauperism are as follows for the various 
periods specified. I have not been able to get an earlier return 
than 1849, and I purposely avoid the exceptional years of the 
Cotton Famine. The returns refer to the two townships of 
Burnley and Habergham-Eaves : — 



Year ending g;^ -g^ 



O 



0.2 



M 



^ ^ > « 



March 25 1849 302 2342 688 3332 

„ 1860 138 839 no return 967 

„ 1870 442 4263 7962 12667 

Sept. 29 1875 425 2963 20 3408 

The enormous increase in the number of vagrants in 1870 is 
very noticeable. The policy adopted by the Board of Guardians, 
by which vagrancy has been practically stamped out of this 



71 

district is worthy of much more consideration and discussion 
than the hmits of this paper will permit. 

In 1819 the first Act of Parliament was passed for regulating 
the government of the town. The old Police cu-cle of three- 
quarters of a mile was determined, and the Local Government 
was vested in a Board of 16 Commissioners, who were em- 
powered to watch, light, cleanse, pave and otherwise regulate the 
town. The meetings of the Board were held at the Bull Inn, 
and it is related that each Commissioner was entitled to two six- 
penny glasses at the expense of the town. This custom, it is 
said, always ensured a regular attendance. The late Mr. Anthony 
Buck was appointed Clerk to the Commissioners in 1822, and he 
resigned the office in 1828. as he himself relates principally from 
the difficulty he experienced in can-ying out the provisions of the 
Act against defaulters in payment of Police Eates, hi'eaches of 
the regulations of the streets, as to stallage and other matters 
which the Magistrates at that time acting for Burnley, did not 
cordially co-operate to enforce, and he was further induced to 
resign in consequence of the remonstrance of the Gas Company, 
who were then contractors for lighting the town, and they became 
apprehensive, if no rates were obtained, they would be in danger 
of losing their gas income from lighting the town. He further 
relates that when he was appointed Clerk to the Commissioners, 
in 1822, nothing had been done under the Act, either to pave, 
sewer, or light the town, except laying a rate for payment of the 
expenses of obtaining the Act, although a period of nearly three 
years had akeady elapsed. 

In 1846 another Act was passed, by which the number of 
Commissioners was increased to 60. In addition to the confirm- 
ation of the previous powers for governing the town, the Com- 
missioners were empowered to purchase the Burnley Waterworks, 
which had been established in 1819, under the provisions of an 
Act of Parliament passed in that year. 

Another Act giving further powers for governing and regu- 
lating the town, and giving powers to purchase the Gasworks, 
&c. was obtained in 1854. A Charter of Incorporation was 
obtained in 1861, and the powers and duties of the Improvement 
Commissioners were transfen-ed to the Town Council. The Cor- 
poration purchased and obtained possession of the property and 
undertaking of the Burnley Market Co. in 1866. 

The Corporation procured an Act of Parliament in 1871 conso- 
lidating all their Acts, extending the boundaries of the borough, and 
giving them further powers for governing and regulating the town. 

The various undertakings of the Burnley Corporation have 
had a most important influence on the progress of the town, and 
an examination of their financial results cannot fail to be interest- 
ing to my present audience. 



72 

In connection with these undertakings, the career of the 
Burnley Gas Light Company is most interesting. Tliis Company 
was established in January, 1823, with a subscribed capital of 
£4,500, in 450 shares of £10 each. Works were erected, and 
the town was first lighted with gas in February or March, 1824. 
The Company obtained an Act in 1826, by which they were in- 
corporated, and their capital increased to £7,200, in GOO shares 
of £12 each. They obtained the sum of 3,800 on mortgage of 
their works in 1845. The first dividend was paid 1827. The 
Company supplied the public lamps at a charge (for the first 18 
years) of £2 15s. per lamp. In 1842 the price was reduced to 
£2 12s. 6d.; in 1849, to £2 7s. 6d.; and in 1853, to £2 4s., at 
which price it remained till the works were relinquished to the 
Commissioners. Tlie price of gag charged to the consumers was 
as follows : — 

per 1,000 ft. 

1824 to 18il 10s. Od. 

(dis. from 5 to 40 p.c.) 
1842 to 18U 8s. 4d. to 5s. Od. 

(according to consumption.) 

1845 6s. Od. 

1846 6s. Od. to 5s. Od. 

(according to consumption.) 

1847 to 1849 6s. Od. to 4s. Od. 

1850 to 1852 5s. Od. to 4s. Od. 

1853 (January) 4s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. 

1853 (July) to 1854 (Oct.) 3s. Od. 

1854 (Oct.) 3s. 6d. 

The price of coal in 1854 was 8s. lOd. per ton ; the same 
quality is now cliarged 15s. 5d per ton. The financial result of the 
company must have been very satisfactory to the shareholders. 
From the time tliey obtained the Act in 1827, to the dissolution of 
the company in 1855 — a period of 28 years — they received in divi- 
dends on each £12 share the sum of £37 2s. 6d., or an average 
dividend of £1 6s. 6d. being equal to about 11 per cent, per 
annum. In addition to this handsome dividend, the shareholders 
received back in payment of each £12 share the sum of £36 10s. 
The investment accordingly returned the total sum of £73 12s. 6d. 
for each £12 invested. 

The result of the purchase of this undertaking by the Im- 
provement Commissioners has been eminently ju-ofitable and 
advantageous to the town. 

The works were taken over on the 1st January, £ s. d. 

1855, the sum paid for the purchase being 30183 3 

The sum expended in extensions since that time 

has been 50239 7 7 

The total gross cost of the works being 80422 7 7 

The sum deducted from profits on account of 

depreciation is 25822 16 



73 

the present cost of the works in the 

books of the Corporation, at 30th June, 1876. . 54599 11 7 
The amount of accumulated profit during the 

21^ years up to 30th June, 1876, is 81503 8 11 

Sinking Fund 614 14 1—35118 8 

And the amount paid over by the Gas Committee 

to other departments, in aid of Kates, is 16782 15 2 

Showing the total profit earned by the works 

to be 51900 18 2 

Leaving a balance to the debit of the works of . . 2698 13 5 

— an amount which will probahly be extinguished during the 
present year. The average profits of the Gas undertaking for 
the ten years ended June 30th, 1875, have been as follows : — 

Average interest paid £1504 

Profits 84,145 

Sinking Fund 614 

10)34,759—3476 

The annual average profit being 4980 

The annual average depreciation allowed is 1632 

And the average amount spent in repairs is 882 

Total deducted from profits annually, for depreciation 

and repairs 3514 

During the whole of the period since the works were taken over 
by the town, the price charged for gas has been exceptionally 
low, and the advantage reaped in this respect has been veiy con- 
siderable. I have no hesitation in saying that the commercial 
value of the undertaking is very much in excess of the cost at 
which it stands in the books of the Corporation. This excellent 
result is owing, in a great measure, to the enlightened adminis- 
tration of the Committee, of which the President of this club is 
the chairman and ruling spmt. 

I have not been able to obtain so complete an account of the 
Burnley Waterworks as I have laid before you of the gasworks. 
The Burnley Waterworks Company was established by an Act of 
Parliament passed in 1819 (59 Geo. III.), and the whole of their 
undertaking was purchased by the Improvement Commissioners 
under the provisions of the Burnley Improvement Act, 1846, 
for the sum of £11,500. 

The total gross outlay on the works to 30th £ s. d. 

June, 1875, since their purchase is 78243 11 11 

Making the iMesent gross outlay 88743 11 11 

The depreciation deducted from profits is 10441 14 8 

Leaving their present cost at 78301 17 3 

The net profit earned by the Waterworks is^ 

surplus £9214 9 11 

Sinking Fund 1457 3 1—10671 13 

Leaving a balance to the debit of the works of . . 67630 4 3 



74 

The average profits of the Waterworks for the 10 years 
ended June 30th, 1875, are as follows : — 

Average interest paid £2893 

10 years' profit 7879 

Sinking Fund 1457 

10)9336 933 

Total average profit £3826 

The amount allowed for depreciation during the six years 
ended 30th June, 1874, is £4378, or an average of £728 per annum. 
The Burnley Market Company was formed in 1829 with a 
capital of about £3,000, in £10 shares. This was formed into a 
limited company in 1864, and when the undertaking was 
sold to the Coi-poration and the company finally wound up, I 
am informed that the shareholders were paid off with five times 
their original investment. 

The financial result of the purchase of the Market by the 
town's authorities is very unsatisfactory. 

£ s. d. 

The total sum paid June 30th, 1866 22569 17 8 

12 months later an additional sum was spent in 
property, &c., amounting to 18911 6 8 

Making the cost to June 30th, 1867 41481 3 11 

The additional outlay to June 30th, 1875, is 15405 5 4 

And the present cost of the property amounts to 56886 9 3 

To this sum must be added the total loss on this 
department since the undertaking was pur- 
chased, amounting to 10395 3 11 

The present sums to the debit of the markets 
being therefore 67281 13 2 

The average annual profit of this undertaking is 
as follows : — 

Average interest 2500 

Less average deficiency 1200 

£1300 
In order to arrive at a fair vieAV of the financial Annual Profit 
position of the Burnley Corporation, I venture to place before you 
the following figures. I am quite certaui that tlie commercial value 
of the three great undertakings —the Waterworks, Gasworks, and 
Markets — is much in excess of the value reckoned in this table. 
The cost of the intercepting sewers, and pitching the rivers, is 
not added in the assets. 

Liabilities. £ s. d. 

To Mortgage Loans 217181 19 4 

„ Loans under pubUe 

Works Act 25986 13 4—243168 12 8 

„ Sundry Creditors 3996 13 2 

„ Gas Consumers' Deposits 1549 

The total liabilities being 248714 5 10 



75 

Assets. 

In books of Corporation. 
Depreciation Fund 
deducted from costs. 

By Waterworks 78301 17 3 

Gasworks 54599 11 7 

Market 56886 9 3 

Cemetery 4406 1 6 

Property for street Improvements 10654 12 8 

Unapportioned Expenditure 1588 19 1 

Estimated value of Property 11367 6 7 

Book debts and uncollected Bates 23006 5 2 

Balance in Treasurer's hand 10869 9 3 

Cost of intercepting sewers . . 21365 19 

Pitching River 2751 14 1 

Stocks on hand 7755 5 2 



259432 17 5 

LiabiUties 248714 5 10 

Surplus 10718 11 7 

I have attempted in a very imperfect manner to tell you 
something of the Eise and Progress of the town in which we live. 
Writing in 1800 the late Dr. Whitaker expresses his fears for 
the futui-e of the ancient parish of WhaUey in language of the 
most extraordinary kind. Much more than the worst fears ever 
pictm'ed to the morhid imagination of the learned antiquarian 
has been realized in the rapid extension of the dreaded manu- 
factm'es, but whether with the result he anticipated I wUl leave 
others to answer. Speaking of the ancient famiUes in the parish 
of Whalley, he says : — " Those opulent houses, whose property 
is not to be traced to a feudal origin, have been generally raised 
by the profession of the law. Some indeed have growm to conse- 
quence by habits of economy and gradual accumulation. But a 
new principle is now introduced, which threatens gradually to 
absorb the whole property of the district within its own vortex. 
I mean the principle of manufactm-es aided by the discoveries 
lately made in the two dangerous sciences of chemistry and 
mechanics. The operation of this principle is accompanied with 
another effect, of which it is impossible to speak, but in the lan- 
guage at once of soitow and indignation. Indeed it can only be 
considered as so much pm-e unmixed evil, moral, medical, 
reUgious and political. In great manufactories, human cor- 
ruption, accumulated in large masses, seems to undergo a kind of 
fermentation, which subhmes it to a degree of malignity not to 
be exceeded out of heU." 



76 




LANCASHIRE IN FICTION : 

THE STOEY OF THE COUNTY AS TOLD BY THE 
NOVELISTS. 



Mr. J. II. NODAL, ivho read this Paper, March 19th, 1878, 
suf plied the foUorving Bw(jraj>hical Note : — 

FIEST PEEIOD : To the End of the Fifteenth Century. 

Traditions of Lancashire. By John Eoby. Published in 1829 
and 1831. 



SECOND PEEIOD 

to 1620. 



Henky Eighth to James First : A.D. 1530 



i. Dissohition of the Monasteries. 
Lancashire Wit dies. 



Prologue to Ainsworth's 



ii. Persecution of the Eomau Cathohcs, A.D. 1G05. First 
Book of Ainsworth's Guy Faux. 

iii. Trial and Execution of the Pendle Forest Witches, and 
King James's Visit to Lancashire. Ainsworth's Lan- 
cashire Witches. (Founded upon Potts's Discoverie of 
Witches and Nicholas Assheton of Downham's Journal 
in the Chetham Society's Publications.) 

THIED PEEIOD : The Civil War (First Part, 1642-1646). 
Ainsworth's Leaguer of Lathom. 

(No fiction founded on the later portion of the war.) 

FOUETH PEEIOD : The Jacobite Eebellions. 

i. The Eising in 1715. Ainsworth's Preston Fight. 

ii. The Eising in 1745. Ainsworth's Manchester Rebels. Sir 
Walter Scott in Warerleij, chap. 57, just touches upon 
Prince Charles Edward's Invasion of Lancashire. 



77 

FIFTH PEEIOD : The Kise of the Cotton, Coal, and Iron 
Industeies : 1730 to 1830. 
i. Mancliester from 1790 to 1825. Mrs. Linnfeus Banks's 

Manchester Man. 
ii. Lancashii-e about 1820-1830. Mrs. Gaskell's Mary 

Barton. 
iii. Miss Martineau's Manchester Strike. 

iv Social Life and Manners in Lancashire about the time of 
the Napoleonic Wars. Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth s 
Pdbblesdale : or Lancashire Sixty Years Ago. Mr. Fbiiip 
G. Hamerton's Wenderholme. 

There is no novel founded on the earlier incidents of the Cotton Industry, 
but thereTs a drama by Mr. Tom Taylor, based on Arkwright's career, 
and entitled Arhcrighfs Wife. 




78 




ROMAN REMAINS IN MARSDEN, BRIER- 
CLIFFE AND EXTWISTLE. 

An Excursion was made on Saturday, July 19tli, 1879, 
under the leadership of Mr. Clement for the object of visiting 
the Roman Remains, which are scattered throughout Marsden, 
Briercliffe and Extwistle. The evidences of Roman and sub- 
sequent occupations on the range of hills between Colne and 
Burnley, are so numerous and important as to have elicited from 
more than one writer on the subject, the opinion that they are 
unequalled in any part ot the kingdom. Beyond the interest 
attaching to the examination of these antiquities, the Excursion 
offered the attractions of a country ramble. Notwithstanding the 
unpropitious state of the weather at the time of leaving Burnley, 
there was a goodly muster of members determined to explore the 
places enumerated in the circular and marked on the sketch map 
which had been issued. Contrary to the original intention to 
proceed fi'om Nelson, through the grounds of Marsden Hall, to 
Caster Cliff, the first object to be visited, Colne was made the 
starting point, and some distance was thereby saved. From 
Colne the ascent of the steep road by which Caster Clifl' is reached 
was made. This important Station, "whose name is full of 
Roman life," is situated on the Roman Road between Colne 
(Colunio) and Slack, near Huddersfield (Cambodunum) and at 
the junction of this with the vicinal way from Ribchester (Rigo- 
dunum) to Ilkley (Alicana). The intrenchments form a paral- 
lelogram, measuring about 550 feet long by 520 feet broad, but 
the walls appear to have enclosed an area of about 380 feet in 
length by 340 in breadth. The Camp has been protected on the 
south-west front by a deep gully, and also by a double vallum and 
fosse, which are still entire about the whole crest of the mound. 
There remain half-buried beneath the soil the stones which 
formed the fortification, presenting mostly an appearance of 
having been subject to great heat. Opinions were advanced to 
account for this appeai'ance, and also for the presence of several 
circular holes in the summit of the mound. These may at one 
time have been roofed in for the shelter of the occupiers of the 
Camp, and probably in these the cooking operations were per- 
formed. In clear weather the view from this ancient stronghold 



79 

is of a very extensive character, and from its commanding position 
the place has evidently been the key of this portion of Lancashire 
in the hands of the Eomans. The party next proceeded by the 
Roman Road to Shelfield, where, on the summit of a hill, is an 
unsightly granite structure, called Walton's Monument, erected 
by the late R. T. Wroe Walton, Esq., of Marsden Hall, in 1885. 
Regaining the roadway, the course followed passes Ring 
Stones Hill, where formerly stood a large circle of stones. Before 
reaching Cold Well Inn, some 15 yards of what was probably the 
original Roman Road is seen. The Road then traverses the 
valley in which the proposed Nelson Reservoir is to be constructed, 
the formations on the hill sides here indicating the previous 
existence of the primitive lime-washing appliances. At a short 
distance beyond is Broad Bank. On this elevation, which 
overlooks the romantic Thursden Valley, with the heights of 
Boulsworth in the distance, are the remains of a cu-cular intreuch- 
ment, measuring about 150 feet in diameter, which, though not 
so sharply defined as those of the Caster Cliff fortification, are 
nevertheless clearly traceable. From here, the party descended 
towards Thursden Brook, and halted at Stephen Hey Farm. A 
divergence was here made from the route at first contemplated, 
and, leaving Monk Hall on the right, the brook — now somewhat 
swollen with the rains — was crossed, and the precipitous sides of 
Park Wood were climbed. On emerging from the wood, and 
strugghug through the brushy grass, saturated with heavy 
downpoiu', the summit on the east side, in Jerusalem Pasture, 
was gained. Here were found the remains of an ancient 
enclosure of considerable dimensions ; while on the culminating 
point on Delph Hill, which is 1,249 feet above sea-level, there is 
a small cu'cle of stones, 7 in number, the diameter of the circle 
being about 14 feet. The members had the satisfaction of 
restoring one of these relics of antiquity to its original position in 
the group. It was from this tumulus that Mr. Spencer, of Halifax, 
some years ago exhumed an earthenware urn. This valuable 
rehc came, subsequently, into the hands of R. T. Parker, Esq., 
the owner of the land m the neighbourhood, and through the 
ignorant carelessness of a servant it was broken, and the frag- 
ments were lost. A portion of an urn discovered at not a great 
distance from here, and which had been pronounced as of ancient 
British manufactm'e, may be seen in the reading room of the 
Literary Institution. The ornamental work is of a veiy rude 
description, and, in the opinion of Mr. Wilkinson, does not 
appear to have been formed by any instrument less primitive than 
the point of a stick. A direct line was then taken to Twist HiU, 
which overlooks Rogerham and the Swiuden Valley, and on 
which are the remains of a square camp known as Twist Castle. 
The meaning of the name and its supt»osed connection with the 



80 

word Extwistle formed matter for controversy. Each side of the 
encampment measures ahout 150 feet in length within the 
trenches ; the remains of the fosse and valhim are very distinct, 
and spaces still remain for the Pretorian and Decuman Gates. 
The remains of a smaller enclosm'e, measuring about 60 feet 
square, exist at the south-east corner. At a short distance is a 
circular tumulus about 45 feet in diameter. The party next 
passed across the Swinden Valley, which contains the reservoirs 
of the Burnley Corporation, and noticed the remains of Ring 
Stones Camp, on Slipper Hill. These are very similar in char- 
acter to those on Twist Hill. The Camp is oblong in form, 
measuring 200 feet by 160 feet, with a small enclosure adjoining, 
50 feet square. The fosse appears to have been 20 feet in breadth, 
and the vallum is considerably above the general surface. The 
remains of a beacon and tumulus are situated on the crest of the 
hill at a short distance. The late Mr. Wilkinson, F.E.A.S., says 
in his paper on the Battle of Brunanburgh, that " there is a 
tradition which is still prevalent in VVorsthorn, to the effect that 
the Danes constructed these defences, that a great battle was 
fought on the moor, and that five kings were buried under the 
mounds." This statement is used in support of the claims of 
Saxifield as the probable site of the great conflict, when the 
Saxons under Athelstan completely defeated the Danes, Picts and 
Scots, A.D. 938, and when, according to the " Saxon Chronicle," 
" Five kings lay on that battle field, 
In bloom of youth, pierced through with swords." 

The slopes of Saxifield are seen from the commanding 
positions which Twist Castle and Ring Stones Camp occupy. 

And now was brought to a termination the survey of this 
interesting line of fortifications. The mode of construction of 
some of the camps and their situation, stamp them as of Roman 
origin, while the abundance of Saxon and Danish names in the 
locality, certainly attest the presence of the Saxons and Danes in 
these parts, who in turn would occupy the fortresses erected by 
the Romans, as well as construct new entrenchments. Con- 
sidering the magiiitude and position of these strongholds, they 
must have secured for their masters control over large and 
important districts. It is, therefore, not at all improbable, that 
in the neighbourhood of these mountain fastnesses sanguinary 
engagements have been fought, as the several races which 
successively invaded our shores, established themselves in 
our island, from the conquest of Imperial Rome to the incursions 
of the fierce sea-kings of Norway and Denmark. 

After partaking of a substantial tea at the Rogerham Gate 
Inn, a brief visit was paid to Extwistle Hall, where, by the 
kindness of the occupants, the party Avas privileged to view the 
interior of the fine old hall, formerly the residence of the Parker 



81 

family. The oak panelling was removed a few years ago by 
E. T. Parker, Esq., and is now at Astley Hall, near Cliorley ; 
there remain, however, several remnants of ceiling ornameutatiou 
and other decorative work. Some of the party, on the retnrn to 
Eoggerham, made a hurried examination of what is left of the 
Nogworth Cross, and then joining the remaining members, 
retm-ned home by conveyance — reaching Biu-nley shortly after 
nine. 




82 




SOURCES OF ORIGINAL MATERIALS FOR A 
HISTORY OF BURNLEY. 



This was the title of a paper read hij W. A. ABRAM, F.E.H.S., 
of BlachJmrn, October 12th, 1880. 



In his introductory observations, the lecturer pointed out that 
although useful historical accounts of the Burnley district were con- 
tained in the later extended editions of Whitaker's "History of 
AVhalley," and Baines's "History of Lancashire," and the late Mr. 
T. T. Wilkinson's " History of Burnley Church " was an excellent 
contribution to that branch of local history, yet nothing like a 
complete history of the town and chapelry existed in permanent 
book-form ; and he suggested that such a comprehensive separate 
History of Burnley was a desideratum, which the Bmiiley 
Literary and Scientific Club might with propriety take the initia- 
tive in supplying. After referring to the branches of archaeology 
and ecclesiastical history, Mr. Abram proceeded to notice seria- 
tim the various principal sources of information concerning the 
descents of local estates and families. We extract the following 
paragraphs from this portion of the lecture, which for the most 
part apply equally to the documentary materials available for the 
history of otlier Lancashire parishes or districts. 

1. Siihsidi/ Bolls. — What are known to antiquaries as tlie 
Subsidy Eolls are lists inscribed upon long narrow rolls of parch- 
ment, kept at the Public Record Office in London, of all assess- 
ments made upon Counties, Hundreds, &c., for contributions to 
the subsidies granted to the King or Queen from time to time. 
The Subsidies were the ancient system of public taxation in 
England for the support of the monarchy and the government. 
The records of tlie assessments for these Subsidies which are yet 
preserved extend over a period, roundly, of some three centuries 
from the reigns of the Plantagenets to that of Charles the Second. 
Under each parish and township they contain the names of each 
inhabitant taxed to the Subsidy, either on his lands or on his 
goods. They therefore supply the names of every householder 
in a locality of any account or propertied-qualification at the time 



83 

of the levying of the Suhsidy ; aud as these Suhsidies were de- 
manded for the Crown at fi-equent intervals, there will be found 
upon the Subsidy EoUs the names of the whole of what we 
should now style the resi^ectable townsmen of Bmnley and the 
contiguous townships, in nearly every generation, from the foiu-- 
teenth century to the middle of the seventeenth. If we bear in 
mind that the parish registers do not go back beyond the reign 
of Elizabeth (with few exceptions), the interest of these simple 
entries on the Subsidy Kolls of names of landowners and other 
householding inhabitants nowhere else recorded will be recognised. 
A selection of the entries on some of these EoUs of tenants of 
Burnley, Habergham Eaves, Towneley, Briercliife and Cliviger 
would be usefnhy inserted in a History of Burnley, such as I 
hope some day to see produced. They are accessible without 
charge at the Eecord Office, and are not particularly difficult to 
read. None of the hsts relating to this district lias yet been 
printed. 

2. Proceedings in the Duchy Courts. — I need hardly tell you 
that law-suits have been common incidents of local social life 
ever since English property-law was reduced to system, and 
Com'ts established for its definition and dispensation. The 
official records of suits in the Courts of the Duchy of Lancaster 
fi'om an early period are in j)reservation. They have all (excep- 
ting the modern records), now been transferred from their former 
place of custody at Lancaster Castle to the Public Eecord Office 
in London. Some thousands of these accounts have been classi- 
fied and bound in volumes, and a calendar or catalogue of them 
has been printed, which contains the names of plaintiffs and 
defendants, and a short statement of the matter in dispute in 
each cause. The later batches of these records of the Chancery 
Court of Lancaster sent to London have not yet been analysed 
and calendared, aud until that is done their contents will not be 
so readily made use of as those of an earlier consignment ; but 
in the Eeport of the Keeper of the Public Eecords, issued in 1874, 
there is a list of the volumes of these documents, dating from 
temp. Henry VII. to 1611 in one vol., and from 1612 to 1853 in 
some hundreds of volumes and bundles. They consist of Bills, 
Answers, Interrogatories, Depositions, and Exammations ; 
Decrees, Orders, &c. There are also the Prothonotary's Eecords 
from the time of John of Gaunt to William the Fourth, consis- 
ting of records of Fines, Final Concords, Enrolments of Fines, 
Plea EoUs, &c. Then there are the Assize EoUs, from the reign 
of Henry VI. to that of Victoria, and other series of legal records 
of procedm-es in the Duchy Com-ts. I have dipped into two or 
three of the uncatalogued volumes of these records, of the Stuart 
period, and I can state that they contain numerous records of 
suits by Htigauts fi-om these parts of the County Palatine, some 



84 

of which at least would be iuterestmg enough to repay the trouble 
of searching out and extracting. In the collection of similar 
records which were in the Record Office before, and have been 
calendared, I have noted some scores of calendar headings re- 
lating to disputes about lands, coal mines, corn mills, &c., in the 
Burnley district. 

3. Inquisitions Post- Mart cm. — A class of the Duchy Re- 
cords which composers of Lancashire family history find of the 
greatest assistance are the Inquisitions Post-Mortem, the pur- 
pose of which at the time they were held may be briefly ex- 
plained. Under the ancient feudal system of English land 
tenure, freeholders held their lands directly of the King as chief 
lord. In Lancashire many estates were thus held of the King 
as parcel of the great fee of the Duchy of Lancaster. As a con- 
sequence of this, whenever a freeholder died without natiu'al 
heirs, his estates reverted to the Crown, and if his son, or other 
heir was a minor at the time of the father's death he remained 
in the wardship of the King until he came of age. Hence the 
necess«ty for an enquiry, held directly after the death of a free- 
holder, as to the fact and date of his death, the situation, descrip- 
tion, and acreage of his lands, the number of his messuages, 
mills, &c. ; the nature of any incumbrance upon the estate ; the 
name, age, and relationship of the next heir to the deceased, 
and other cognate matters. These inquisitions Avere held by the 
King's Escheator, generally at the nearest town to the estate of 
the deceased tenant, who took the necessary proofs upon the 
oaths of a jury constiti;ted of neighbouring gentry and yeomen. 
The report or record of the Inquisition was inscribed by the clerk 
of the Escheator upon a skin or skins of parchment, and was de- 
posited for security and future reference if needed in the archives 
of the Duchy. This system of tenure and the enquiries it en- 
tailed came to an end at the Restoration in IGGO. The docu- 
ments known as Inquisitions post-mortem are now in the Public 
Record Office, London. There are about 3G0O of them ; and 
others are believed to have been lost. Occasionally copies of In- 
quisitions of which no official writing is in the public depository 
are found amongst the older title-deeds of local estates The 
recently- formed Record Society for Lancashire and Cheshire has 
just issued as one of its earliest volumes a selection of between 
2C0 and 300 of the Inquisitions relating to Lancashire estates, 
reduced from the contracted Latin of the originals to full abstracts 
in English. The Record Society will print hereafter other 
volumes of these documents. I myself have abstracted about 150' 
of them from the originals at the Record Office during the 
pi;eparation of my History of Blackburn Parish Two or three 
generations back, when Wliitaker wrote his histories, these 
records of Inquisitions were as good as buried, no calendar of 



85 

them having been printed until 1823. They were therefore at 
that time rarely, if ever, utilised by historians But no Lan- 
cashire parish history which did not incorporate the pith of the 
information of the Duchy Inquisitions would now-a-days pass 
muster at the hands of competent critics of such books. I note 
that in the collection of Inquisitions in the Eecord Office there 
are about fifty Inquisitions which relate to estates and their 
ancient possessors iu the Burnley district, of which five or six 
are printed in the volume of the Eecord Society issued a few 
days since. 

4. Court Eolls of CUtJicroe Castlr. — The records of the 
Manor of Ightenhill and other members of the great fee of 
Clitheroe Castle in the custody of the Steward of the Honor of 
Clitheroe at Clitheroe Castle furnish somewhat similar particulars 
respecting the Copyhold estates and then- succession of tenants, 
as the Escheator's after-death Inquisitions do about the freehold 
estates and then.- tenants ; but the Comt Rolls, in which all 
the copyholds are entered, are a perfect series, containing an 
account of all the facts and conditions of each copyholding tenancy 
for several centuries to the present date, whilst the Inquisitions 
are but a fi-agmeutary mass of records, ending nearly 240 years 
ago. A great proportion of the lands in the Bvu-nley district are 
copyhold ; and therefore for the purpose of elucidating their 
ownership it would be necessary to seek for access to the records 
at Clitheroe Castle. The present Steward of the Honor, Arthur 
I. Robinson, Esq., is himself so much interested in local historical 
research and illustration, that I have httle doubt he would grant 
all reasonable privileges of special reference to the Court Rolls to 
competent persons engaged upon a History of Burnley. I have 
seen a number of copies of surrenders, &c., into this coiu-t 
connected with the Whitakers of Healey and one or two other 
local families, and have had some experience of their service iu the 
composition of sketches of families which held lands in copyhold. 
EA'idence to very many facts which cannot be elsewhere derived 
is yielded by these copies of Court Roll which constitute the title- 
deeds of the copyholders ; and the records of Chtheroe Honor and 
its members, of which the local demesne of Ightenhill Park is one 
of the most important, must not be overlooked as a substantial 
portion of the raw material for local history v.-hen it comes to be 
worthily written. 

5. Private Deeds and Famihj Papers. — The old charters and 
title-deeds of estates and papers of sundry descriptions relating to 
past transactions in family annals, which are in private hands 
remain an undefined quantity in the local annahst's preliminary 
sui-vey of his materials ; for no one knows how much of curious 
lore bearing upon the state of communities at distant periods and 
upon domestic affairs, lies unregarded in the recesses of old family 



86 

chests, uutil some inquisitive antiquary, bent upon bringing to 
light the hidden things of darkness, sets to work in any neigh- 
bourhood hunting out these kinds of materials. I cannot, 
therefore, pretend to tell you what stores of private documents 
and manuscripts you have at this instant stowed away in the 
darkest corners of closets in old houses, or in the deed-rooms 
of conveyancing lawyers in Burnley and its vicinity ; but I am 
quite sure there is a great deal of such musty yet far from worth- 
less documentary stuff in Burnley as there has been found in 
other parishes ; and the History of Burnley which we are supposing 
is going to be written before long, will when it appears, contain, if 
undertaken and carried through on a proper system, an assem- 
blage of new items rifled from those old family papers and parch- 
ments of whose bare existence nobody at present knows but the 
possessors, and even they are but faintly conscious and never 
think that they will some day be wanted to help some industrious 
chronicler to clear up doubtful points in the passage of estates or 
to supply missing links in family descents. 

6. Wills at Chester, dr. — Few documents exemphfying 
personal and family history are more matterful than old wills. 
Copies of wills are frequently found amongst family papers ; but 
apart from those which may be thus met with, county and parish 
historians are now, in their determination to be thorough, accus- 
tomed to be at the trouble of procuring from the official deposi- 
tory for this part of England, the Probate Court at Chester, 
copies of wills of persons of note. Facilities for the use of wills 
in local historiography are now afforded in this and other 
counties, by the learned societies instituted for the publication of 
original documents and materials for history. The Chetham 
Society of Lancashire has printed three volumes of Lancashire 
Wills and Inventories from the copies made by the late Eev. Mr. 
Piccope, and contained in the Piccope M.S. IS. in the Chetham 
Library. The Record Society for Lancashire and Cheshire will 
issue about the end of this year two volumes containing complete 
lists of all the Wills and Letters of Administration made and 
granted from 1545 to 1060, preserved in the Chester Probate 
Court. These lists will contain the names of a number of 
persons who lived in the Burnley district with the date of their 
respective AVills, and by means of this printed Index any wills 
that it is necessary to make copies or extracts from, can be re- 
ferred to without loss of time in searching. In some minor cases 
even the simple date of a will thus supplied in a published index 
may answer the historian's purpose. 1 may add that the wills 
printed in e,vtenso by the Chetham Society include several interes- 
ting ones of personages of note who belonged to old Burnley 
families. 

7. The Christopher Tuuiieleij M.S.S. at Townelei/ Hall. — But 



87 

all the sources of original materials for your local history, iu the 
branch of descents of estates aufl families, which I have hitherto 
enumerated, are, I venture to assert, exceeded in richness and 
value by one remarkable collection which is preserved near by — 
I refer to the great collection of what are known as the Towneley 
M.S.S.in general, and the collections of Christopher Towneley the 
antiquary, in particular, which are kept iu a splendid series of 
bound volumes of manuscripts in the Muniment Eoom of 
Towneley Hall. If these collections had been iniblic instead of 
private property, they would have been most of them printed 
bodily long ago with avidity by interested antiquaries in the 
series of works of learned societies like the Chetham Society. 
As it is, tliey stand in stately rows at Towneley Hall all but 
totally useless, because antiquaries and authors who know by 
repoi't of their treasures, shrink from asking for the permission 
to go to Towneley Hall to examine them. I assisted Dr. Grosart 
of Blackburn, to edit and annotate two of the most interesting 
Manuscripts in the Towneley Collection, — the one the series of 
English Jacobite Ballads, and the other the three-century old 
M.S. record of the Disbursements in charities of the fortune of 
Eobert Nowell, Esq., rinder the dhection of his Will, by his 
brother Dean Alexander Nowell and his half-brother John 
Towneley, Esq. But we are at i^resent more concerned with the 
collections of transcripts of ancient documents made by 
ChristopherTowneley, Esq., during forty years or more previous 
to his death iu 1074. He was a younger son of Richard 
Towneley, Esq., and was bom at Towneley Hall, iu January, 
1603. It was his passion to get hold of any kind of old docu- 
ments, public or private, and to transcribe them in his Manu- 
script Books. Sixty folio volumes of his transcripts are at 
Towneley. Wben at Towneley looking at the other manuscripts 
used, I spent an hour on two occasions glauciug through several 
of these volumes of Christopher Towneley's M.S.S., and I assure 
you that materials most useful, and curious items tempting the 
searcher interested in county and local history to stop and make 
note of, abounded on every page of the volumes I handled. 
Without a lengthened inspection of each volume in this exten- 
sive collection, it is impossible to give an idea of theii- varied 
contents. They include copies of ancieut charters, abstracts of 
later title deeds, sketch pedigrees, jpei'sonal notes of contem- 
poraries, wills, letters, official documents and returns, rentals, 
assessments, inquisitions, notes of monumental inscriptions iu 
churches, trickings of arms displayed in the interiors of old halls, 
copies of heraldic visitation entries, estate accounts, and other 
papers which I cannot just now bethink me of the pm'port of. 
It may be assumed with safety that a more than ordinary propor- 
tion of the materials piled up by this laborious transcriber refer 



88 

to matters connected with the Burnley district. Christopher 
Towneley was himself a Burnley man. He was familiar with all 
the gentry of his period around these parts, and many of them 
lent him their deeds and papers to copy. I draw the attention 
of the Burnley Litei'ary and Scientific Club, thus especially to 
the manuscript treasures of Towneley Hall, because it seems to 
me that the likeliest chance for the utilisation of these excellent 
materials, or a portion of them, would be for an application to be 
made on behalf of this Club, by a deputation from its Committee, 
to Lord Norreys, the present master of Towneley, for permission 
to copy, for historical and literary purposes, such portions of 
certain volumes of the Towneley M.S.S. as more directly concern 
the district. Lord Norreys has taken such an active interest 
in the town of Burnley since he came to reside at Towneley, 
that I presume to feel confident his lordship would, if suitably 
approached, not hesitate to give permission for a freer access to 
these Manuscripts by trustworthy persons nominated by an influ- 
ential Club like this to make extracts for eventual use in a new 
History of Burnley, than any strangers would be warranted in 
soliciting. I cannot imagine it possible that such a singular 
collection of ancient evidences lying within a couple of miles 
from where we are assembled, should continue closed against the 
associated literary men of Burnley, if they should deem it ne- 
cessary to apply to the noble possessor for liberty of access to 
them. 

Mr. Abram concluded with some remarks upon the Topo- 
graphy and Architectural Antiquities of Burnley, and upon the 
modern history, commercial, social, &c., suggesting ways in which 
the Club collectively or by interested individual members might 
accumulate and preserve materials which would be ready for use 
by the future historian of the district. 




89 



THE CROSSES IN AND AROUND BURNLEY. 



A paper read hj J. ARTHUR WADDINGTON, 
October 25th, 1881. 



Of the memorials of the olden times, coming under the 
generic designation of crosses, comparatively few now remain 
in a fair state of preservation in our own district, and numbers 
of them have disappeared altogether. But few of these relics 
if left unmolested would have succumbed to the ravages of time, 
and we must therefore attribute their annihilation, in 
nearly every instance, to the thoughtlessness the ignorance, 
or the wilful destructiveness of man. Many of the crosses were 
removed before the commencement of the present century, but 
in far too many instances it has been found that those which were 
standing within the memory of the present generation have been 
destroyed with a ruthless Vandalism which cannot be too strongly 
conderuned. It must be a source of regret to all lovers of 
antiquities that these landmarks in our past history should have 
been broken down, and that no trace of then- form or characteristics 
should have been left to us, and the consideration of these facts 
suggested the desirability of recording the present condition of those 
crosses which have escaped destruction, and tracing as far as possible 
their past history. This, then, along with some few general remarks 
upon the subject of crosses, is the object and intention of the 
present paper. Eough drawings have been prepared of some 
of these monuments, from which it is believed that the mem- 
bers will be able to get a clearer idea of the character of the 
remains, than from the most minute verbal descriptions.* It 
may perhaps be well to state at this point to what extent 
of country the title of the paper is intended to apply. If a line 
be drawn from Burnley to Whalley on the west, and Todmorden 
on the south-east, with one exception the crosses He to the north 
of that hne, and -with two exceptions the county boundary will 
form our limit in the other directions. 



"These diagrams have been reproduced by photolithography, and being 
drawn in each case to the same scale, the relative proportions of the crosses 

will he nptormiTlOll ut a n1an<.n 



will be determined at a glance. 



90 

Since the time of the Roman Emperor Constautiue the cross 
has been publicly used as an emblem of Christianity. The early 
Christian Missionaries had crosses carried in advance of their bands 
and erected them at tlie spot where it was their wont to preach 
to the heathen population. It was also their custom to mark the 
Druidical temples and other pagan erections with the sign of the 
cross, and thus sanctify and dedicate them to the worship of the 
true God. During the middle ages thousands of these crosses 
were erected throughout the length and breadth of the land in 
different situations and for different purposes, some of which are 
set forth in the following quotation from a writer in " Notes and 
Queries " : — " Wherever the gospel was first spread, a pious care 
caused crosses to be erected as standards, around which the 
faithful might assemble the more conveniently to hear the divine 
truths inculcated, and by degrees these symbols were fixed in 
every iDlace of public resort. Every town had its cross at which 
engagements, whether of a religious or of a worldly interest, were 
entered into. Every chiu-chyard had one whereon to rest the 
bodies of the deceased, from which the preacher gave his lessons 
upon the mutabiUty of life. At the turning of every road was 
placed a cross for the twofold purpose of rest for the bearers of 
the pious defunct, and for reminding travellers of the Saviour 
who died for their salvation. The boundaries of every parish 
were distinguished by crosses, at which, during the ancient 
perambulations, the people alternately prayed and regaled them- 
selves. Crosses, in short, were multiplied by every means which 
the ingenuity of man could invent, and people were thus kept in 
constant remembrance, both at home and on their journeys, as 
well as in every transaction of their lives, of the foundation of 
the Christian faith." Although the writer of that paragraph, in 
my opinion, attributes a too universal distribution to these 
memorials, still they were no doubt so numerous that we can 
form little conception now of the extent to which they were at one 
time spread throughout the country. Specimens of nearly every 
variety will be found within our own district, and it is intended 
to treat each class in turn, first giving a few general introductory 
remarks, and afterwards describing our local examples. 

THE " GODLY LANE " CROSS, BURNLEY, AND THE WHALLEY CROSSES. 

It is proposed first to consider the Godly Lane Cross, and 
along with it the crosses in the churchyard at Whalley, for there 
can be little doubt that they had a common origin, as may be 
inferred from their similarity in outline, and they have been so 
classed by almost all writers upon the subject. They may with- 
out much doubt be ascribed to the early missionary enterprizes 
of the 7th century ; but in order to obtain a clearer idea of their 
origin it will be well to take a rapid glance at the progress of 



91 

Christianity in this country subsequent to the withdrawal of the 
Eoman legions about A.D. 418. 

We have very satisfactory evidence that a British church 
existed previous to that time. Upon the departure of the 
Eoman troops the country was subject to the incursions of 
the Saxons, and a great wave of paganism again overwhelmed 
the land. The British were di-iven to the western parts of 
the island, and no attempt was made by them to preach 
Christianity to the Saxon invaders. This work was left for 
the mission sent by Gregory from Eome in 597. Augus- 
tine, with a band of some 40 monks, landed in Kent during the 
reign of Ethelbei't, who, having married a Christian princess, was 
inclined to look with favour upon the new doctrines which 
Augustine taught. Within the year following the amval 
of Augustine more than ten thousand persons renounced their 
idolatry and embraced the Christian Faith. History informs us 
how Paulinus, one of the associates of Augustine, accompanied 
Ethelbm'ga, the daughter of Ethelbert, to Northumbria on her 
marriage with Edwin, tlie sovereign of that district ; how the 
king himself was baptised, and Christianity declared the accej)ted 
faith by the decree of the national Witan ; how Paulinus was 
subsequently consecrated Archbishop of York, and how he 
occupied himself in missionary labours in various parts of the 
kingdom up to the time of Edwin's death, in 633, at the battle 
of Heathfield. 

The generally received theoiy with regard to the Crosses at 
Burnley and Whalley is that they were erected to commemorate 
the visit of Paulinus to this district upon one of his missionaiy 
excursions, and that he then introduced Christianity into this 
part of the countiy. Dr. Whitaker in his History of Whalley 
refers to this, and his statements may be here briefly reviewed. 
He speaks first of an account which is preserved to us entitled 
" Be Statu Blacihorneshire ." This ancient manuscript states that 
Augustine (who at the wish of the King Ethelbert preached in 
England and taught the Christian faith), came to Whalley, and 
that in the Churchyard certain stone Crosses were erected and 
called by the people the " Crosses of the blessed Augustine," and 
were known by that name up to the time at which he wi-ote. 
Now it is almost certain that Augustine was never in this part of 
the country at all, and Dr. Whitaker then goes on to shew that 
the writer of this account must have en-ed in attributing to 
Augustine, what he (Dr. Whitaker) considered to be the work of 
Paulinus. This theory is also accepted by Harland and Wilkinson 
in then* " Legends and Traditions of Lancashire," and has been 
repeated in almost every instance in which the matter has been 
refen-ed to by other writers. The evidence set forth by Dr. 
Whitaker of the presence of Paulinus in this district can scarcely 



92 

be consiclerecl conclusive. The first argument " That PauUuus 
generally chose the banks of large rivers as the scene of his 
ministrations, in order that his converts might receive the 
ordinance of baptism, and that Whalley stands near to the con- 
fluence of the Eibble, the Calder and the Hodder ' ' is certainly, taken 
upon its own merits, of little value. We are next told " that there is 
a ci'oss at Dewsburj^, which is said to have borne the inscription 
' Paulinus hie j)rfedicavit et celebravit,' and that this cross re- 
sembled those at Bm-uley and Whalley." Now the existence of 
this inscription may well be doubted, the best and perhaps the 
only authority on the point being the following passage from his 
" Britannia " written by Camden about the end of the sixteenth 
centmy. " For I have been informed that there was once a 
cross here, with this inscription ' Paulinus hie pr^dicavit et 
celebravit,' (that is, Paulinus here preached and celebrated.) 
Of this cross nothing now remains, either in sight or by tradition, 
but that this Paulinus was the first Archbishop of York about 
A.D. 626, we are assured by the concurring evidence of our his- 
torians." It appears then that even in Camden's time the in- 
scription had disappeared, but presuming that the inscription 
once existed, the remains of what is supposed to be the original 
cross which have lately been discovered, are of such a frag- 
mentary nature that no deductions of a satisfactory character 
can be made to confirm the theory of the similarity of 
form with those at Burnley and Whalley. In fact all inferences 
to be drawn from the general contour and ornamentation 
of these crosses seem to point in quite another direction. Be- 
yond this, as pointed out by the Eev. E. Waddy Moss in a paper 
read before this club, " Though there is no more difficult task in 
early English history than that of determining the exact boundaries 
of the various kingdoms, Deu-a does not appear in Edwin's reign, 
to have extended farther westwards than the range of hills that 
now separate Lancashire and Yorkshire. Forthe battle of Chester 
did not result in the jpermanent addition of Cheshire and Lan- 
cashire to Northumbria, but those counties seem to have been 
quickly recovered by the British. Still further if Paulinus had 
ever attempted to cross the western limits of Deira, he would 
have found a people to whom he would be doubly unwelcome. 
For whilst his connection with Edwin would ensure him perhaps 
a careful treatment, it would certainly be a treatment of avoid- 
ance and suspicion, and as a member of the Augustinian mission, 
the enmity of the British clergy would naturally pursue him, 
hinder his success, and drive him quickly back to minister to an 
Anglo-Saxon population." It seems necessary then to find some 
more satisfactory explanation of the circumstances under which, 
these crosses were erected. In the " De Statu Blagborncshire " 
there is probably a nucleus of truth which can be accepted, 



93 

namely, that the crosses commemorate the introduction of 
Christianity into this district, and though we conciu* with Dr. 
Whitaker in his non-acceptance of the statement relating to 
Augustine, still it has heen shewn that the hypothesis with 
regard to Paulinus is scarcely tenable, and we must seek some 
other solution of the difficulty. 

It will be remembered that the British were di-iven 
by the Saxon invasion to the western parts of the island, 
and their Church having become allied with the Irish and 
Scotch Churches, the three were spoken of collectively as 
the Celtic Church. This Chm-ch had several points of difference 
with the Mission of Augustine, one of which was the time 
for observing Easter, in which they adhered to the Alexan- 
drian rule, and another was the method of wearing the haii*. 
(In these matters the Celtic fraternity display then- connection 
with the Eastern Church. The Eastern clergy were accustomed 
to shave the entne fi-ont of the head, leaving the hinder part 
untouched. The Italians shaved theu* heads according to the 
tonsure of St. Peter, which consisted of a cu-cle of hair round 
the shorn head.) The Celtic Church was eventually fused in the 
Italian but not without a long struggle. At the time we are now 
speaking of, the Celtic held aloof from the Italian Chuch. The 
head quarters of the Celtic Church were at lona. " In the year 
565, says Dr. Hook, Columba crossed from Ireland in a boat 
made of ox-hides and fixed his residence in the little island of 
Hy. Here he was surrounded by men of learning who, while 
seeking the edification and sanctification of then- own souls, never 
forgot the command of the great Captain of their Salvation to 
preach the gospel to every creature, and from an assemblage of 
lowly structm-es, formed of rough hewn wood, thatched with 
reeds, a monastery arose. In this retreat the Holy Scriptures 
were diligently studied and books were multiphed by transcrip- 
tion. They conducted their mission not only by sending out 
preachers from their own body, but by placing similar fraternities 
in different parts of the country, thus providing for their convents 
a continued supply of the means of instruction and grace." The 
sanctity of lona has been immortahzed in that sentence of Dr. 
Johnson's, " We are now treading that illustrious island which 
was once the lumiuaiy of the Caledonian regions. That man is 
little to be envied whose patriotism will not gain force on the 
plains of Marathon, or whose piety will not grow warmer among 
the ruins of lona." 

To the efforts of the Celtic missionaries is due the evangeli- 
zation of the whole of the north-western parts of this island, and 
the theory that the crosses at Burnley and Whalley commemorate 
the visits and labours of these devout men is much more to be 
credited than the one which attributes them to Paulinus. The 



94 

former idea receives much coufirmatiou from the character of the 
ornament upon these crosses. The chief characteristic of the 
ornament of Celtic nations is an abundance of scrolls and knot- 
work, most curiously and intricately interwoven. This is found 
not only upon then- manuscripts, some of which are preserved to 
the present day, but also upon the stone monuments which are 
so numerous in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and the Isle of Man. 
A comparison of some of these with the Whalley crosses 
will reveal a most striking resemblance, not only in out- 
line but also in the detail of the sculptured ornament. Two 
crosses now in existence in Pembrokeshire, one at Carew 
and the other at Nevern, are very similar. The Godly Lane 
cross is similar in outline to those at Whalley, and if 
originally " bounded by simple fillets," as stated by Mr. T. 
T. Wilkinson, would have a close resemblance to one which 
has recently been dug up at Cheadle. The Burnley cross 
has been removed by the owners of the estate, from its site in 
the plantation in Godly Lane, where it was threatened with destruc- 
tion, in consequence of the building operations in its immediate 
neighbourhood, and now stands in a position where it can be seen 
to advantage by the passers by, and where it is hoped that it will 
be no longer subject to that rough usage which has reduced it to its 
present state of dilapidation. It is supposed by some that this cross 
originally stood in the chm'chyard, and it was observed, when 
it was removed to its present position, that the cross was let into 
the basestone in a very rude way, (and also that the portion inserted 
into the base seemed so much weathered as to lead to the con- 
clusion that it had been for some considerable time exposed,) 
indicating that some unskilful persons had let it into its present 
base at a period subsequent to its original construction. 

The crosses at Whalley have also been subject to vicissitudes 
of a similar character, and although it is generally supposed that 
there were but three crosses at Whalley, there are remains of no 
less than five. The heads upon two of those now standing 
certainly formed no part of the original. All the crosses 
were broken in several places and although sufficient is left of 
them to enable a restoration of their general features to be made, 
still, as will be seen from the drawings, not one is complete. 

THE MARKET CKOSSES. 

These crosses were erected in almost every town and village 
in the centre of the place of public resort ; round them the 
markets were held and from their steps public announcements 
were made, in fact they served as a place of meeting upon every 
variety of occasion. 

The Kev. Dr. Milner in his History of Winchester states 
that " The general intent of Market Crosses was to excite public 



95 

homage to the Christian religion, and to inspire men with a sense 
of moraUty and piety amidst the ordinary transactions of life." 
Fosbroke in his Encyclopedia of Antiquities says — "As crosses 
were in everyplace designed to check a worldly spirit, these, (that 
is, market crosses), were intended to inculcate upright intentions 
and fauiiess of dealing." The thought that there was no longer 
a necessity for these " gentle reminders " in oiu* days of ad- 
vanced civihzation would be some compensation for the disappear- 
ance and demolition of these interesting memorials, but it 
is to be feared the need for them is just as great in the 19th as 
it was in the 13th centuiy. They generally consisted of a flight 
of three or more steps surmounted by a large base above which 
rose a tall shaft, capped with a cross. In many instances 
however they assumed much larger proportions and as at 
Malmsbmy, Chichester, SaUsbury, &c., were sufficiently com- 
modious to shelter a considerable number of persons. Bound 
some of these crosses is entwined a wreath of associations which 
render their history of the greatest interest to all who care to 
rescue fi-om oblivion the annals of an almost forgotten past. 

BURNLEY MARKET CROSS. 

The original Market cross of Bm-nley which has now found 
a resting place behind the Crimean Guns, stood as you are aware 
along with the stocks, in the open space opposite the gates of St. 
Peter's Church.* This cross is of considerable antiquity, as may 
be gathered from a statement of its re-erection, which occurs in 
an account roll of the 23rd year of Edward I. "Et de ixs jd in 
i Cruce de novo faciendo et erigendo in Merkato de Brunley." In 
22 Edward I. [1293-4] Hemy de Lacey, Earl of Lincoln, 
obtained a charter for a market eveiy Tuesday, at his Manor of 
Burnley, as also a fair yearly, on the eve-day and morrow of the 
feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul. We are carried back by 
this statement to the end of the 13th centmy. We have no re- 
cords of remarkable incidents which have taken place at this 
cross, but some few years ago a curious transaction was carried 
out here. A woman rejoicing in the soubriquet of " Padiham 
Mall" was sold here by her husband. As we were informed a 
few weeks ago the highest bid was but 8d. This kind of thing 
was apparently rather common a few years back, for we read of 
a similar sale at the Colne market cross at the fair of 1814. In 
this case however the bidding was more sphited, as the good 
lady fetched some few pounds. 

In 1520, what is known as the Foldys Cross was erected, 
and this was subsequently used as the Market Cross, It occupied 
a position now taken up by the path to the south door of the 

*A Photograph of this cross taken previous to its removal has been 
published by the Club. 



96 

Parish Clnivch. It bore the iucription, " Orate pro anima 
Johannis Foldys, capellani qui istam crucem fieri fecit, Auno 
Domini MCCCCCXX." It may cause some httle surprise to 
find an ecclesiastic erecting a market cross, but a quotation 
from Tlioresby's " Ducatus Leodiensis " will throw some 
light upon this point. In speaking of the village of Kepstorn, 
he says, " This place also belonged to the said abbey 
(KirkstaU). The derivation of the word points to the fact 
that it is " vendendi locus," and that such not only belonged 
to religious houses but were often celebrated in the very 
churchyards is notoriously known, and in many places (par- 
ticularly at Burnley in Lancashire) I have seen crosses yet 
standing in the churchyards with as many steps round for the 
convenience of the sellers of provisions as any modern market 
places." At Blackburn we find a somewhat similar instance, for 
we are told that John Paslew, Abbot of Whalley in 1535, re- 
erected the market cross of that town, which bore the following 
inscription, " Fac me cruce custodire congerei gratia, quando 
corpus morietur, fac ut animje donetur Paradisi gloria."* If it be 
remembered that the churchyard was not enclosed until 1754, 
and the above facts are borne in mind, the apparent anomaly will 
become less remarkable. The octagonal base and the head 
(placed upon a rough stone shaft) now stand upon the lawn 
behind Towneley Hall, whither they were removed in 1789. 
The cross previous to its removal to Towneley had been 
much maltreated. " It was destroyed," says Dr. Whitaker, 
"by a drunken rabble, hired for the pm-pose a few years ago, 
(this was written in 1801,) the last instance probably of 
Puritanical fury, for. such it was, which has been directed 
against the ornaments of an English Church." "But this," 
says Mr. T. T. Wilkinson, in his history of the Parish 
Church of Burnley, " requires a little modification. The pillar 
itself had been considerably defaced by the wanton damage com- 
mitted by the crowds who daily congregated on the steps pre- 
viously to the enclosure of the yard, and its final destruction is 
reported upon trustworthy evidence, to have been accomplished 
by a drunken barbarian who, for a certain wager agreed, as a 
proof of courage, to level it to the ground." Under whatever 
circumstances the mutilation of this cross may have taken place, 
it is very desirable that it should be restored, not only to its 
original position in the churchyard, but also to that dignity of 
form which led to its being characterized as ' stately,' ' tall, and 
shapely,' by persons who had the privilege of seeing it in all its 
former beauty. 

Dr. Ken- informs me that Habergham-Eaves had also its 
market or "butter " cross, and this cross stood in a field, still known 
as Cross Field, a few hundred yards to the rear of the Bull and 

* So printed in the paper from which I have taken it. 



97 

Butcher Inn. A large square block of stone, with the square 
sinking into which the shaft was inserted, still remains in a 
prominent position at the place named. 

COLNE MARKET CROSS. 

This cross formerly stood in the main street of Colne, 
between Windy Bank and Colne Lane, fi-om which position it 
was removed on the 25th of November, 1822, being considered 
an obstruction. It was composed of the usual steps upon which 
were a base and long octagonal pillar or shaft, perhaps 8 yards 
high, sui'mounted by a corona or crown. This corona was also 
octagonal with an embattled top, ornamented with flowers, and 
foiu- initial letters carved in the stone. Two of the letters were 
T and E., the third was illegible, and the fourth broken. 
Portions of the remains may still be seen about the church. A 
curious instance of the use to which a cross may be put as a 
place of meeting, will be found in the following notice issued by 
the incumbent of Colne, on the first visit of John Wesley to that 
town in 1748 : — " Notice is hereby given that if any man be 
mindful to enhst in his Majesty's sei"vice under the command of 
the Eev. Mr. George White, Commander in Chief, and John 
Bannister, Lieutenant General of his Majesty's forces for the 
defence of the Church of England, and the support of the manu- 
factory of Cokie, both of which are now in danger, let him re- 
pan* to the drumhead at the cross, where each man shall have a 
pint of ale in advance, and aU other proper encouragement." 
In former times it was one of the duties of the Wardens of Colne 
Church to exercise a supervision of the butter sold at the Market 
cross, and if any unfair dealing was discovered, the goods of the 
dehnquent which were found to be under weight were distributed 
amongst the poor. It was also not unusual for a prisoner to be 
whipped at the cross at the termination of his imprisonment at 
Preston. I am indebted for the foregoing remarks upon the 
Colne cross to Mr. James Can-'s " Annals of Cohie." 

WAYSIDE CROSSES. 

We have next to consider the Wayside cross, of which there 
were numerous specimens at one time to be seen, but few of 
which have escaped the Vandalism which has been so rife within 
the last century. In one of the earliest English printed books, 
from the press of the father of English Typography, Wynken de 
Worde, being a work entitled, " Dives et Pauper," printed at 
Westminster in 1496, the pui-pose of the roadside cross of the 
period is defined thus :— " For this reason ben ye crosses by ye 
way, that when folk passynge see the crosses, they sholde thynke 
on Hym that deyed on the crosse, and worshyp'pe Hym above 
all things." Mr. Abram in a valuable paper Avritten some ten 
years ago on the subject of the crosses of. the Blackburn Hun- 



98 

dred, from which I have received much assistance, says, 
referring to the above paragraph : " This devotional motive 
was, however, combined with objects of practical utility, of 
which perhaps the chief was this, that the steps of the pedes- 
tals of these wayside crosses afforded a befitting resting 
place for the bier of the dead, and for the bearers of it, as 
they laboriously bore the corpse to some distant burial place, 
in an age when churchyards were many miles apart, when 
roads were all but impassable in the winter season, and when 
hearses and other vehicles for the conveyance of the dead had 
not come into vogue. Among those of our fellow countrymen 
who adhere to the Roman Catholic communion the traditional 
use of these crosses is preserved, and we are informed that 
funeral processions of members of that church are invariably 
halted before the ruins of the ancient wayside cross, to which the 
mourners kneel or make reverence." This custom of praying 
at the wayside cross is alluded to by Shakespeare in the Merchant 
of Venice, Act V. Sc. I. — 

" Stephano is my name and I bring word 
My mistress will before the break of day 
Be here at Belmont ; she doth stray about 
By holy crosses, where she kneels and prays 
For happy wedlock hours." 

The most remarkable series of crosses belonging to this 
class were those erected by Edward I., and generally known as 
the "Eleanor Crosses." Queen Eleanor died at Hardby, in 
Nottinghamshire, and her remains were conveyed to London, 
twelve days being occupied in the transit, and at each place 
where the body rested for a night, the King who accompanied 
the cortege, caused a memorial cross to be built. These crosses 
were very elaborate in character, and were amongst the finest 
architectural structures of the period. Of the twelve originally 
built but three now remain, namely, those at Geddingtou, North- 
ampton, and Waltham. 

Tailor's Cross. — The first local example of the wayside 
cross we shall notice is generally known and is marked upon the 
6-inch Ordnance Map as " Tailor's Cross." Many are the tra- 
ditions which have been handed down regarding this cross, and 
there is some diificulty in coming to a satisfactory conclusion as 
to the " why and wherefore " of its existence. There is a 
tradition mentioned in the " Annals of Colne," "That Cromwell's 
army being in the neighbourhood, and extremely short of clothiers, 
made a raid upon and captured all the tailors they could find. 
Amongst the captured was a Royalist, who vowed he would 
never soil his fingers by making clothes for the rebels ; so the 
rough soldiers without more ado shot the obstinate and loyal- 
hearted tailor, at a spot about two hundred yards from Kirk 



99 

bridge, and placed over his remains a rude stone with scissors 
carved upon it, as a warning to his brother " snips." The 
markings upon the stone, as will be seen in the illustration, bear 
some faint resemblance to a pair of scissors, but not sufficient to 
lead us to give full credence to this story. " Tailors' Cross " has 
been supposed by some to be a corruption of " Templar's Cross," 
but we are afraid that none of these theories are more worthy 
of acceptance than is the suggestion of a farmer who lived near the 
spot, that " it might a bin a sun-dial." What the real object of 
its erection has been, we are at a loss to say, and must be con- 
tent for the present to place it amongst the class of wayside 
crosses. It stands on the roadside near Colne, in a little meadow 
on the eastern side of the Foulridge reservoir. A cross very 
similar in character exists in the parish of St. Buryan's in 
Cornwall. 

THE EMMOTT CROSS. — In tlic grouuds of Emmott Hall just 
within the boundary wall, there stands a cross with tall octagonal 
shaft, crowned with a cap of the same shape, upon four 
sides of which are certain letters half obliterated, but sup- 
posed by Dr. Whitaker to have been the monogram IHS. 
and the omega. In his paper on the residence, " giving 
to the cross its name," Mr. Strange thus speaks of this 
"mysterious relic," : — "Among a copse of trees skirting the 
road to WycoUar, it stands there stOl, growing green with 
age, and unnoticed by those who in the quiet humdrum of 
Lancashire pastoral experience trudge by indifferently, as they 
pursue their daily round of bucolic life and labour. To my 
thinking it is a wayside cross, and perchance in days gone by it 
was used in that capacity, the sight of it affording comfort and 
consolation to the weaiy, footsore pilgrim, who had to face 
the dangerous bleak escarpment of the Boulsworth range, on his 
way to the smiling valleys of Yorkshire and the south." 

COMBE mLL CROSS. — About a mile and a half from Wycollar on 
the road to Howarth, just before arriving at the new Keighley reser- 
voir, may be seen the base stone and what may possibly have been 
part of the upright shaft of Combe Hill or Cam Hill cross. This was 
no doubt a wayside cross , but beyond that it appears to have another 
useful office to fill. In my opinion this and other crosses such 
as Widdop, Keaps, Duke's cross, &c., have served in the capacity 
of guideposts to the traveller, (overtaken in a mist, or by the 
swiftly lowering shades of night), who might be traversing these 
lonely roads, which a century ago must have been indeed difiicult 
to trace. This opinion was confirmed by a conversation I had 
with an old man who was mending the roads in the vicinity of 
JSfogworth cross. Amongst other things, when asked if he had 
heard what was the object of these crosses, he said that " Joonas 
Lee said as they were put up 250 yer sin, for guideposts for't pack 



100 

horses, between Halifax and Biausliaw," adding as if to give 
more weight to the authority, he had quoted: "An he wur a 
farlarned chap wur Joonas, — he wur a preycher." The crosses 
referred to are all placed in a prominent position, upon rising 
groiind, the intention being, I presume, that they might be 
the more clearly outlined against the horizon, and answer 
the same purposes as the cairns which are placed at the 
summit of the passes in the mountainoas districts of Westmore- 
land and Cumberland. Still further light is thrown upon this 
point by a passage in the diary of Ealph Thoresby, the antiquary: 
in the autumn of 1702, he visited his friends Charles and Eichard 
Towneley, of Towneley. He writes Sep. 1. — "We rode about 
5 miles over the hills in Keighley parish till we entered Lan- 
cashire. Upon the height of the mountain stands Camil cross, 
which we left upon the right designing for Burnley ; but after we 
had left the lime kilns below, and ascended a steep and danger- 
ous precipice, the road dwindled away upon a huge boggy 
mountain, where we wandered in sight of a distant house to which 
we could find no road. At length through the enclosures having 
come at one, we were surprised to find that tho' a large house 
and substantial people, (bringing us a large silver tankard of ale), 
yet had no horse road to the market town : but pulling down 
part of a dry wall, we passed tiirough his, and his neighbour's 
grounds till we recovered a blind lane, and rode through a con- 
tinued thicket, several times passing a beck, till at length we met 
a more open road." This description of the state of the roads 
around WycoUar Hall, for such, doubtless was the "large house" 
referred to, would certainly indicate that some guide was re- 
quired to enable the stranger to thread his way across these 
desolate wilds. This want would be met to a certain extent by 
the crosses referred to. 

WiDDOP Ckoss stood upon the rising ground just on the 
Lancashire side of the comity boundary, on the road through the 
Thursdon valley to Hebden Bridge ; and Thursdcn cross stood near 
the old inn, now pulled down, which was situated on the same 
road. Both these have fallen a prey to the repairer of highways. 
The Widdop cross lay for some years by the roadside after having 
been rescued from the degrading office of covering a drain on the 
roadside, by Mr. Tattersall Wilkinson, to whom I am indebted 
for many valuable notes upon the antiquities of this district, with 
which he is thoroughly acquainted. 

The base stone of Nogworth cross may still be seen in 
a lane near the public house at Eogerham gate. The socket 
hole is underneath, the stone having been turned over to make 
room for the carts to pass to the Monk Hall Quan-ies. This 
cross is supposed to have been erected by the Abbot of Kirkstall, 



101 

who sometimes visited Monk Hall, as that house belonged to the 
Monastery. 

THE CROSSES ON THE LONG CAUSEWAY. 

Along the line of the Eoman road running from Mereclough 
towards Hebden Bridge, (which is generally spoken of as the 
Long Causeway), there are marked upon the 6-iuch Ordnance map, 
the sites of no less than five crosses, Stump cross, Eobiu cross, 
Maiden cross, Duke's cross, and Stiperden cross. How the rough 
unhewn blocks of grit which correspond in some cases with the 
names just mentioned, came to receive the title of crosses is diffi- 
cult to account for, for they neither bear upon their surface an 
inscribed cross nor are they cruciform in outline. 

Stump Cross stands just above Mereclough, near to the 
entrance of the field which was supposed to contain pre-historic 
mounds and which was visited by the club some few years ago. 

A little further on in a hollow, and at the meeting of two 
other roads with the Long Causeway, we find the site of Eobiu 
cross. The stone has long ago disappeared. 

Maiden Cross is aboiit a mile south-east of this point, being 
built into the boundary wall a little beyond the entrance 
to the coUiery. As in the case of Stump cross this is a 
plain slab of millstone grit, but connected with it is a legend 
which gives it some interest. For this tradition I am indebted 
to Mr. Tattersall Wilkinson. He had it fr-om his grandfather who 
was born in 1766, who had it from his grandfather who lived 
shortly after the affair took place. I give it in his own words : — 
"Durmg the time of the great rebellion this was the tryst- 
ing-place of a young shepherd with his lady love. Often did they 
meet to pledge their simple vows at this lonely place, until one 
day a messenger came from Towneley to collect as many young 
men as he could get to swell the ranks of Eupert when he passed 
through this part to join the Eoyal forces at York, a march which 
ended with the disastrous fight at Marston Moor, on whose bloody 
sod lay stretched the chivalrous Towneley, and a many of his 
followers, including this young man, the victims of a tyi-annical 
and ambitious king. For many a long year after this tragical 
event the poor demented maiden would repair to this hallowed 
spot, repeating with a sorrowful voice his promise to return." 

We next come to Duke's Cross. — The name is a little curious, 
and it may be that it has some connection with the fact, that as 
Dr. Whitaker says, " This bleak and comfortless road was the 
Une which the Lacies and Plantagenets were condemned to 
pursue in their progresses fr-om Pontefract to Clitheroe and 
Lancaster." 



102 

Stiperden Cross is marked upon the 6-incli Ordnance map, 
at the corner where the new road turns off towards the toll 
gate ; tliis cross has disappeared. 

About a mile south east of the cross last mentioned, with- 
in a few yards of one of the bye roads, there stands a cross of 
which a sketch is given, which is generally known as Stiperden 
or Mount cross. Nothing is known of its history, and beyond 
placing it in the general class of wayside crosses, I am unable to 
elucidate the object of its erection. 

Standing lonely upon Heptonstall Moor is Eeaps Cross. The 
arms have been broken away, giving it an appearance which 
may have suggested its local appellation " The Long Stoop." 
Sufficient however remains to show what the cross was originally, 
and in the drawing are the arms indicated. A.11 that I could learn 
from the " intelligent natives " was to the effect that it answered 
the purpose of a guide post to Eastric Greave, a farm house, 
quite out of the ordinary track, nestling amongst the valleys to 
the east of Black Hambledon. 

WiswELL Cross. — No trace of the original cross now remains. 
The base stone, into which has been inserted a modern cross of a 
plain Latin type, stands near the entrance to Wiswell Hall, the 
seat of the PasleAvs, and it is possible that this cross may have 
some connection with John Paslew, the last Abbot of Whalley, 
though nothing on this point is definitely known. 

The survey of the crosses within the district proposed at the 
commencement of this paper is now completed, in but few 
cases can we ariive at really satisfactory conclusions as to their 
history, many of them being so enveloped in the mystery of un- 
certain tradition as to render their extrication almost impossible. 
But still no one who has not taken up the study of some kindred 
subject can have any idea what interesting facts can be obtained 
from sources apparently the most unpromising. From such 
som-ces day by day additional facts will be accumulated, throw- 
ing light upon many points j)reviously involved in doubt and 
uncertainty, and the present paper can, at the best, be looked upon 
only as a compilation of the facts and opinions on the subject which 
are at present available. Fvu-ther study would without doubt 
modify many of the views here expressed, and it is with the hope 
that they will be thus regarded that I bring them forward. _ Not 
that there is any desire to avoid criticism but rather to invite it, 
to the end that the truth upon these matters may if possible be 
reached. If by this imperfect attempt to elucidate the history of 
our local examples of crosses, an additional interest be given to 
these remains, and I should, in however small a degree, be the 
means of leading others to a study of them, I shall feel that 
the paper has not been written in vain. No more interesting 



103 

subject could be found, connected as it is so closely with the 
introduction and progress of Christianity in this kingdom. 

These hoary monuments that round us stand 
Uprear their heads, as if to teach the men 
Of later times, that e'en as through the past 
Their faith in one great Omnipresent God 
And one great Sacrifice, has shaped the hves 
And destinies of men— so shall that faith. 
Through ages yet to come, lead on to light 
Till earth and things of earth have ceased to be. 




♦ 

PAGE. 

List of Officers 3 

Introductory Report , , 5 

EULES 14 

List of Officers, Past and Present , 16 

List of Honorary Members, Past and Present 17 

List of Ordinary Members, Past and Present 18 

List of Meetings. — 1874 to 1883 30 

List of Conversaziones. — 1874 to 1883 , 43 

List of Excursions.— 1874 to 1883 48 

Sectional Excursions 50 

Philological Section 51 

Accounts 52 

Library 53 

Papers : — 

On The Lancashire Dialect : more especially as relating 

to the Blackburn Hundred* 56 

(by T. T. Wilkinson, F.R.A.S.) 

The Rise and Progress of Burnley 61 

(by Joshua Rawlinson.) 

Lancashire in Fiction, (A Synopsis of Paper) 76 

(by J. H. Nodal.) 
Excursion to Roman Remains in Marsden, Briercliffe 

AND Extwistle 78 

(Director, L. Clement.) 
Sources of Original Materials for a History of 

Burnley 82 

(by W. A. Abram, F.R.H.S.) 

The Crosses in and around Burnley 89 

(by J. Arthur Waddington.) 

* Read February 10th, 1874. 




ii^MAR193e 



'^j^i^^^y NAT1JR.A1 

- - HISTORY. 



BURNLEY 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC CLUB. 



TRANSACTIONS. 



VOL. II. 
1884. 



PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 



BURGHOPE & STRANGE, 
S7: /AMES'S STREET, BURNLEY. 



MDCCCLXXXV. 



tj r; 1 r 1 S H 
MUSEUM 

5 J3EC 2] 

NATURAL 
I HISTORY. 



BURNLEY 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC CLUB. 



TEAI^SACTIONS, 



VOL. II. 

1884. 

PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 



BURG HOPE & STRANGE, 
ST. /AMES'S STREET, BURNLEY. 

MDCCCLXXXV. 



Burnlei? Xiterar^ an^ Scientific Club. 



ESTABLISHED 1873. 



President: 

HENEY HOULDING, 



Vice-Presidents : 

J. C. Brumwell, M.D., J.P. 
J. W. Anningson, L.R.C.P. 
J. Langfield Wakd, M.A. 
Fred. J. Grant. 
W. A. "Waddington. 
Alfred Strange. 



Treasurer:— JAS. KAY, J.P. 



Committee: 

James Lancaster. 
h. bulcock. 
B. Sagar. 
F. H. Hill. 

W. H. COLBEAN. 

J. Arthur Waddington. 



Secretary: 
W. LEWIS GEANT, 

12, Grhnshawe Street, Burnley. 



' • sTORV. 



RULES 



Eule 1. That the Society be named the " Burnley Literary 
AND Scientific Club." 

Eule 2. That the objects of the Chib shall be the instruction 
and mental recreation of its members by means of 
original papers, discussions, and conversation of a 
Literary and Scientific character. Party Politics and 
Eehgious controversies to be excluded. That arrange- 
ments be made during the Summer for Excursions to 
places of Historic and Natural interest. 

Eule 3. That the Club consist of Ordinary and Honorary 
members. That the Committee shall have power to 
accept the services of others than members. 

Eule 4. That the Club meet on Tuesday evenings at 7-45, the 
meetings being weekly from September to April. Any 
meetings held in the Summer months to be prepara- 
tory to the Excursions. 

Eule 5. That the Secretary shall commence the proceedings of 
each meeting by reading the minutes of the last meeting. 

Eule 6. Candidates for membership to be proposed and 
seconded at one meeting, and balloted for at the next; 
a majority of three-fourths of the members present 
being requii'ed to secure the election. Candidates for 
Honorary Membership shall be jDroposed only after a 
recommendation from the Committee. 

Eule 7. That the officers consist of a President, six Vice- 
Presidents, Treasurer, Secretary, and a Committee of 
six members, who shall manage the afifairs of the Club ; 
four to form a quorum. Such officers to be chosen 
by Ballot at the Annual Meeting, which shall be held 
on the first Tuesday in April. Nominations to be 
received only at the three meetings next preceding 
the Annual Meeting. 



Rule 8. That the reading of any paper shall not occupy more 
than one hour, the remaining portion of the time, up 
to ten o'clock, to be spent in conversation and discus- 
sion. No speaker to occupy more than five minutes, 
or to speak more than ouce, except by permission of 
the Chairman. 

Rule 9. That a Sessional Programme shall be prepared by the 
Secretary, and printed, in which the business of each 
evening shall be stated. All subjects proposed to 
be brought before the Club to be approved by the 
Committee of management. 

Rule 10. Each member shall have the privilege of introducing 
a friend,* but no person so introduced, shall be alloi,^ed 
to take part in the proceedings, unless invited by the 
Chairman, to whom the said person's name shall be 
communicated on his entrance into the room. The 
Committee shall have power to declare any meeting 
"Special" and to make such arrangements as to 
admission of friends at such meeting as they shall 
think proper. 

Rule 11. That an annual Subscription of 10s. be paid by 
ordinary members, and any person whose subscription 
is in arrear for three months shall cease to be a mem- 
ber of the Club. 

Rule 12. The Accounts of the Club shall be made up by the 
Treasurer to the end of December in each year ; and 
a Balance Sheet shall, after having been audited, and 
passed by the Committee, be printed and sent to the 
members before the Annual Meeting. 

Rule 13. That the Rules be altered only at the Annual Meeting 
in April, or at a Special Meeting ; in both cases a 
fortnight's Notice shall be given to the members, 
stating the nature of the iDroposed alteration. The 
Secretary shall be empowered to call a Special Meeting 
on receiving a requisition signed by six members. 

=1= No gentleman residing within the iDarliamentary borough, 
not being a member, will be eligil)le for admission. 



INTRODUCTORY REPORT. 



i 



In fulfilment of the purpose expressed in the 
Introductory Eeport of the Volume of Transactions 
issued last year, the Committee now present to the 
members, Transactions — Yolume II., which contains a 
record of the Club's proceedings during the year 1884. 
Seeing that notice of ten years' work was comprised 
in Volume I., the matter and arrangement were 
exceptional, as more than half of the book was of 
necessity occupied by mere schedules of names of 
members and events. Volume II. may be considered 
as presenting the normal form, and that in which 
succeeding issues will appear. 

In this book will be found reports of all the 
papers read and excursions made during the year, 
and in accordance with an intimation conveyed in the 
first publication that digests of papers read in previous 
years, might appear in subsequent volumes, there is 
added an account of the papers on the Towneley 
Manuscripts purchased by the Club, read December 
4th, 1883. 

During the year the Club has lost 3 members by 
death and 26 by removal from the town, or resignation; 
but there has been an accession of 29 members, thereby 
maintaining the number of the previous year, namely 
210. 

The average attendance at the ordinary meetings 
during the year has been 84 members, 13 friends, or 
a total of 47, which is the highest average for the five 
years during which statistics of attendance have been 
kept. In the years 1880 and 1S81 the average 
attendances were 40 (34 and 6) and 39 (32 and 7) 



respectively. The number of members is now about 
60 or 70 less than in those years, but it is gratifying 
to observe that this contraction of the membership 
list has not been accomi:)anied by a reduction in 
the attendance. Considered in relation to the 
dimensions of the Society, the attendance, cannot 
yet, however, be regarded as satisfactory. On 
several occasions the audience has not been com- 
mensurate with the importance of the subject intro- 
duced. It is hoped that more of the members, 
actuated by a deep concern for the welfare of the 
Club, will endeavour to be present at the weekly 
meetings, and so contribute to a further augmentation 
of the figures of attendance. 

Eefereuce must here be made to the Excursions 
organized for the summer months. The Committee 
cannot speak in congratulatory language upon the 
support accorded to this portion of the year's pro- 
gramme, for, of the three General Excursions decided 
upon, the principal one, namely, that to Eichmond 
and Wensleydale, had to be abandoned on account 
of the few names sent in ; whilst only 1 4 attended the 
visit to Preston and Penwortham, and 10 the excursion 
to York and Selby. Of the four Sectional Excursions 
for which arrangements were made, one was given up, 
and seven, seven, and ten were the numbers of the 
respective parties in the other three cases. It is to 
be regretted that the facilities offered both in respect 
of the General and Sectional Excursions have not 
been more widely made use of, and the unfavourable 
nature of the results, in comparison with those fur- 
nished by previous years, will compel a careful 
consideration of plans for future work. 

In consequence of removal from the town, Dr. 
Monckman has been obliged to sever his active con- 
nection with the Club. During the seven years of 
his association with the society Dr. Monckman rendered 
valuable service. For nearly the whole of this period 



he held office, and Ms solicitude for the prosperity of 
the Club was manifested by frequent contributions in 
various branches of science, and willing assistance in 
the conduct of Excursions. Eecognizing his kindly 
and diverse labours, the members, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Committee unanimously elected him an 
Honorary Member. 

The year has been marked by an important event 
which demands some allusion here. To celebrate the 
tenth anniversary of the formation of the Club, a 
Dinner was held in the Mechanics' Institution in 
January. It was somewhat remarkable that the 
number of those present was exactly the same as on 
the occasion of the Inaugural Dinner held in January, 
1874. The speakers rejoiced in the success which 
had accompanied the Society throughout its career, 
and referred in sanguine terms to the prospects 
shadowed forth of future usefulness. An account of 
the proceedings will be found in the pages of this 
volume. 

Another occasion of a gratifying nature must 
also receive notice in this Eeport. The Autumnal 
Session was inaugurated by an address from Mr. 
George Milner, President of the Manchester Literary 
Club, on " The Eolation of Literature to Painting." 
Your Committee are glad to pi-esent the members 
with a lengthy report of this Address, which was so 
profound in its treatment of the subject, poetical in 
its language, and effective in its delivery. 

Allusion was made in the last Eeport to the 
absence of a Conversazioni from the programme for 

1883, and the probable omission of a similar event in 

1884. The members will recollect the great expense 
attending these events, an expense for which the 
small annual subscription of members was inadequate 
to provide. Though it will be generally admitted 
that the Conversazione played an appropriate part 
in the work of the Club, yet justification of its 



10 

continued abandonment will be found not only in the 
plea of cost, but in the fact that the members now 
receive annually the printed Transactions of the 
Society. Your Committee feel assured of their 
approval of the policy which substitutes the furnishing 
of a systematic record of proceedings, thereby securing 
definiteness and permanency for the Avork of the Club. 

Your Committee also wish to signify their appre- 
ciation of the kindnes3 of the Corporation in permitting 
the use of the Council Chamber for the meetings of the 
members during so long a period. The room is well 
suited for the purpose, and the possession of it has 
undoubtedly conduced to the pleasant and prosperous 
working of the Society. 

In conclusion, your Committee trust that the 
close of the j^ear 1885 may find the interest in the 
Club not only maintained but deepened, so that its 
prosperity may afford an agreeable retrospect and 
serve as an indication of its public usefulness. 




11 
SYLLABUS. 

JANUAKY TO APEIL, 1884. 



Jau. 8 — Paper, "A Few Tests of National Progress" — Sir 
Ughtred J. Kay-Shuttlewortb, Bart. 
,, 15 — Paper, " Notes on Sonthern California" — W. E. Kay. 
,, 22 — Paper, "Kashmir, the Highway of Central Asia" — Eev. 

J. S. Doxey. 
,, 29 — Dinner, Mechanics' Institution. 
,, 30 — Dance, do. do. 

Feb. 5 — Paper, " Momitaiueering in Norway/' — W. Cecil 
Slingsby. 
,, 12 — Paper, " The Frogs of Aristophanes," J. Langfield 

Ward, M.A. 
„ 19 — Paper, " State of England in Past Geological Ages" — 

J. Mouckman, D.Sc. 
„ 26 — Paper, " The Wild Animals of Great Britain" — Frank 
Nicholson. 
Mar. 4 — Soiree, " Lithography " — James Grant. 
,, 11 — Eeadings by Members — Director, W. Lewis Grant. 
„ 18 — Paper, " A Modern Epic " — Eev. A. H. Finn. 
,, 25 — Discussion, "Evolution" — Introduced by H. Nutter. 
April 1 — Annual Meeting. 

,, 29 — Dramatic Sou'ee, Mechanics' Institution — Director, 
T. Midgley. 

SEPTEMBEE TO DECEHIBER, 1884. 
Sept. 30 — Address, "The Eelation of Literature to Painting" — 

Geo. Milner. 
Oct. 7— Paper, " Corals "—A. E. Tovey, D.Sc. 
,, 14 — Paper, " Stray Notes on the Ancient and Modem 
History of East Lancashu-e " — Tattersall Wilkinson. 
,, 21 — Paper, " Art Museums, considered as a Means of 

Education " — Eev. W. S. Caiger. 
„ 28— Paper, " The Method of Teaching the Deaf and Dumb 
to Speak " — S. Lawson, L.F P.G. 
Nov. 4 — Short Anonymous Contributions. 
„ 11— Paper, " Hoghton Tower "—Eev. J. Shortt, M.A. 
„ 18 — Paper, " Dramatic Works of Bulwer Lytton" — E. T. 

Sutcliflfe. 
,, 25 — Discussion, " The Development of Africa in its Eela- 
tion to British Commerce " — Introduced by W. 
Le-nds Grant. 
Dec. 2 — Sou-ee, "House Decoration" — T. Preston. 
„ 9 — Paper, " Canada, and the Montreal Meeting of the 

British Association" — J. Brown, M.A., M.D. 
„ 16 — Musical Soiree — ^Director, F. Myers. 



12 



THE DINNER. 

JANUARY 29th, ]884. 



A Dinner, in commemoration of tlie tenth year of the 
Club's existence, was held in the Mechanics' Institution on 
January 29th, at -which sixty- two members sat down. In the 
absence of Mr. H. Houlding, Dr. Brumwell, J.P., presided, and 
was supported on the right and left by the Mayor (Alderman 
Baron, J. P.), and the Officers of the Club, the croupier chairs 
being occupied by Messrs. W. A. Waddington, and A. Strange. 
During the progress of the dinner, and between the subsequent 
speeches, selections on the pianoforte were played by Mr. F. 
Myers, and Mr. G. B. Eawcliffe recited. 

After the loyal toasts had been proposed by the Chairman, 
Mr. F. J. Grant gave the toast " The Burnley Literaiy and 
Scientific Club," What objects, he asked, were more worthy of 
attention than those of Science and Literature. Science increased 
their pleasures and diminished their sufferings. Literature 
gave them the best thoughts of the best men in all ages, and 
was a study Avhich would please when ambition had ceased to 
charm, and enrich when fortune had refused to smile. To a 
large extent, the intentions of the founders of the Club had 
been carried out. The Club had been productive of great good 
in bringing together men opposed in religion and politics, and 
providing opportunity for interchange of thought on subjects of 
general interest. The labours of the ('lub in the realm of 
science and literature were dwelt upon. History, philosophy, 
painting, music, the drama, and science in its many branches 
had found worthy interpreters amongst the members. Much 
attention had been given to the literature of Britain, a literature 
so rich in precious truth and precious fiction ; a literature which 
had exercised an influence wider than that of our commerce, 
and mightier than that of our arms, and which was one of 
the brightest, purest, and most durable of all the glories 
of England. Mr. Grant then referred to the services of 
past officers, and said that for Mr. Houlding, their President, 
they wished a long and mellow eventide that the night should 
linger to disturb. In concluding a speech which abounded 
in metaphor and graceful quotation, Mr. Grant spoke with 
confidence of the future of the Club, and he exhorted those who 
had not taken any part in the proceedings of the Club to quit 
the enervating atmosphere of idleness for the purer air and 
brighter skies of art, Literature, science, and philosophy. 



13 

In responding to the toast, Dr. Brumwell, J.P., referred to 
the gratifying success the Club had achieved, and said that in a 
great measure this was due to the unwearied exertions of their 
first Secretary (Mr. W. A. Waddington), and to the sage counsel 
and practical help of Dr. Coultate, and Aldermen Wilkinson and 
Eobinson. In touching upon the future of the Club, he said 
that they would have to take into consideration whether it would 
not be desirable to establish premises, so that the Club might 
have a. "local habitation," as well as a name. 

Mr. Henry Nutter here sang an original song dealing with 
the Syllabus and Officers of the Club. 

Mr, Joshua Eawlinson, in proposing the " Town and Trade 
of Burnley," gave many interesting facts concerning the history 
and progress of the town. Amongst other things, he pointed 
out that Burnley had during the present century never failed to 
double its population every twenty-five years, and on two 
occasions at least liad done so in twenty years. No other 
Lancashire town could present a record of progress comparable 
with that of Burnley and Oldham. He also stated the curious 
and instructive fact that of fifty-eight firms engaged in the cotton 
trade in 1854, only ten were at present in existence, and in only 
five cases was the same business being conducted by their 
successors on the same premises as in 1854. Of 103 firms 
now engaged in the trade, 93 were new since 1854. By 
these facts he showed how precarious and uncertain was the 
staj)le trade of the town. Other interesting statistics were given, 
and Mr. Eawlinson concluded by hoping that the peculiar 
advantages the town possessed would be utilized, and that the 
town would continue to grow in numbers, wealth, and prosperity. 

The Mayor, in responding to the sentiment, dej)recated 
taking too gloomy a view of the present depressed condition of 
trade. During the thirty years he had been engaged in business 
he had frequently heard the wail that the country was going to 
ruin. "When, however, the increased total value of imports and 
exports, the diminution of pauperism, and the increase in the 
business of the Post Office Savings Bank, were taken into 
consideration, they would find that the general prosperity steadily 
progressed. 

In proposing the health of the Officers of the Club, Dr. 
0' Sullivan complimented those gentlemen on the energy they 
had displayed, and expressed the gratitude of the members for 
the efficient manner in which they had performed their duties. 

Mr. James Kay replied, and spoke of the energy dis- 
played by the Secretary (Dr. Mackenzie) and the fact that 
they were about to publish yearly a volume of " Transactions." 
The officers desired to uphold the high character of the Society, 
and promote in every way its well-being. 



14 

The toast of "Literature" was proposed by Mr. J. L. 
Ward, M.A., who referred to the great services rendered to the 
cause of Hterature by Mr. H. Houldiug and Mr. F. J. Grant. 
One great advantage of the study of literature was that it 
brought into pleasant friendship many persons who would 
otherwise be separated by the barrier of religious or political 
antagonism. 

To this toast Mr. B. Sagar responded. After commenting 
on the immense influence of the great writers in the making of 
England, he remarked that he was afraid many had lost all 
interest in anything which did not immediately tend to direct 
mercenary gain, and he would implore the members not to 
lose sight of the fact that there were many things in this world 
besides things measurably liquid or measurably solid. He 
welcomed as an incentive to higher literary work the publication 
of the Club's proceedings, and said they were bound to feel 
honoured in having as their President a literary man whom they 
all revered, and as including amongst their members one so 
eminent in the field of art - literature as Mr. Philip Gilbert 
Hamerton. 

Mr. Councillor P. E. Koberts next gave the toast of 
" Science," and, iu the course of his remarks, dwelt upon the 
teachings of science. Science, he maintained, was immutable, 
while art might alter its standard of excellence, and literature 
might change the tone of its morals. 

Dr. Monckman, in responding, claimed for theoretical 
scientists that they had accomplished great things, and rendered 
much aid iu the advancement of trade and commerce. 

The toast of " Ait" was proposed by Mr. W. Lewis Grant. 
He protested against the unnatural wresting of art from its 
proper signification, and commented upon the distinct develop- 
ment in the various phases of art in this country of late years. 
In the application of art to industry, striking progress had been 
made ; many influences unknown in former times were at work, 
giving an impetus to artistic progress. Their Club had done 
much to foster a love of the arts, and it must be remembered 
that in advancing the cause of true art they were engaged in 
useful work, for the arts added lustre to life, and softened, 
elevated, and ennobled the condition of man. 

To this toast Mr. W. A. Waddington replied. He believed 
that what was known as the festhetic movement had exerted 
a deteriorating influence upon true art progress, and iu a 
succinct manner he pointed out what he considered were the 
essentials of true art. The claims of art upon the attention of 
the Club could not be too strongly urged. 

After a few complimentary toasts, the proceedings ter- 
minated. 



15 



A FEW TESTS OF NATIONAL PROGRESS. 

By SIR U. J. KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH, Bart; 
January 8th, 188i. 



The opening lecture of the Session of 1884 was dehvered by 
Sir Ughtred Kay- Shuttle worth, who chose as his subject " A 
Few Tests of National Progress." Dr. Brumwell, J. P., presided. 
After some. CDUiplimentary remarks on the services the Literary 
and Scientific Club lias rendered during the ten years of its 
existence, the lecturer jn-oceeded as follows : 

"In seeking for a fitting subject with which to open the 
second decade of your existence, I had but little hesitation 
in deciding that no subject could be more appropriate than a 
comparison between the present and the past of our people, and 
that such comparison should be national rather than local in its 
scope, and should not be confined within too narrow limits, but 
should take account, as far as materials permit, of the last half- 
century or so of national progress. Plentiful as are the materials 
from which a writer on national and scientific progress can 
to-day draw his facts and statements, I feel myself in two 
respects somewhat strictly limited — 1st, as to the dimensions 
within which a i^aper of this character before the present 
audience should be confined ; 2ud, I impose upon myself a very 
rigid rule as to the avoidance of topics and allusions of a party 
character, even where economical, and, therefore, to some extent, 
political questions have to be touched. To decide whether the 
views of the Pessimist or those of the Optimist on the condition 
of the English people were to be accepted, it would be necessary 
to examine the facts and figiires. At the head of the Commercial 
Department of the Board of Trade we have a very able public 
servant, Mr. Eobert Giffen, who for many years has superintended 
the issue of the most valuable Government Statistics, including 
the Statistical Abstracts for the United Kingdom. As President 
of the Statistical Society for 1883, he has recently read an 
addi-ess on ' The Progress of the Working Classes in the last 
Half-century,' which — being a review of official statistics — is full 
of reliable facts throwing light on our present subject. His first 
subject of inquiry is a comparison of the earnings of the masses 
of the people fifty years ago and now ; he considers, secondly, 
the prices then and now of the chief articles which they consume ; 



16 

and, lastly, the question whether the working classes have gained, 
in proportion with other classes, hy the development of material 
wealth during the last fifty years. Although data do not exist 
for comparing the aggregate earnings of the worldng classes 
to-day with those of fifty years ago, and although forms of work 
have changed, and the same names represent different sorts of 
work now, still it is possihle to compare what appear to be the 
average wages of large groups of the working classes, and if the 
changes all prove to be in the same direction, or nearly so, then 
we may infer that probably the changes which absence of data 
alone prevents us from tracing are not in the opposite direction. 
From the ' Miscellaneous Statistics of the United Kingdom,' 
and from Mr. Porter's record of wages commenced at the Board 
of Trade about fifty years ago (see his work ' Progress of the 
Nation ') we see that wherever a comparison is possible there is 
an enormous apparent rise in money ^^'ages, ranging from 20 and 
in most cases from 50 to 100 per cent., and in three cases to 
more than 100 per cent, (the mean of the percentages of increase 
being 70 per cent.) The wages of carpenters have risen at 
Manchester 42 per cent. ; at Glasgow, 85 ; bricklayers, 50 and 
80 ; masons, 24 and 69 ; Stafi'ordshire miners, 50 ; weavers at 
Bradford, 150 ; spinners (children) at Bradford, IGO ; and so 
on. Of seamen Mr. Giffen says that while there has been an 
improvement in their food and lodging, their money wages have 
increased by from 25 to 70 per cent. As regards the agricultural 
labourers, the increase in their wages has been general in Great 
Britain and Ireland (see the reports of the recent Koyal Agri- 
cultural Commission.) Sir James Caird, in his ' Landed 
Interest,' estimated it at 60 per cent, within the last forty years. 
To these facts, as to the increase of workpeople's money wages, 
must be added one word to notice the accompanying relief in the 
shortened hours for which they now labour. Mr. Giffen estimates 
the general shortening of the hours of labour at very nearly 
20 per cent. In the textile, engineering, and house-building 
trades he says that the workman gets from 50 to 100 per cent, 
more money for 20 per cent, less time. I say ' less time,' not 
less work, because in many cases, doubtless, as much, or nearly 
as much, work is done in the shorter as in the longer hoiu's. 
Be that as it may, the shortened hours are a gain to the 
workman, which must not be overlooked in an estimate of 
progress. Mr. Giffen's second point for consideration is the 
prices fifty years ago and now of the chief articles which the 
people consume. And he begins by showing that, though the 
value of gold was depreciated after the Australian and Cali- 
fornian gold discoveries, its appreciation during the last twenty 
years has made prices much what they were before that time ; 
so that the sovereign goes as far as it did forty or fifty yeai's ago ; 



17 

while there are many things in the market at a low price which 
could not then have been bought at all. Does it follow that 
prices being equal, and wages 50 to 100 per cent, better, the 
working man's means are really improved to that extent ? 
Certainly, — unless the prices of the special articles for which his 
money goes have not followed the average of prices, but have 
become higher. If, indeed, on the whole, the articles he buys 
cost less now than forty or fifty years ago, his position is even 
more than 50 to 100 per cent, better. And this Mr. Giffen 
proceeds to prove. He takes first wheat, the staff of life. Not 
only has the average price per quarter during the last year been 
10s. lower than between 1837 and 1846 (48s. 9d. instead of 
58s. 7d.), but before the repeal of the corn laws the extremes of 
price were so great that the price of bread fluctuated in a way 
which, to quote Mr. Giffen, 'implied slieer starvation. Periodic 
starvation was, in fact, the condition of the masses of working 
men throughout the kingdom fifty years ago.' In 1836 the 
price touched 36s.; on the other hand, in 1838, 1839, 1840, and 
and 1841, it touched 78s. 4d., 81s. 6d., 72s. lOd., and 76s.' Id., 
(double the price of the lowest year, and nearly double the 
average of the decade.) In 1847 it rose to 102s. 5d., or three 
times the lowest price of the period. (Still further back there 
were the following average prices for a whole year : For 1810, 
106s, 5d. ; for 1812, 126s. 6d. ; for 1813, 109s. 9d. ; for 1817, 
96s. lid.) In the last twenty years, on the other hand, the 
highest prices touched have been 70s. 5d. in 1867, and 74s. 7d. 
in 1868. In the last ten years 70s. has not been touched, the 
nearest point being 68s. 9d. in 1877 ; and the highest average 
for any year was in 1873, viz., 58s. 8d. (only about 10s. above 
the average fori^the whole ten years.) This steady low price has, 
of course, been ' an immense boon to the masses, and especially 
to the poorest.' Mr. Giffen adds that the rise of wages would 
have enabled the people to contend better than formerly with 
fluctuations in the price of bread ; but they have not had the 
fluctuations to contend with. Other articles are cheaper besides 
that which is of most importance, especially when wages are low, 
viz., bread. The present price of imported raw sugar 21s. 9d. 
per cwt., may be contrasted with a price (including duty) of 
68s. 8d. in 1839-40. Cotton cloth, which cost 5fd. per yard 
then, costs 3id. now. Meat, no doubt, has increased in price, 
but fifty years ago, it could not be afforded by working people, 
even at its lower price. ' They had little more concern with its 
price,' remarks Mr. Giffen, ' than with the price of diamonds.' 
The price of the kind of meat within the reach of their means, 
viz., bacon, has not increased much. There remains the 
question of house rent. This may be a serious item of expendi- 
ture in large towns, and Mr. Giffen seems disposed to admit 



16 

that rent uow may be in the ratio of five to two to wliat it was fifty 
years ago ; but the houses are, as a rule, far better, and the 
higher house rent represents generally a very different and much 
better return for that item of expenditure. During the last forty 
years the share of the cost of government which falls upon the 
working man has been lightened. Yet for that lighter cost, for 
those lessened taxes, he obtains much more benefit. Much 
more of the Government is beneficial to him ; for instance, tha 
Post Office vote, and sanitary, educational, and other local 
expenditure, both from taxes and rates. The question remains : 
Have these changes been followed by an actual improvement in 
the condition and wealth of the masses of the people ? What 
about the birth and death rates? Mr. ITumphreys )ias com- 
pared the death-rate from 187G to 1880 with rates from 1838 to 
1854, and the result is that the death-rate is so much reduced that 
the mean duration of life is longer by two years in the case of 
males, and by three and a half years in the case of women. Mr. 
Giffen's next evidence of the actual improvement in the condition 
of the people consists of statistics, showing the enormous increase 
per head of the population of the imported articles which the 
masses consume. Another convincing evidence of progress is 
afforded by the increase of number of depositors in Savings 
Banks, from 420,000 in 1831 to 4,140,000 in 1881; the amount 
of deposits has increased from £13,719,000 to £80,334,000. The 
Industrial 'and Provident Co-operative Societies give evidence to 
the same effect. The decline of pauperism is another link in 
the chain of evidence. Half- a - century ago, with half the 
population, the poor-relief burden was the same. The number 
of paupers in receipt of relief in 1849 in the United Kingdom 
was 1,676,000; in 1881 it was 1,015,000; England showmg a 
decrease of 181,000, Scotland 20,000, and Ireland 520,000. The 
average attendance at aided schools in 1851 was 271,000, in 
1881 it was 3,273,000. Diminution in serious crime has 
accompanied the improved condition of education of the people. 
Eespecting the temperance of the people, much less that is 
satisfactory can be reported. In certain classes fifty years have 
witnessed a complete and hopeful revolution in social opinion 
and habits as regards intemperance. But in the working classes 
there has been a close connection between high wages and 
excess in liquor. The tide seems at length, however, to be 
turning. The decreased consumption of spirits, wine, and beer 
since 1875-6 may be measured by the loss of more than five 
millions sterling to the revenue, a loss almost equal to 3d. in the 
pound of income tax (see Budget of Mr. Childers, 5th April, 
1883.) We have thus established the following points : — 1. The 
great gain in the last half-century in the earnings of the masses. 
2. The favourable change, on the whole, in the prices of their 



19 

chief articles of consumption. 3. The greater benefits the State 
gives the working people in return for diminished taxes. 4. The 
actual improvement in the condition and wealth of the people as 
tested — («) by the hirth and death rates ; {h} by the vast increase 
in the number of articles needed by the people ; (c) by their 
savings and investments ; {d) by the decline of pauperism ; 
(c) by the spread of education ; ( /') by the diminution in adult 
and juvenile crime. Mr. Giffen, in the address fi-om which 
I have drawn so largely for statistics, elaborately discusses yet 
another point, on which I have not left myself time and space 
to give you more than his conclusions. ' Have the working 
classes gained in proportion with others by the development of 
material wealth during the last fifty years ?' To this question, 
after examining the statistics of probates and of the income tax 
he replies that "the increase of working-class income in the 
aggregate is greater than that of any other class, being 160 per 
cent., while the return to capital and to what are called the 
capitalist classes .... has only increased about 100 per 
cent., although capital itself had increased over 150 per cent. 
At the same time the capitalist classes themselves have greatly 
increased in number, so that the amount of capital possessed 
among them per head can hardly have increased at all. On the 
other hand, as the masses of the nation — taking the United 
Kingdom altogether — have only increased about 30 per cent, 
since 1843, when these income tax figures begin, while their 
aggregate incomes have increased 160 per cent., it is explained 
how these incomes have gained, individually, about 100 per 
cent., as against hardly any increase at all in the incomes of 
what are called the capitalist classes on the average. The 
lecturer passed on to refer to the strides of scientific discovery 
and invention during the last half-century, the revelation of the 
chemical composition of the sun, of nebula, and of many fixed 
stars, the investigation of the physical condition of the sun, the 
calculation of the velocity of light, photography, artificial light- 
ing, the electric telegraph, the electric light, the telephone, 
microphone, and phonograph, and the use of electricity as a 
motive power. Eailways themselves are a work of the last 
fifty-three years. Steamboats — which first crossed the Atlantic 
in 1838 — have developed from the paddle to the screw, and 
from the simple to the compound engine, while iron has replaced 
wood, and steel in its turn iron. Our British shipping not 
only increases, but increases relatively to that of the rest of the 
world. Mechanical science has made other great strides, includ- 
ing the use of the hot blast in smelting, and of Siemens' 
regenerative furnace, and Nasmyth's steam hammer, and Whit- 
worth's fluid compression of steel. Subsoil drainage, the mowing 
machine, and the steam plough, and other uses of the steam 



20 

engine have effected almost a revolution in agriculture. The 
evidences of progress— scientific, physical, material, and national 
— progress, above all, in the condition and welfare of the masses 
of our people are simply overwhelming. From the progress of 
knowledge, discovery, and invention, let us be taught this lesson : 
how little we know, and how much we have yet to learn. And 
let the progress of our nation and our people in the past be 
an incentive to us all to renewed efforts, that our progress may 
be continuous and enduring." 

In the discussion that followed ]\Ir. Nowell referred to the 
advances which the country had made in dealing with the cri- 
minal laws during the last fifty years. — Mr. Eawlinson discussed 
the question whether the supposed decline of wages that had 
been going on in every trade since 1873 had been a real decline, 
or whether it was merely a readjustment, as he thought it was, 
to a very large extent, of the altered conditions of prices and of 
gold. As regards temperance, when the figures were placed 
before them they found that although there had been a consider- 
able increase in the consumption of intoxicating liquors, that 
did not at all prove that there had been an increase in 
drunkenness, for there had been at the same time a very great 
decrease in serious crimes. — Dr. Mackenzie spoke of the condi- 
tion of the agricultural labourers in Scotland, and Councillor 
Lancaster urged that one great factor in producing the advance- 
ment, the free trade policy, had been ignored. — Mr. F. Grant 
believed that the prosperity of England was not due so much to 
legislation as to the energy and determination of its people ; if 
Government would let commerce pursue its own course unfettered, 
set itself to maintain peace, to encourage iudustiy, to reduce the 
price of law, and to defend life and property, the people would 
do the rest. — Mr. Strange spoke of the removal of the taxes on 
knowledge and the development of the press, and gave as one 
teat of progress the capacity to obtain credit. — Mr. John 
Whittaker (Nelson), Mr. J. Kay, Mr. Nutter, and Mr. A. 
Halstead also took part in the discussion. — Sir Ughtred Kay- 
Shuttleworth, in reply, chiefly dwelt upon the condition of the 
poor in the worst parts of London, and offered evidence that 
although that condition was not satisfactory, still it had been 
improved. With regard to statistics of crime, produced by 
friends of the temperance movement, dissection was needed, as 
all sorts of new offences were created, and prosecutions were 
instituted under Acts which had no representatives in the past. 



21 

NOTES ON SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

By W. E. KAY, January 16th, 1884. 



In the regrettable absence through illness of the author, 
the paper was read by Mr. James Kay. The paper commenced 
by remarkmg that perhaps California was best known to-day in 
connection with its gold mining. Many people who were 
attracted during the great rushes in the year 18 iS, in time 
finding their occupation gone, had then to turn their attention 
to the cultivation of the soil. This had the effect of opening out 
the country, and now that its capabilities for the production of 
grain and fruits was being better known, numbers of settlers were 
leaving the Prairie States where the terrible tornadoes and 
blasting winter storms formed such a contrast to the genial climate 
of Southern Cahfornia. Santa Barbara, 300 miles south of San 
Francisco, was the most favoured as a winter resort. It was on 
the sea-coast, and was sheltered from the north and east by the 
Sierra Madre mountains. It had some capital hotels, good 
stores, beautiful walks and drives, interesting old ruins, and the 
most lovely country and coast scenery to be found anywhere. 
It was easily reached by boat from either San Pedro or San 
Francisco, or by coach from Newhall, the nearest station on the 
Southern Pacific Eailroad. Allusion was made to the walnut 
orchards, and the rapidity of growth of some trees. A blue gum 
tree (Eucalyptus Globulus) of only six years' growth had been 
cut down in Mr. Kay's presence and found to be 60 feet long 
and 18 inches in diameter. Great strides had been made in the 
careful and scientific culture of fruits. Observations on olive, 
lemon, and lime cultivation, and the manufacture of olive oil, 
were made ; and Mr. Kay depicted the beautiful sight afforded 
by orange groves when the round, shapely, and dark foliaged 
trees were covered with a profusion of bi-ight yellow oranges. 
Some trees would produce 2,000 oranges annually. The vine 
flourished well in Southern California. In the lovely valley of 
Montecito, a few miles from Santa Barbara, there was still to be 
seen one of the oldest grape vines in the State. There was 
a pretty legend in connection with it. It was said that the slip 
from which this now immense vine had grown was given to a 
young Spanish gnl by her lover when she was leaving sunny 
Spain for this distant land. Her first care was to plant this 
token of love, and, so the legend runs, she watered it with her 
tears. A portion of the stem of this vine was exhibited at the 
Centennial Exhibition held at Philadelphia in 1878. Pumpkins 
of enormous dimensions were sometimes grown. Within one 
which was exhibited at a fair at Santa Barbara, and which had 



22 

been hollowed out, were nestled the two infant children of the 
exhibitor. The pepper tree was beautiful in its foliage, flowers, 
and fruit, and afforded grateful shade. Touching upon the 
climate, Mr. Kay remarked that during the five montlis of his 
stay at various places in Southern California tliey had five days 
with some rain, six days on which rain fell almost continuously, 
and perhaps four days when there was some fog, which cleared 
at mid-day. On two days there was a hot, unpleasant desert 
wind. As for the rest of tlie time, the sun shone fi'om a 
cloudless sky, the heat being tempered by a pleasant sea-breeze, 
making the air most delightful. California may be reached by 
several routes, the season of the year determining which to 
adopt. The distance from New York to Santa Barbara is about 
3,500 miles, and the cost of a railway ticket, including sleeping 
berth, drawing room, and meals, is 200 to 220 dollars. The 
time occupied on the trip is seven to eight days. 



KASHMIR, the Highway of Central Asia. 

Bij REV. J. S. DOXEY, Januari/ 22nd, 1884. 



A hearty welcome was accorded Mr. Doxey, inasmuch as in 
the earlier days of the Club he had afforded great assistance to 
it, and also on account of his return from his missionary labours 
in North India. In introducing the subject, Mr. Doxey dwelt 
upon the magnitude and vital importance of our Indian Empire, 
commenting upon the widespread ignorance which exists in this 
country in relation to India, its people, wants, and resources. 
He tlien turned his attention to the trade of the country of 
Kashmir, and pointed out the natural features of the country and 
its situation in relation to the provinces in Central Asia and 
their great trading centres. Of the Vale of Kashmir, Moore, in 
his celebrated poem, " Lalla Rookh," had referred to it as a spot 
of unsurpassing loveliness. It was surprising that though the 
poet had never visited Kashmir his description was remarkably 
accurate. The Persians said of this lovely valley, " Kashmir 
without an equal, Kashmir equal to Paradise." It was hemmed 
in by the gigantic peaks of the Himalaya range, towering up 
25,000 feet in height, and tlie vale might be likened to a gem 
set amidst barren grandeur. The routes to Kashmir from Central 
Asia were then described. Each of them presented many 
difficulties, and to an invading army would offer most serious 
obstacles. He described the difficulties which would attend the 
progress of, say, a Eussian army in proposing to invade India 
through Kashmir. The roads reaching Kashmu- from India 
were much better, and one of these was open all the year round, 



23 

the others crossing the passes at considerable elevation, and 
only being traversed during the summer months. The history 
and political relations of the comitry were next described, Mr. 
Doxey expressing regret that Kashmir was not an integral part 
of the Queen's dominions. The Maharajali was, to a large 
extent, independent of the British Government, but in matters 
of trade had opened negotiations with us to a good purpose. 
The people were much crushed down by oppression and 
taxes, and though the Kashmirs were a fine race of men 
physically, yet they were mean and cowardly, the result probably 
of their having been in a sort of abject slavery for so many ages. 
It had been said that never had nature in such beauty looked 
upon men in such misery. The customs and dress of the people 
were pourtrayed, and matters relating to their religion and 
occupation were dwelt upon, and sundry anecdotes were related 
illustrating the different points in the paper. 



MOUNTAINEERING IN NORWAY. 

By W. CECIL SLINGS BY, February 5th, 1884. 



Mr. Slingsby introduced his subject by a reference to the 
character of Norwegian scenery, the comparative neglect of the 
mountains, tha lack of efficient guides, and the false opinion 
that prevails among the tourists who have visited the country 
that there are no peaks there such as the Swiss mountains 
present, "As my name has," said he, "been perhaps more 
associated with Skagastolstind than with any other mountain in 
Norway, I will give you a brief outline of its history and its first 
ascent. This mountain, for very many years, was looked upon 
as being the culminating point of Scandinavia, and, indeed, of 
Northern Europe, and was shown to me as such. Eecently, 
Galdhoppigen, and two or three other peaks, have been found 
to be a trifle higher, though not nearly so fine mountains. 
Skagastolstind is the highest and the sharpest of a group 
of glorious aiguilles which form the Horungtinder range, near 
the head of the Sogne Fjord." After detailing his previous 
reconnaissances and approaches to the mountain, Mr. Slingsby 
proceeded to the account of the ascent. 

" On the evening of July 20th, 1876, my friend, Herr Mohn, 
who is a most enthusiastic mountaineer, a reindeer hunter called 
Knut Lykken, in some respects a first-rate man, and 1, reached 
the sseter or sunimer cheese-making farm of Vormelid, at the 
bottom of the Utla gorge. We had done some good work that 
day, and had made the first ascent of a very fine mountain, upon 



24 

which Mohn, had set his heart's affections years before. It was 
our fourth maiden peak in five days' time. My great day was to 
come on the next, or not at all, as Knut, whom we looked upon 
as being quite essential in order to be successful, could only give 
us one day more of his services, and as we apprehended some 
very heavy work on the glacier, a third man really would be 
necessary. After brewing chocolate, and making a good meal of 
sfeter produce, we drew nearer to the fire, in the wooden shoes 
which we had borrowed, then threw on some more birch logs, 
hi;ng up our wet things to dry, and were as happy as bees in 
honeysuckle. I tried to impress upon my comrades the truth of 
the old proverb, " Early to bed, early to rise,'" but it was of no 
avail, they were too comfortable. Yet another log on the fire to 
dry the stockings (dry already), yet another song, yet another 
pipe, and, hang it all, yet another glass of toddy, and late to bed 
was the order. As the ascent of Bkagastolstind was made from 
Vormelid, I must say, in passing — though time is pressing — 
something about its surroundings. The gorge of the Utla, which 
I have already mentioned, affords during a course of twenty-five 
miles, some of the wildest scenery of its kind in Norway. It 
joins an arm of the great Sogne Fjord at Aardal. Its great 
individuality arises from its narrowness and depth. The pre- 
cipices rise on each side nearly perpendicularly from the river, 
in many places to a height varying from 1,200 to nearly 8,000 
feet. The river, for six or seven miles, between Vetti and 
Vormelid, forms almost the only bottom of the gorge so effectually 
that between these two places there is no communicating path. 
This length two Norrmen and I tried to force in the winter of 
1880 when the river was frozen up, but though we spent two 
whole days of twelve hours each, and had to pass one night in a 
cave, we failed ; and though we worked like trolds, and my com- 
panions were the best Norsk climbers I have seen, we were 
eventually forced over the moiintains. Vormelid is about twenty 
miles up the gorge from the fjord, and, in order to I'each it, one 
must cross the mountains to the higher portion of Utladal, and 
descend to it by a Aveird mountain path. On Friday morning 
we heard the two merry, bright-eyed sfeter girls — Live and 
Oliva- — calling the cattle with their musical cattle cries, and 
then milking them, about 3 a.m. I was soon out of my sheep- 
skin covered bed — and, in passing, I may say it is easier to get 
uj) from a rough bed than a soft one — but could not, as I anti- 
cipated, get my comrades away, well-breakfasted, until after 
seven o'clock — a very late hour at which to set out on a totally 
new expedition, and a great disappointment to me, as Knut was 
to leave us next day. Vormelid is only some 1,800 feet above 
sea level, and as Skagastolstind is about 8,000 feet, there would 
be a pretty long ascent to make, besides which we should have 



25 

to cross and to descend from a high rocky spur before we could 
reach the actual base of the mountain, which meant a long day 
at least. The morning was decidedly unpromising ; all the 
neighbouring lieights were enshrouded with the densest-looking 
clouds. Knut said, ' You cannot climb anything to-day.' I 
replied that possibly at that very instant the whole of the higher 
Horungtiuder were proudly holding their heads, quite clear, far 
above the clouds, and glistening in the morning suu ; that the 
mists were only affecting the lower and insignificant mountains, 
and that we should climb above them. My aneroid had gone up 
too. I have frequently known this condition of affairs in both 
Norway and Switzerland. On one occasion, in 1879, several of 
us mountaineers were staying at The Eiffel Hotel. One morning, 
five separate parties set off at about two a.m. for different expe- 
ditions. Zermatt, far below, was invisible, the clouds stuck 
tenaciously to the valley, and tlie mountaineers there, who had 
looked out early, tm-ned into bed again, and were fearfully 
jealous of us at The Eiffel, who had all been successful. To 
resume, Knut was tired as well, owing to a succession of 
uncomfortable nights. But go we must, I engaging to carry- 
both my own rope and one of Knut's. We were soon on our 
way, at first through rich, though late, pasture land, beautified 
by groves of silvery bu'ch and pines. Amongst the rocks we 
found many big plants of the Atujelica archanyelica, each of 
which,, however, had its top eaten off by the bears, whose 
fod spor was plainly visible where there was soft earth near 
the plants. A steep zig -zaggiug cattle path led us beside 
the Maradal Fos, a fine cataract, into Maradal, a short vaUey 
lieaded by a magnificent glacier, out of which rise the Titanic 
walls of the Styggedalstind, upon whose snowy crest we had been 
the previous day. The top of the mountain actually overhangs 
the glacier, and we had heaved over many immense rocks into 
the abyss below, and, when a break in the clouds allowed of it, 
we accurately timed the aerial flight of the rocks from the ledge 
at the top, over which we simply just di-opped them, until they 
struck the ice some distance from the base of the rock, and 
found rei^eatedly the time to be Q^ seconds. The actual calcula- 
tion for 9^ seconds gives 1,440 feet, but I knock off the odd 40 
feet in order to avoid exaggeration, and to allow for the time 
occupied by light in travelling. We judged by sight alone ; one 
of us was held by the legs, and so leaned over the edge and 
watched the fall. I have been on much higher precipices — on 
the Weisshorn, for instance, but never on one so high which was 
actually overhanging. Two other mighty obelisks — the Mara- 
dalstinder — both ledgeless and herbless, spring fi-om out of this 
glacier, yet unascended, and two fine passes, not made as yet, 
invite the adventurer. Another fine peak was climbed last year 



26 

by a Danish friend of mine. At the top of the Fos, and just 
above the birch tree, whei*e the dwarf willows begin to grow, we 
stopped, nominally to admire the view, but in reality to rest a 
little. Truly it was a fair picture to look upon. The peaceful- 
looking sfeter, with the cattle and goats browsing around it in 
greenest pastures, the foaming river Utla below, here a tem- 
pestuous rapid, there a deep pool ; then, beyond the river, cliff 
piled upon cliff, terrace upon terrace, where, until some rude 
avalanche shall come down and sweep them away, grow the 
sombre-liued pines and graceful silvery birches, which blended in 
most harmonious colours with the purest emerald of the mosses, 
the greyish blue, and now and then brown rocks, or others as 
black as darkest winter's night, which again formed a strong 
contrast to the snows above, the clouds, and milk-white cataracts. 
Of sunshine there was but little. Forward up the valley, clouds 
still reigned supreme, and left much for our lively imagination 
to picture. After walking a mile up the valley, we turned aside 
to the left, crossed a ridge, and then descended 314 feet into a 
tiny valley, where we could see nothing, and consequently steered 
very carefully, and erected diminutive cairns on prominent rocks 
to guide us on our return, We had yet a second ridge 3,276 feet 
above Vormelid to cross before gaining Midt Maradal. Whilst 
climbing this ridge, or moautain buttress as it is, the weather 
was decidedly unpromising ; we could see nothing. Mohn and I 
had frequently noticed that the higher Horungtinder, after being 
enveloped in thick clouds for nearly a whole day, very often shine 
out with double beauty late in the afternoon or evening, and we 
told Knut that such would be the case now, but we thouqht 
otherwise. On nearing the top of the ridge we discovered that 
the higher we got the lighter were the clouds, so I ran forward, 
and when on the top — glorious sight ! There before me was the 
sharply serrated arete of the Dyrhougstinder, which form in the 
west of the valley a black colossal, nearly perpendicular wall, 
3,000 feet high. The top portion of this wall only was visible, 
and the contrast it showed to the clouds below was wonderful. 
I shouted out to Mohn and Knut who soon came up. Shortly 
after we saw the bottom of Midt Maradal, 1,500 feet below us; 
then the clouds swept up the valley and all was obscured for a 
few minutes. After that a glorious, perfectly inaccessible- 
looking peak, a continuation of our ridge, appeared. ' Is that 
Skagast5lstind ? ' we all exclaimed ; we could only see the top, 
and the clouds lent it such additional grandeur that we had no 
proper conception of its height, or of its relative position. It 
disappeared from our view as quickly as it had come ; and 
presently a truly noble aiguille appeared — a never-to-be-forgotten 
sight. Further doubt was impossible, and the former, Mohn 
rightly said, was only one of the Maradalstinder. Another peak 



27 

then appeared between the two, and for a while each seemed to 
be floating in the clouds. Our excitement and anxiety, as may- 
be easily expected, were intense. The marvellous panoramic 
changes caused by the drifting of the cloudy curtains are far 
beyond my descriptive powers, though I remember much of 
them now. After a gaze of wonder and bewilderment, during 
which the guardian clouds were all dissipated and our work stood 
unfettered before us, we began scrambling at noonday down the 
rugged crags into Midt Maradal. Then we had about a mile to 
walk over horrible debris, and at one o'clock we reached the 
glacier, Midt Maradals brae, at the actual base of the mountain, 
and 4,896 feet from the top. Here we lunched and planned the 
ascent. The guiding was all left to me, as the mountain was 
considered my speciality, though I, of course, consulted the 
others. Skagastolstiud heads the valley, and rises majestically 
a good 3,000 feet N.E. out of the well-crevassed glacier I have 
just mentioned, fi-om which side it certainly is inaccessible. On 
the right hand is another small but steep glacier — the Skagas- 
tolstinds hvse — which does not join the valley in the ordinary 
sensible way, but, like the Matterhorn glacier, it ends abruptly 
at the top of a vertical cliff 60 or 70 feet high, over which the 
stream from the glacier makes a wild waterfall into the snow. 
It was this glacier that I had seen the year before, and taken to 
be a small snow coulou", and our way must lead up there ; but 
how ? I proposed to Knut that we should cross over the lower 
portion of the great glacier which overlapped the junction of the 
stream from the httle glacier with the valley itself, and that then 
we should climb up a gully, which seemed to lead on to our 
intended glacier, in fact it was our only choice. In looking 
upwards, we saw a narrow belt of black rocks at the head of the 
glacier, 1,104 feet from the top of the mountain. This belt 
separates the glacier from a steep snow slope above. Here we 
apprehended some difficulty, and Knut said, ' De kan ikke komme 
frem der,' (You cannot get forward there), and the snow above 
is much too steep. I replied, which was perfectly true, that it 
was the only way where there was the least chance, and that we 
must try it. Mohn also backed me, as he and I, having both 
seen the mountain fi-om the North, thought that there was not 
the least possibility of mounting it on that side, whilst Knut, 
who had never been near it before, was inclined to think " our 
best as bad." The snow slope leads up at a very steep angle 
to a col or skar rather more than 500 feet from the top, though 
from the base we could not see how far the snow slope reached 
up the mountain, a projecting crag hiding it, but we rather 
expected an arete from the col or a couloir to form our high road 
to the si;mmit. We had no difficulty in crossing the lower 
glacier, and we soon got up the gully, and on a great spur which 



28 

separates the two glaciers. Here great caution was requisite, 
as the rocks were very slippery, and there Avere many loose stones. 
We presently reached a steep slope, which we had to cross- 
where we saw hefore lis — footsteps ! Crusoe's surprise at finding 
footprints in the sand could not have much exceeded ours. On 
a closer inspection we found that they were the fresh tracks of a 
bear. What Bruin could have been doing up there, out of the 
way of all vegetation, we could not divine, but there were his 
traces, quite recent. Perhaps he too was on a tour of explora- 
tion, or possibly we had frightened him on the previous day. 
He had proceeded in the direction we were taking, and in 
descending to our glacier a few minutes later we found his track 
again ; he seemed to understand the crevasses hke a man of 
experience, and had picked out his intricate way most cleverly, 
steering across to an arete of the Maradalstinder. Of course we 
put on the rope, I leading, then Molin, whilst Knut brought up 
the rear. After proceeding a few hundred yards we came to an 
interesting place where a jutting crag contracted a glacier, and 
thus caused its pent-up masses to be heaped up indiscriminately, 
and form what are usxially termed seracs. We had no difficulty 
here, and but little step-cutting. Seeing an avalanche fall far up 
the mountain on the right of the glacier, we kept somewhat to 
the left, quite under Skagastolstind, which towered proudly 3,000 
feet above us —an awful precipice, but from which there seemed 
to be hardly any debris fallen on to the glacier — a good sign for 
us. Near the top of the glacier a bergschrund spread nearly 
across ; the width there would be perhaps 500 yards. In some 
places it looked a fearfully hungry open-jawed monster, 20 to 25 
feet wide, and awfully deep. As there were no snow bridges 
in the centre, we followed it to the western cliff where the snowy 
wall had collapsed and partially choked up the crevasse. Here 
we made sure of crossing. In the best place, however, there was 
a wall of neve 12 feet high above the snow in the crevasse. I 
twice cut my way up the wall, but could not get over on the top, 
as the snow, at that late hour of the day, was too soft for my ice- 
axe to hold in, and I twice fell down, in my fruitless endeavours, 
on to the soft snow, the second time my feet passing through 
and revealing uncanny depths below, but as my companions 
were well anchored above, there was no danger. I tried again, 
but to no purpose, so after our little excitement we retraced our 
steps, and eventually found a substantial bridge on the eastern 
side. We soon reached the black belt of rock, which we found 
as difficult to climb as we expected. The glacier is certainly 
very interesting in the condition we found it, and with ordinary 
care there can be no danger, because the crevasses are all 
apparent— nothing is hidden. When we got to the rocks, still 
1,114 feet from the summit, Mohn said he felt tired, as, owing 



29 

to his having worn boots, innocent of spikes or nails, as Norrmen 
generally do, he had slipped about a great deal on the snow and 
ice, and he wished to rest. Isaid that we could not afford the 
time, as it was nearly 5 p.m., and the great 'tug of war' was yet 
to come on, and even the long Norsk days do not last for an 
indefinite period at the end of July. I untied myself and soon 
reached the steep snow slope, which was nearly 600 feet high. 
Being partially frozen, it required very great care, and an ice- 
axe was a si7ie qua non. I rather feared the descent of this part 
if it were to get frozen, as the angle was very great, and a fall 
not to be thought of. Where the rocks were feasible I preferred 
them, and left the snow until the rocks were too steep to climb. 
At nearly 6 p.m. I reached the top of the col or skar, and then 
took a look around. On the opposite side to that which I had 
ascended, instead of couloirs and glaciers, close at hand there 
was an almost vertical precipice of certainly more than 3,000 feet 
in height. At its base was a weird mountain tarn into which a 
huge glacier (the sister to Midt Maradals brae) projected, and, as 
might be expected, large masses of ice had broken off and were 
floating about as little icebergs. Beyond it rose in terrific pre- 
cipices the northern arete of the Dyrhougstinder, a continuation 
of the black wall referred to before. Looking towards the true 
Skagastolstind, 518 feet liigher, I felt that I was beaten after aU 
and my dream at an end, as it is difficult to imagine any 
mountain presenting a more impracticable appearance than is 
shown at first sight by this peak from the top of the " skar." 
It stands up from the narrow ridge, an oblong-looking tower of 
gabbro. On the right is the awful precipice above the lake, and 
on the left it springs from the glacier nearly perpendicularly, 
and with no ledges at all. There seemed to be no proper arete 
to connect it with the skar, but merely a narrow face, mostly 
consisting of smoothly polished and almost vertical slabs of 
rock. The first 150 or 200 feet seemed to be the worst, and I 
thought that if those could be surmounted the top might be 
gained, but I honestly did not think there was the slightest 
possibility of doing it. Of course there was no couloir ; the 
rocks were much too steep to admit of snow stopping there. 
Behind me Avas another peak some 300 feet up, which seemed 
fau'ly easy. I thought " Well ! that's better than none," and I 
might climb it before my companions came, and then we could 
consult further about the great j)eak. I had just set off to do 
this, when I saw them close to me at the top of the snow slope. 
' What do you think of it, Mohn ? ' He said, " Well, I suppose 
that we can now only say that it is perfectly impossible.' ' We 
have not yet proved it to be so ; I will not give it up without 
a try, will you come?' 'No.' " Knut, will you?' 'No, I 
shall not risk my life there.' ' I will at least try, though I do 



30 

not think I can manage it.' Fortunately I felt perfectly fresh 
and not in the least tired. I recommended Mohn to climb the 
other peak (then nnascended.) He said, ' Ant Caesar, aut nihil.' 
I then left them, and passed under a snow cornice which over- 
hung the northern precipice, and reached the rocky wall in a 
very short time. Now, farewell to snow, that great aider of 
mountain ascents, and 500 feet of rock. I found a small 
buttress projecting from the face of the rock; it formed a 
corner. Up there I must go, or nowhere else ; of choice there 
was none. But still, when viewed closely, it looked more 
hopeful. I soon found that the rocks were firm; the ledges, 
though so tiny, were secure ; the strata of the rock inclined the 
right way, downward, from the out face towards the centre of the 
mountain. Better than all, I was quite cool, and in perfect 
training. Still, no trifling must be done here. After being 
hidden by the snow cornice from my friends, I came into 
view again, and was eagerly watched by my well-wishers. I 
soon got into a difficulty in a corner, and but for a ledge no 
broader than my hand, from which I had to knock away the ice, 
should thus early have been defeated, as without the aid of 
this foothold the mountain would indeed be inaccessible. My 
friends saw me at this place, and vainly tried to call me back, 
but with the aid of my well tried ice-axe, I surmounted the 
difficulty. I shall avoid going into details about this and other 
places, as if I were to attempt to describe them 1 should 
undoubtedly be accused either of exaggeration or perhaps of 
foolhardiness by persons unaccustomed to Alpine work, when at 
the same time I might be guilty of neither. Suffice it to say 
that it was an exceedingly tough piece of work. I had to use 
my hands the whole distance, and my ice-axe often. Three 
times I was all but stopped, but this was my especial and much 
longed-for mountain. I reached, in sight of Mohn, what from 
afar we had judged to be the top. I raised a cheer, which was 
renewed from below, when I found that there v as a ridge — a 
knife-edge affair — perhaps sixty yards long, and that the highest 
point was evidently that at the further end. There are three 
peaklets and a notch in the ridge, which latter again almost 
stopped me. For the first time, I had to trust to an over- 
hanging and rather loose rocky ledge. I tried it well, then 
hauled myself up to teiia firma, and in a few strides, a little 
above half an hour after leaving my friends, I found myself on 
the luisuUied crown of the peerless Skagastolstind, a rocky table 
four feet by three, elevated five or six feet above the southern 
end of the ridge. As to the view, which was perfectly free from 
clouds, it would be futile for me to attempt to describe it at 
length, excepting the more immediate surroundings, except 
to say that ou every hand some of the wildest crags, aiguilles, 



31 

and glaciers in ' Gamle Norge ' looked their very wildest. On 
one hand our luncheon j)lace, 4,396 feet helow, seemed a stone 
throw off, on another hand helow an almost vertical precipice 
3,000 feet in height was a portion of the glacier we had ascended. 
On anothei', some 4,000 feet down, lay the weird mountain tarn 
with its icy flotilla, and above it the glacier and the terrible 
cliffs I have before alluded to. Forests and meadows here and 
there reheved the scene of most of its terrible characteristics, 
and the exquisite colouring for which Norway is so deservedly 
famous appeared in all its richness and variety. But in such a 
place, alone, out of sight of every living creature, one of the 
greatest wishes of my heart granted to me, it will be easily 
understood, when I say that a feeling of silent worship and 
adoration was more suitable than to jot down memoranda in my 
note book. I did make a few notes it is true, but the scene was 
too overwhelming for them. After a diiuk of cold tea and a 
cold collation of goat's milk cheese, a crust of rye bread, and a 
few prunes, I set to work to build a cairn, and as the top was so 
marvellously sound I could find very few stones, so only made it 
two or three feet high. I put a pocket handkerchief under one 
of the stones, which I afterwards saw in the distance through a 
telescope. By my aneroid I ascertained the height to be 6,199 
feet above Vormelid. At 6-53, after picking up a few httle 
stones and some reindeer moss, I left the top in warm and 
golden sunshine and found the descent to the ' skar' not good — 
the less said about it the better. I was very thankful to join 
my fi-iends at 7-45, when I was most heartily congratulated 
upon my success. The snow-slope was now hard fi-ozen and oui* 
warm gloves a necessity, but we passed it very well and were 
soon over the belt of rock and on the glacier, where we had some 
good glissades. At 9 o'clock we reached our former luncheon 
place, and I shall never forget Mohn's kindness in sharing with 
me his last bit of cheese and bread, as mine had been finished 
long before. A simple gift indeed, but nevertheless a great act of 
self-denial, appreciable only by those who know the real value of 
a crust when nothing else is to be had. We found the 1,500 
feet which we had to ascend on our return very fatiguing. I was 
the freshest, but my success, perhaps, sustained my animal 
vigour. From the top of the great ridge, which we reached in 
the twilight at 11 p.m., we had a most sublime view of sharn 
peaks stdl tinted with the gold of the setting sun. Jupiter 
shone brightly just over the crest of Stolsnaastind, which is a 
most beautiful mountain above the Vetti's Fos, and which ought 
to be often climbed, but, so far, is not. The snow was crisp and 
hard, and sparkled brilliantly. After getting into Maradal it 
grew much darker than it was on the ridges, and each one had 
several falls over the junipers and dwarf birches, but we arrived 



at the sfeter all right a little after one a.m., where we found the 
elder girl still awaiting us. She soon got us a roaring fire of 
birch logs, made us coffee and Liebig, and did all in her power 
to make us comfortable. Then we slept the sleep of the weary 
till the sun was high in the heavens. Such was the first ascent 
of what is usually called the noblest mountain in Norway, and 
for many years had been considered impracticable. Others will 
try and have tried the mountain, and will succeed, but it will 
never become a fashionable mountain — the last bit is too bad for 
that. I for one should never have attempted, alone, rocks such 
as those upon any other mountain, but it was the particular one 
upon which I had centred my energies, and those 508 feet which 
I climbed in solitude, I shall now always look back upon 
with a feeling of veneration, as they formed an event in my 
life which can never be forgotten, and although I have 
climbed more of the higher Norsk mountains than any other 
person, yet the ascent of none can leave such a vivid 
impression in my mind as this." Mr. Slingsby then spoke 
of the attacks made on the mountain in 1820, by Keilhau 
and Boeck, and in 1821 by Naumann, the ascent by a Norwegian 
in 1880, and the death of Tonsberg in 1881, and concluded as 
follows : — " I fear that much of my paper will fail to be 
understood, and that the sport of mountaineering, which is the 
finest sport in the world, may be considered as a dangerous 
pastime. It is not so at all to those who understand their 
business, and who do not neglect certain well-known precautions ; 
but if it be undertaken by thoughtless and inexperienced men, 
without good guides to watch their every footstep, it is an 
extremely dangerous one. Though I say to all mountain lovers, 
' Be up and be doing,' I say to all, ' Do nothing rashly, pay due 
reverence to the rope where needed, as you value your life, and 
as you think of your fitiends at home. Be bold if boldness is 
required, but be boldest of all in your determination to turn 
back if you think the work foolhardy, or yourself not quite equal 
to the task, even if you are within twenty feet of the wished-for 
goal.' It often requires more real courage — real moral courage — 
to turn back than to go on. Courage and obstinacy are not 
synonymous terms. This is no excuse for idleness and lack of 
common pluck. I merely want to impress upon my hearers the 
necessity of exercising constant care, prudence, and, above all, 
patience. Mountains claim our respect as well as our love and 
admiration, and are not to be treated lightly, else they may take 
vengeance, as they have done in past years. There is much 
new work yet to be done in Norway, and I hope that a good 
share of it will fall to the lot of Englishmen, but if so they must 
not waste time ; our Norsk brothers are waking up from their 
lethargy ; the spirit of the Vikings, though sometimes dormant, 



33 

still exists in the breasts of their descendants, and is not, as 
many have suggested, all used up yet. No, I am proud to 
believe tliat many of our own finest qualities are heirlooms 
bequeathed to us by our ancient Norsk ancestry. In bringing 
my paper to a close, though I am well aware that mountaineer- 
ing no longer requires the apologies and arguments of its votaries 
to defend its very existence as a sport, as was requisite only a few 
years ago, I will merely say, as a mountaineer, I firmly believe 
that the sport of mountaineering is better calculated than any 
other to bring out the best and highest qualities, to make a 
mere person into a true man in the highest sense of the word, 
to make him sound in hmbs and lungs, to stimulate the growth 
of muscular fibre, and to implant in his breast the maxims of 
patience, unselfishness, sympathy, endurance, sobriety, courage, 
true heroism, and, above all, true love and veneration for the 
great Creator of all." 

A number of drawings were exhibited to assist the hearers 
in following the description of the mountains and the direction 
and character of the ascents. 



"THE FROGS" OF ARISTOPHANES. 

By J. LANGFIELD WARD, M.A., February 12th, 1884. 



It is now 2,288 years since the citizens of Athens flocked to 
their Dionysiac Theatre to witness, criticise, and adjudicate on 
the play by Aristophanes, entitled " The Frogs." Their decision 
was favourable, and it received the first prize and was repeated, 
owing, as the reporter of the time says, to the excellence of the 
pohtical advice tendered in a particular part. It has not been 
honoured by a representation in recent years amid all these 
revivals of the ancient di'ama. There have been shown in the 
last two or three years the " Ajax" of Sophocles, the " Electra" 
of Euripides, and the "Agamemnon" of ^schylus, but the 
greatest interest has, no doubt, been excited by the reproduction 
of the "Birds" at Cambridge; these plays are fairly repre- 
sentative of the genius of their respective authors. It must be 
borne in mind that while the tragedies may be brought veiy near 
their prototypes at Athens, may affect a spectator now much as 
they would affect one at theii' first performance, may in short be 
considered as permanent ; in comedy, on the other hand, there 
is much that is evanescent ; thejokes, excellent so many thousand 
years ago, are getting stale now ; we do not understand as an 
Athenian would the personalities, attacks on rivals, Attic slang, 
or the brilliancy of the parodies, but still we can enjoy the 
burlesque of the story and laugh with those who laughed at the 



34 

troubles of the hero-god Dionysus and the ready wit of his slave, 
Xanthias. 

This is the plot — the festive Dionysus, god by profession, 
identified with the Bacchus of the Greeks and Eomans, patron 
of the drama, having the theatre dedicated to him, is disconsolate 
at the recent loss of Sophocles and Euripides. Believing that no 
good dramatists remain in the realms above, he bids his servant 
Xanthias saddle the ass and prepare the portmanteau, for they 
are bound for the regions below to fetch back the beloved Euri- 
pides. Arraying himself in the dress and brandishing the weapon 
of Hercules, he is directed to the Stygian pool, is ferried over by 
Charon, and hears the croaking of the frogs, which give the title 
to the play. Arrived on the other side, the pair meet with 
ludicrous adventures — sometimes the deity's disguise brings him 
into trouble, as Hercules, whom he personates, is wanted by the 
police on a charge of petty larceny ; sometimes an acquaintance 
of Hercules offers him a luxurious meal, of which offer he cannot 
at the time avail himself. In difficulty and despondency he 
reflects with satisfaction that his slave Xanthias can be forced to 
assume the disguise, and will doubtless be glad to be beaten in 
place of his dear master ; the servant must take the lion's skin 
till danger is past. Then the pair, after a violent altercation 
with head-constable Jilacus, who finds himself puzzled to know 
which is really the god and which the slave, and decides by 
beating them till one ciies out, arrive at their destination, the 
halls of Pluto ; the noise of a quarrel in this low neighbourhood 
is heard ; it turns out to be a dispute between J^lschylus and 
Euripides as to which is the worthier of occuj^ying the throne 
assigned to the tragic poets. Among his other qualifications, 
Dionysus sets up for a dramatic critic ; his aid is invoked, and 
he has to decide between the two aspirants. He promises that 
the successful one shall be x'estored to the place of honour in his 
theatre above at Athens, and as the Athenian audience would 
expect from the well-known dislike that Aristophanes entertained 
for Euripides, the contest ends in favour of ^schylus. 

The play was exhibited to influence the domestic and foreign 
policy of Athens ; there are several allusions to the opinions of 
the author on the mode of managing the government ; the play 
was shown at a critical time of Athenian history ; six months 
before the Athenians were rejoicing in an important naval 
victory ; eight months afterwards their fleet was destroyed, and 
they were sufl'ering famine ; six months later still they Avere forced 
to sign an ignominious peace, and had to destroy their long walls 
of fortification, and give up all their foreign possessions. 

Aristophanes also used the play as a means for attacking 
Euripides ; he is as fierce in his attack as he was in the Achar- 
nians, shown 20 years before. He believed the tragedian wished 



85 

to overthrow the city's worship aud its respect for divine authority, 
but he took a strange course to counteract the tragedian's in- 
fluence ; his representation of Dionysus was not likely to raise 
the god in the respect of the audience. 

We can summarize the position in the words of Mitchell — " To 
bring the mighty dead before his countrymen, as the hving offered 
no attractions for that purpose, — to contrast past and present 
dramatic schools in the persons of ^schylus and Euripides, — to 
dispel prejudices and misconceptions, and to settle finally in the 
minds of his countrymen where in such productions they might 
look not only for the soundest intellectual enjoyment, but also 
for the best guides in political aud religious knowledge, were 
evidently among the primary objects which gave birth to the 
comedy known to us by the title of the Frogs." 

The lecturer then read several scenes of the play, the 
descent into Hades, the meeting with Hercules, and the advice 
received fi-om him, the bargaining with the corpse, the dispute 
with Charon, and the crossing of the Styx, the terror of Dionysus 
after the passage, the abusive language of ^acus, the kind 
invitation from Persej)hone, and the assault by the two innkeepers. 
Some portions of the dispute between iEschylus and Euripides 
were also given, and the concluding part of the trial, where 
Dionysus, unwilling to offend either aspii-ant, offers to take the 
one who can give the best advice to the state. Now there was 
living at this time a distinguished Athenian, who had been 
banished for supposed comphcity in mutilating the pubhc statues 
of Hermes, who had deserted to his country's enemies, and had 
aided them in then- attacks on Athens, who had then joined his 
countrymen and won several victories, and saUiug to the port of 
Athens had been welcomed with enthusiasm and appointed 
commander-in-chief : but in two years his popularity waned, and 
he was dismissed ; unsteadiness of character had hindered his 
success, but his opponents were forced to confess that there was 
no cleverer man at that time than Alcibiades. " First, then," 
says the god, "what opinion do you hold about Alcibiades, for 
our city is in straits ? " " What does the city think ?" asks Pluto. 
" It longs for him, but hates him, yet wishes to have him : but 
let us hear what you two poets think." 

Euripides — I hate a statesman, summoned by his state, 
Who's slow to aid, but swift in doing harm, 
Who helps himself, but leaves his land forlorn. 

Dionysus— Good ; but, Jilschylus, what do you think ? 

^schylus— Let not the city rear a lion's whelp, 

But if 'tis reared, 'tis best to humour it. 
Dionysus — Good for both, its hard to decide, for that sentiment is wise, and 

this other wise. I must choose the one who takes my fancy. 
Euripides— Eemember, you swore by the Gods to take me hence, choose 
your friends. 



m 

Then Dionysus, availing himself of a line of Euripides against 
which criticism was often directed — " my tongue has sworn, my 
mind remains unsworn " — says " my tongue has sworn, but 
^Eschylus I choose." So amid the sound of hymns and festal 
songs, by the light of torches, iEschylus is conducted up, and 
leaves strict injunctions that Sophocles is to take his place, and 
not suffer that rascally falsehood-monger and low trickster to 
sit there. 

Dionysus was satisfied : he had recovered one of his devotees ; 
the glory of the Athenian drama, if his wishes were destined to 
be accomplished, would be renewed. The yearning for a clever 
poet was no more to trouble him. But hopes are blighted, and 
mortals are doomed to disappointment, and so was this 
vagabond immortal ; tragedy could not be revived. The seventy 
years were accomplished in which the far-famed birth-place of the 
arts was to rise to its eminence, and as suddenly fall ; the long 
warfare tlu-ough which the city had struggled with wondrous 
self-reliance was drawing to its close, and with the fall of the 
power of Athens fell her supremacy in the pursuits which still 
make her famous among men. She, " whose eyes had first in 
man's flashed lightning liberty, whose tongue had first said 
freedom," was to lie prostrate at the feet of merciless conquerors ; 
she who claimed " the crown of all songs sung, of all deeds done 
the full flower for all time, " was to be no more heard in the 
councils of Greece. But it redounds to the honour of Athens, 
and points out better than anything else, how extraordinary was 
the outburst of excellence in all arts, in knowledge and wisdom, 
and in expression of feeling by eloquence and poetry, that the 
blow inflicted on these in the little Athenian state by the battle 
in the Dardanelles, September, 405 b.c, was a blow to all culture 
as it then existed in the world. No state rose to take her place : 
these arts flourished though her pride of dominion was taken 
away, and no one came forward to contest her pre-eminence, far 
though it fell below its previous height. Tragedy was dead or 
crushed down, and was not destined to renew its life like a Phoenix 
or to receive vivifying force like an Antteus, till in a little "War- 
wickshire market town nearly 2,000 years after a claimant 
should arise, who, if anyone could, might contest the throne of 
honour in the halls of Pluto with the father of the drama. 
England is proud of her Shakespere, and the line of lesser 
tragedians Avho follow him at an interval ; foreign nations boast 
of authors whom in some respects they venture to compare with 
our highest ; but we have 300 years to travel over, a country far 
exceeding in magnitude the state of Athens, and a population of 
freemen which during those 300 years has been from 50 to 200 
times as large as hers, and yet "that city which on the jEgean 
sea stands, built nobly " produced three men of the first rank and 



37 

many of the secoucl rank in 70 years. In dramatic art nothing 
in so short a time can be shown to equal the performances of the 
three tragedians whose names J have dealt with this evening. 



ENGLAND DURING GEOLOGICAL AGES. 

By J. MONO KM AN, D.Sc, Februanj 19 th, 1884. 



Where was the land ? This question necessitates the ex- 
planation of the methods i;sed to tell the ages of hills. If we 
find that while some beds are raised with the mountain and lie 
upon it, we conclude that the mountain cannot be older than the 
beds raised, and if we find that other strata lie level at the foot 
of the hill, the mountain must have been raised to its present 
position before the horizontal beds were deposited. In the Alps 
we see the pliocene level, but the older beds bent into the shape 
of the hills ; hence we say that the Alps have been partly raised 
since the eocene and before the pliocene ages. Sometimes we 
find the same thing with the addition that the beds change in 
composition. The limestone is thick and pure in Derbyshire, 
less so in Lancashu-e and Yorkshire, and becoming mixed with 
shore dirt northwards and southwards. Not only so, but at one 
point when a pit was sunk for coal, instead of coal there was 
found a hard slate rock, and on the surface of it rounded pebbles 
revealing the action of Avater, probably sea water, and showing it 
to have been the old shore. When we apply this to the Cambrian 
rocks we are uncertain. I do not know that there is information 
enough at hand to enable us to decide, but yet we may get some 
idea. We find that the beds that come to the surface in North 
Wales, Shropshii-e, Leicester, Bohemia, and also Skiddaw, Nor- 
way and Sweden, and in America, New York State and Valley of 
Mississippi, there appears to be a tendency of sandstone and 
shale north, and limestone south, as though the land were 
northward. There are but two points of land surface in Britain 
now exposed which could have been land at that time. The Silurian 
period was one of great upheavals, when the very foundations 
of the land rocked pmd shook by reason of the mighty forces 
striving to burst forth in living streams to the surface of the 
earth. Volcanoes on Innd belched forth their showers of ashes 
and stones, darkening the face of the sun, whilst sheets of fiery 
lava flowed down the sides of the mountains. Nor was the sea at 
rest. From unseen vents enormous quantities of volcanic materials 
issued, forming layer after laj'er on the bottom of the ocean, over 
which the steady deposition of mud and sand continued as usual. 
Could we have taken post on the top of venerable Skiddaw, we 



38 

might Lave seen just where Keswick now stands a scene which 
can be described best in the language of Professor Judd, as he 
speaks of Vesuvius : " During the eruption the bottom of the 
crater was entirely broken up, and the sides of the mountain rent 
by fissures in all directions. So numerous were these fissures 
and cracks, that liquid matter appeared to be oozing from every 
part of its surface. The mountain appeared to be sweating fire. 
From the crater enormous volumes of steam rushed out with a 
prodigious roaring sound, yet those on the mountain could per- 
ceive that it was produced by a succession of explosions. Each 
of these explosions was followed by the formation of a great globe 
of vapour, which, rising into the atmosphere, swelled the bulk of 
the vast cloud overhanging the mountain. Each of these explo- 
sive upward rushes of steam carried along with it a considerable 
quantity of solid fragments, some of which rose to the height of 
four miles, while at these points lava or molten rock issued in 
such quantities as to form great fiery floods, which rushed down 
the sides of the mountain and flowed to a considerable distance 
beyond its base." During the earlier part of this period the 
conditions of sea and land were, as described before, shallowish 
sea and land northward, deeper sea in Devonshire, and southward. 
But it was an age of change. Now up, now down, and Ave lind 
that it rose to the surface, and during I know not what length of 
time, was exposed to the denuding agents, sea water, rivers, rain, 
and perhaps snow and frost. After this the beds in South 
Wales and South Scotland again went down, leaving land in 
North Scotland and Devonshire. This central portion again rose 
gently and slowly, and judging by fossils, &c., it is stated to have 
formed first an estuary of a large river, then fresh water, and 
lastly land plants appear. Here ends what is termed by geologists 
the long sea-period. As might be expected during an age of 
intense volcanic activity, there were continual changes of level 
in the land. The land in Devonshire gradually sank until corals 
and other sea animals and plants were able to live, while north- 
wards there is every indication of a shore deposit, probably in 
large fresh water lakes. The Devonian or old red sandstone 
really belongs partly to the Silurian and partly to the Carboni- 
ferous, and each is conformable with the one to which it belongs. 
The volcanoes were more active than before in Scotland ; strata 
of lava and ashes occur from the bottom to the top of the series. 
They stretch along the hills for sixty miles, and form a great 
portion of the Sidlaw, Ochiel, and southern flank of the Grampian 
Hills. In the Pentland Hill they form a thickness of 5,000 feet. 
They also occur in Ireland, and their presence in Cornwall is 
shown by bands of ash and vesicular greenstone. There was 
land in Scotland, in Wales, through the centre of England, and 
across under Loudon. The upper beds contain traces of tree 



39 

ferns, gigantic club mosses, horse tails, and other plants whicli 
show a much wax'mer climate. Some people explain this by 
supposing that the earth's axis has changed, some by the change 
in distribution of sea and land, others by the change in eccen- 
tricity of the earth's orbit and the precession of the equinoxes. 
Others again say that the sun is a variable star, like many other 
stars in the heavens. I know of no explanation which is not 
surrounded with apparently insuperable difficulties. The activity 
of the volcanoes was on the increase. We find them in Cornwall 
and South Devon. In Derbyshire three beds of toadstone, form- 
ing an average thickness of 60 to 70 feet, tell the tale of fire and 
devastation at that time. But when we come to Scotland we 
might imagine ourselves in the Lipari Isles, or in Ischia, or on 
the slopes of Etna, where in one small island — the island of 
Ischia — is no less than 20 small craters, and in the Liparis over 
that number, whilst on the sides of Etna are altogether 200 of 
these secondary cones. Take your stand on Arthur's seat, 
examine it, and you will find that it is the stem of a volcano 
or consolidated rock, which once bubbled and boiled at an intense 
white heat. Around you are other minor stumps. In Fife and 
Lothian are innumerable little rents whose lava flows thinned out 
from 100 feet to nothing in the distance of one mile. The great 
mountain has been washed away and only the centre rock left, 
but around this are the little side cones which have escaped the 
action of the water. In North Ayrshire the same kind of thing 
occurs and in Ireland. If we measure the distance, we shall find 
Naples to Lipari about 100 miles, Lipari to Etna 25 miles, 
almost in a line. In Scotland, we find the distances not very 
unlike, west to east about 50, and into Ireland 150, almost in a 
line, and to increase the similarity, the district was a shallow 
inland sea. To reproduce the scene we have but to read a 
description of the eruptions of modern Stromboli and its fellows, 
and imagine that the writer, instead of being on the mainland of 
Italy, was standing on the land formed by tlie Grampians during 
the coal period. In the Permean period considerable changes of 
surface took place, but the only points that I wish to mention 
are the rise of the Mendip Hills, and a ridge stretching across 
Yorkshire, east to west, probably including Ingleborough, Whern- 
side, and Penyghent, and probably Pendle Hill, diu-ing the first 
stage of their development. The next point was the rise of the 
Pennine range by a great anticlinal bend running north and 
south. During the whole secondary period the volcanoes were 
at rest, and few mountains were formed at any part of the 
earth's surface. The Yorkshire Wolds were formed during this 
age. The Tertiary period requires a little notice before closing. 
During this most recent period of geology nearly all the cele- 
brated mountains of the earth have been raised — Alps, Himalaya, 



40 

Apennines, Pyi-enees, Carpathians, all belong to one or other of 
the tertiary ages. The plants and animals become more like 
those now living as the primary formations are the ages of 
brachiopods, the secondary the age of reptiles, then the last is 
the age of mammalia. In the second or Miocene age the volcanic 
forces again bm-st out with terrible energy. In the islands of 
Mull and Skye are the remains of two large volcanoes rising to a 
height of 3,000 feet iii some places. The tops have been denuded 
away. The diameters at the bases are about 30 miles, and the 
heights, when in their undenuded state, was, one 10,000 to 
12,000 feet, the other 14,000 to 15,000 feet. In the north of 
Ireland the sheets of volcanic strata form beds 500 to 600 feet 
thick, and 1,200 square miles in area. The Giant's Causeway 
and Fingal's Cave belong to this period. The line of volcanic 
action was north through the Hebrides to Iceland. Innumerable 
trap dykes (or walls of igneous rock) running with an east and 
west trend have cut through all the formations up to and includ- 
ing the chalk and cross faults of every size that come in their 
way. Sometimes they go for 200 miles in almost a straight line, 
turning neither to the right nor left, but breaking through all 
rocks alike. The members will remember one of these dykes 
which we saw in Teesdale during the society's excursion. These 
also were of the mioceue age. All these volcanoes are now dor- 
mant, yet now and again we have a slight shake, reminding us 
that we live upon the line of volcanic action. At each end of 
the line furious eruptions are constantly taking place — Iceland 
and Sicily probably acting as safety valves and allowing the forces 
to spend themselves, and keeping us free. Thus for years untold, 
England has been without any eruption, and with very little 
of the shaking Avhich accompanies volcanic action. What 
guarantee, however, have we that they will not again break out ? 
I say the guarantee given by occasional trembling of the earth, 
or the water at Buxton, Bath, and other places rising to the 
surface heated by the lingering fire. The guarantee also that 
the knowledge that the distance in time from us to the eruptions 
of Mull and Skye, is but as yesterday compared witli the time of 
quietude between the tertiary and primary periods, and that after 
even that long rest the fires burst forth, and that we are still 
living in the tertiary period, perhaps the most terrible of all the 
volcanic periods of our island's histoiy. 



41 



THE WILD ANIMALS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

By FRANCIS XICHOLSUX, F.Z.S., Febnianj 26th, 188J^. 



This was a pojiular or non- scientific lecture ou the wild 
ten-estrial animals of the British Isles, omitting the Bats, Seals, 
Whales and Dolphins. The habits of the various animals were 
dwelt upon, and many curious facts were given illustrating their 
cunning and artfulness. The lecturer related several anecdotes 
about the difficulties of snaring wild animals, and the amount 
of careful and studied observation that was reQ[^ured before 
anyone could hope to be successful in the most difficult and 
interesting art of trapping. The whole thing was often nothing 
more or less than a match between the dexterity and superior 
knowledge of the trapper and the sagacity and noticing powers 
of the animal. History furnished us with particulars of many 
larger and more ferocious species, that were common in former 
times, such as the wild Boar and the Wolf, which had, however, 
long ago become extinct. Such animals as these would never be 
allowed to become numerous in any country where the population 
was so dense, and though England was becoming in most parts 
very thickly peopled, we may fairly conclude that no species of 
wild animal now existing in Great Britain and Ireland was likely 
to become extinct at any early period. 



SOIREE.— LITHOGRAPHY. 

Director : JAMES GRANT. March 4th, 1884. 



The substance of ]\Tr. Grant's remarks was as foUows :— 
Lithography is one of the branches of the great and ancient art 
of Printing. Printing may be said to include any method which 
in its essence is "the production of a copy by pressm-e." 
Stamping upon wax or other soft material, coining of money, 
graving upon stone or metal are all methods of printing. The 
best known process of .printing is that from blocks or type, known 
as Letterpress Printmg. By this method are produced nearly all 
our books and all our newspapers. The youngest branch of the 
Ai-t is Lithography. By it, many of the most elaborate forms of 
work are produced, as a greater freedom is allowed to the artist, 
who is not restricted to the use of types of wood or metal, inflex- 
ible in design and hmited in number. Any design, however 
intricate, which can be diawn by the artist, can be reproduced by 



42 

this beautiful i^rocess, and a great number of copies produced 
fi-om the original drawing. 

The invention of Lithography is one of the wonderful things 
which have resulted from accident, Senefelder of Munich, an 
author in poor circumstances, being unable to pay for the print- 
ing of his books, tried to invent a substitute for letterpress 
printing. He found after repeated experiments that a composition 
of soap, wax, and lamp black formed a good ink for writing on 
soft stone. One day whilst practising, his mother desired him 
to take an account of some linen which she was about to send to 
be washed. Having no paper at hand, he wrote the account on a 
stone with his composition ink, intending to copy it at his leisure. 
Afterwards, when he was about to efface the writing, the thought 
occurred to him that he might obtain impressions from it ; and 
having bitten away the stone with acid for about the one- 
buudreth part of an inch to elevate the writing, he found that he 
could charge the lines with ink and take impressions from them. 
The principle of Lithography was thus discovered, though some 
years elapsed before the art became recognized as a definite 
j)rinting process. The first specimens of lithographic printing 
were the words and notes of some songs printed for a bandmaster 
in the German army in 1796. 

The Stones used in the process are found mainly in the 
politic formation on the banks of the Danube and Iser in Bavaria ; 
they are usually cieam or grey in colour; in composition they 
are limestone : and they are capable of receiving a very smooth 
polish. 

A drawing is made on the prepared stone with lithographic 
ink — or a transfer from an engraved plate or a design traced on 
paper, may be put upon the stone. The design, reversed, adheres 
to the stone. The stone is kept damp and its surface is rolled 
over with another special ink. Both of the inks are greasy in 
composition, and while the printing ink does not adhere to the 
damp stone (grease and water being repellent forces) it takes 
hold of the greasy lines or drawing upon the stone and remains 
on the surface thereof. A sheet of paper is now laid upon the 
stone and subjected to a heavy pressure. An impression of the 
drawing — again reversed so tliat it is now right side up — is left 
upon the paper. (This was exemplified by the use of a Litho- 
graphic press Mr. Grant had in the room. Drawings were made 
upon paper by several members, transferred to stone, and 
impressions therefrom printed during the course of the Soiree.) 

In colour printing, chromo-lithography, what is called a key- 
stone is prepared and from it are made ready a number of other 
stones, each adapted for receiving a particular colour or tint, a 
separate stone for each separate colour. The sheets to be im- 
printed are impressed upon the various stones in regular order, 



43 

and after a number of printings, varying with the tints and shades 
required in the picture to be produced, a perfect work is the result. 
Good copies of oil and water-colour paintings may thus _ be 
obtained. Accuracy is required in the " registering " or fixing 
of the sheets and skill, in regulating the working of the colours. 
As one colour succeeds another on the paper, the picture gradu- 
ally assumes its finished shape. (This was illustrated by 
specimens of colour-priutnig lent by Messrs. Taylor Bros, of 
Leeds.) 

Ai-ound the room were placed many specimens of lithographic 
work, in various i^hases of execution. Some particularly fine 
work was sent by Messrs. Blades, East & Blades, and Messrs. 
Unwin Bros, of London. 



READINGS BY MEMBERS. 

March 11th, 1884. Director; W. LEWIS GRANT. 



Mr. Alderman Greenwood was prevented by the state of his 
health from giving the paper allotted to this Evening, " Our 
Trade past, present, and future." " Headings by Members " was 
substituted. 

The following Programme was gone through : — W. L. Grant : 
" Lawn Tennis, Limited " (A. A. Doivty). Song : " To Anthea " 
{Hatton) S. Harwood, M.B. E. T. Sutcliffe : "The Women 
of Mumbles' Head" (Clement Scott). T. Lloyd: "Internal 
Communication — An Unfortunate Inventor "' {Max Adeler). 
Pianoforte Solo: Melody: (Stephen Heller) " L'appassionata " 
{Bennett) Miss Simpson. W. L. Grant: "Absalom" {Nathaniel 
P.Willis). A. Lancaster: "The Eevenge" {Tennyson). Song: 
"Nevermore" {Tito Mattei) S. Harwood, M.B. E. T. Sutclifl:e : 
" The Story of a Picture " {B. H.) J. L.Ward, M.A. : " Horatio 
Sparkins " {Pickens). Pianoforte Solo : " Elf-Land Gavotte " 
{Barnett) Miss Simpson. 



"A MODERN EPIC." 

By the Rev. A. H. FINN, March 18th, 1884. 



The epic, said the lecturer, is to literature what history is to 
prose. Indeed the epic usually deals Avitli historical or traditional 
subjects, or with fiction in the historical form. Hence arises the 
special form and character of epic poetry. Its narrative and 
realistic nature requires that the subject treated of should be of 



44 

sufficiout impoi'tance and dignity, and tliat the style should be of 
a corresponding solidity and severity. The dignity of the subject 
matter in turn requires that it should be dealt with in a fulness 
of detail which entails considerable length, and the severity of 
the style is best associated with the blank or historic metre, which 
usually disdains the meretricious ornaments of rhyme and stanza, 
rarely descends even to the aid of alliteration, and almost wholly 
depends for effect on the solemn and stately floAv of its rhythm. 
It is these characteristics which cause the epic to be ranked 
amongst the liighest flights of poetic genius. To select and 
appreciate a topic of sufficient grandeur to be worthy of such 
treatment — to grasp it in the widest aspect and master its 
minutest details, to preserve the sense of proportion, the perspec- 
tive, the " chiaroscuro " of the design throughout never unduly 
magnifying any of the minor, or dwarfing any of the main 
incidents to develope the profound thoughts which must cluster 
round such a narrative ; all this requires a mind of no ordinary 
powers. No less does it need a master of language, skilled in all 
the resources of poetic art, and deeply imbued with the inusic of 
words, to clothe such thoughts and such narratives with fitting 
parts of speech, so using the limited form and style at his disjjosal, 
that in spite of great length its simplicity shall never degenerate 
into wearisome monotony. 

" Yesterday, to-day, and for ever," a poem in twelve books, 
by Edward Henry Bickersteth, M.A., is a composition which 
claims, by its form and subject matter, if not by its title, to be 
considered an epic. It fulfils the mechanical conditions of form 
and magnitude, comprising altogether more than 10,000 lines. 
Its style is lofty, and the topic is not inadequate, being an attempt 
to unveil the mysteries both of bygone ages and of those to come. 
As the title indicates, its subject is the records of time, past, 
present, and future. Whether the author's ambition has exceeded 
his powers — whether he has produced as a work worthy to rank 
with or near the great masterpieces of epic poetry — whether it will 
render his name famous in the days to come, are questions I have 
not ventured to discuss. There must be decidedly a higher and 
more authoritive tribune than even that before which I have the 
honour of appearing. Not even the unanimous verdict of contem- 
porary opinion can finally determine such a career. An api^eal 
lies to the judgment of posterity, and only a " plebiscitum " of 
successive generation, can confer the coveted dignity of a " great 
poet." This decision, like that of an ecclesiastical council, only 
becomes final when it has been accepted " always in all places, and 
by all." For works of art like lofty mountains require distance, 
not to lend "enchantment to the view," but to enable one to 
estimate aright tlieir true grandeur. 

Commencing where narratives usually end, the first book 



45 

of the poem is occupied with the death of the narrator ( who 
is termed the "seer") and with his descent into Hades. The 
second descrihes his new ahode " The Paradise of the blessed 
dead," with which is contrasted the prison of the lost in 
the third hook. The next five books are a retrospect, being 
a history of the past from the earliest ages, related to the seer 
by his guardian angel. These deal with the creation of 
"Angels and Men," their fall, the empire of darkness, the 
redemption, and the history of the Church militant. The 
ninth book under the title of the " Bridal of the Lamb," sets forth 
the completion of the Christian Church in its union with Christ. 
TJien come descriptions of the Millennial Sabbath and the Last 
Judgment ; the twelfth and last book being devoted to an account 
of the " Many Mansions " prepared for the blessed, and of the 
final conquest at the end. Thus the poem traces the course of 
time from the very commencement to the point where it merges 
in eternity. Mr. Finn gave a number of extracts illustrating the 
various powers of the poet and the story he tells, and after 
bringing the outline of the poem before his audience, he passed 
various criticisms upon it. He pointed out that the rhythm was 
not always perfect — that awkward elisions are of frequeat 
occurrence — that there is occasionally a tendency towards pathos, 
and in spite of occasional roughness, the style has a music of its 
own. The language is often particularly happy, as for instance 
when to the description of an angel is added, " The very sight 
was melody," or where it is said of Judas Iscariot— 

The hght 

Was torment, and alone he staggered forth, 

Into the darkness on his dark intent. 
Altogether, a work exhibiting so much learning, such large and 
origiaal thought, such fi-eshness and felicity of metaphor, such 
metaphysical subtlety, and above all, so great a power of 
idealisation is well worthy of attention, and may not improbably 
secure a high place in the literature of the nineteenth century, 
and at the least vindicate its claim to be considered a " modern 
epic." 



EVOLUTION. 

By HENRY NUTTER, March 25th, 1884. 



The lecturer traced the development of this planet from a 
gaseous condition to a state of liquid. He explained the Nebular 
Theory ; the changes which were brought about by radiation, 
condensation, gravitation, and molecular attraction ; the lumin- 
osity of the earth, and the cooling down of its surface ; the long 



46 

period of darkness, the battle with fire and water, the twilight, 
the formation of granite, the process of disintegration. He next 
spoke of the formation of the first sedimentary rocks, the first 
universal boiling ocean, the primitive hills and valleys, the shape 
of the earth, its dim-nal and centripetal motions, and the inclina- 
tion of the earth's axis to the plane of its orbit. Then followed 
a reference to the dawn of life in the cooler parts of the 
Laurentian ocean, and the first known fossil form in the Eozoon 
Canadense, fomid by Dawson near the St. Lawrence. An enorm- 
ous time elapsed from the appearance of the Eozoon to the other 
foraminifera and plant-like animals, the Zoophites, the Oldhamia, 
Lingula, fucoids, worms, shrimp-like Hymenocarus, and on to 
the Trilobite in the Cambrian formation. From the Eozoon in 
the Laurentian to the top of the Cambrian there were no fewer 
than 972 distinct species of lowly and gradually improving forms 
of animal life, from the sponge-like creature to the Trilobite. 
Some of these forms have been continued to this day with slight 
and others with great variation from the old stock. Thousands 
have perished and been supplanted by superior forms. The 
Lingula and Nautilus still survive. Those animals which have 
adapted themselves to sui-rounding conditions, or been in a 
position to resist certain destructive influences, have survived 
and developed, while others which have been unfit, or have been 
subject to greater physical changes in the early history of these 
rocks by upheavals and sudden subsidences, have been unable to 
survive. This fact remains clear to all, that from the first of 
these ancient fossiliferons rocks which contain fossils only of the 
lowest types, there is a gradual improvement of form and develop- 
ment in each succeeding leaf of the book of rocks. This growing 
and transitional diversity of improving type is conspicuous to the 
mind of the most ardent opponent of Darwinism. We now 
ascend to the Silurian formation which lies upon the upper 
Cambrian slates. The fauna which flourished in the Silurian 
Ocean was a continuation of pre-existing forms with a rich variety 
of superior types and species. Here we are introduced to the 
kingdom of Molusks, from the simplest form to the highest 
developed Cephalopod. In the upper Silurian we arrive at 
the first simple vertebrate form, the present supposed representa- 
tive being the Amphioxis or Lancelot, and a doubtful form of fish 
called the Pteraspis. Great varieties of Molusks and Crustaceans 
are found in these waters, yet there is no proof of life on land 
excepting low forms of vegetation. Great changes were taking 
place in the sea. Swarming varieties of Crustaceans and Cepha- 
lopods and also Graphtolites had arrived at their climax and 
were giving place to relatives of a higher order. The development 
of the vertebrate continued during the upper Silurian, and in a 
remarkable degree in the lower portion of the Old Ked Sandstone. 



47 

These Devonian rocks contain fossils of the remarkable creatures 
found by the illustrious Hugh Miller — the Cocostehs, Ptericuthys, 
and Cephalaspis — evident relatives and successors of the Pteraspis 
in the upper Silurian. Passing through the mountain limestone 
and coal beds with their ever-iucreasiug variety of fish and 
reptiles, and before the end of the coal period, the marine insects 
and univalve crustaceans crept out of the waters, and finding the 
atmosphere not so much charged with carbon, were followed by 
marine beetles and scorpions, and also batrachian reptiles. Their 
former gills in time disaj^pear ; air sacks are substituted in the 
process of their development for their future terrestrial existence. 
After these creatures have emerged from their ocean depths there 
follows a continuous procession of loathsome marine reptiles, 
whose ancient water-breathing apparatus is slowly evolving into 
air respiratory organs, through a persistence on their part to 
creep out on the sides of the rivers and oceans, till they find it 
more inconvenient to respire through their primitive gills than 
by the aid of their newly acquired organs of respiration. Foot- 
prints of these animals were found in the rocks long before the 
fossils of the creatures themselves. Here is a good illustration 
of Longfellow — 

And departing leave behind them 

Footprints on the sands of time. 
The next rocks, termed the Permian or the New Eed Sandstone, 
contain representatives of the batrachian and lizards of the coal 
period, yet this reptilian kingdom is possessed of superior vertebra, 
and better teeth and limbs. We now close with the Paleozoic 
time and enter upon the Mesozoic (middle age), the Triasic, 
Jurasic, and Cretaceous formations. We come in contact with 
flying Lizards, Bats and Vampires, Pteradactyl, &c., the her- 
bivorous, Dinosaniss, and Labyriuthodents, Crocodiles, &c. 
Higher still we arrive at bird-like lizards, the Iguanodon, 
Hadrosaurus, and Magalosaurus. There are also lizard-like 
birds with beaks and peculiar wings, the Hesperornis, Odon- 
topterys, and the Archeopteryx. Also we come to the 
Ornithorincus, the predecessor of the hairy Mai'supial, or pouched 
animal, the link that connects the egg-laying or oviperous animal 
with the true Mammalia. Here we approach the most interesting 
part of the process of evolution. Previously life had been 
generated by the dividing of cells ; egg-laying and implacental 
forms only ; and now lastly, the process whicli culminates in 
bringing the young into the world alive, the Mammalia. During 
these changes on land many wonderful cases of reptilian develop- 
ment had taken place in the sea, the scaley Saurians, the 
Plesiosaurus, Ichthyosaurus, and the Elasmosamus, the last 
monster being no less than 50 feet in length. The vegetable 
kingdom had during these great intervals been gradually evolving 



into superior forms and structure. The next rocks above, called 
the Tertiary, bring us near the surface. The deposition of these 
rocks took place during great changes in the animal kingdom. 
The gradual development of the Mammalia in the ascending 
scale brings us through various stages to the lowest organized 
Monkey or Lemur. These animals differ from the Monkey (or 
Simiada) in several particulars, one of which is the undeveloped 
finger nail. This four-handed creature had on its two hind hands 
(or feet) four fairly developed fingers with proper nails, but the 
first finger in each hand had still remaining the claw of a bird. 
Higher still we arrive at the better developed Monkey, with proper 
feet and hands ; and farther on in the scale we come to the 
highly developed tailess Apes, the Gibbon, the Orang-Outang, 
the Chimpanzee, and Gorilla. These Anthropoids or Quad- 
rumana approach nearest to Man in the ascending development 
of the animal kingdom, and according to the highest authorities 
have doubtless diverged from the same stem or stock from which 
Bimana or Man originated. Mr. Nutter observed in conclusion 
that he had hurriedly ascended through 130,000 feet of rock 
formation, and glanced briefly at the continuous stream of 
improving and transitional forms of animal life therein contained 
in fossil state. In the lowest rocks we find no trace of highly 
organized forms. But on ascending we are continually reminded 
of the varying and branching tendency of each species ; the 
increasing varieties, &c. One strong reason for a belief in the 
Theory of Evolution is derived from the fact of the persistency 
of each type in clinging to all improving forms of structure, and 
the tendency to throw off, or allow to become useless, or even to 
perish, any organ of the body that is rendered unserviceable by a 
change of habit or conditions. Although thousands of species 
and varieties have perished in the earth's history and left no 
perfect fossil form, yet there is sufficient evidence to all who 
have carefully examined the book of rocks to prove that fi-om the 
first simple cell at the dawn of life up to the highest ape, and 
onward to the most intelligent man or the most beautiful woman 
of the Caucasian race, there has been a gradual improvement in 
form and structure and also of intelligence. The great gulf 
between the highest Ape and the lowest uncivilized barbarian is 
often urged as a valid reason against the Theory of Evolution. 
A careful and unbiased consideration of this part of the question 
I presume will lead anyone into a more favourable opinion of the 
theory. Huxley states that " Man in all parts of his organiza- 
tion differs less from the highest Apes than these do from the 
lowest members of the same group." From a close scrutiny of 
the writings of Darwin, Hackel, Huxley, Marsh, Wilson, Gallon, 
and even Mivart and Dawson, Mr. Nutter said he was satisfied 
that the continuous and increasing stream of life, in ever chang- 



49 

ing characters and improving forms of developmental structures, 
from the first simple cell mentioned in this paper to the highest 
and most beautiful type of the modern highly civilized European 
was the result of Evolution and not of special creation. Although 
the rocks have not been one millionth part geologically examined, 
yet there is ample evidence that the changes in the fauna and 
flora of the earth have been continually taking place throughout 
the myriads of ages in the past. That these changes have been 
brought about by altered conditions, by natural selection, or the 
survival of the fittest in the struggle for existence, by sexual 
selection, and lastly by methodical selection, there can be little 
doubt. Although changes are generally slow and imperceptible, 
yet after a gi'eat lapse of time and ever changing conditions 
varieties of diflerent species will diverge and change in form and 
featm-e, until the said varieties are so different from each other 
that they may be classed as distinct species. The wonderful and 
incon-uptible fossil monuments of the fauna and flora of all ages 
in the past history of life in this world are a clear and unmistake- 
able record of one ever changing and ascending process of 
Evolution. Darwin states on the last page in his " Origin of 
Species" that " There is grandeur in this view of hfe, with its 
several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator 
into a few forms or into one, and that whilst tliis planet has gone 
cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, fi-om so simple 
a beginning, endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful 
have been and are being evolved." 

During the lecture evidence was advanced in favour of the 
Theory fi"om the fact of the appearance of a number of rudiment- 
ary organs in the lower animals and in man. There was also 
touched upon the questions of Afldnities and Genealogy, secondary 
characters, variation, the imperfection of the Geological record, 
&c. The paper gave rise to a warm and lengthy debate, in which 
many members joined, Dr. Monckman taking the lead in opposi- 
tion to the theories advanced by Mr. Nutter. 



DRAMATIC SOIREE. 

Director, T. MIBGLEY. April 29th, 1884. 



This soiree was held in the Mechanics' Institution, the follow- 
ing being the Pieces performed :— 

" Our Bitteeest Foe," 
a One Act Drama, by G. C. Herbert. 

General Von Eosenberg, a Prussian Commander 

J. W. Houlden, 



60 

Henri do la Fi^ro, an Ollicor in the Frcncli Army 

* T. Mitlgley. 

Blanche cVEvran, liis Cousin Miss M. Slater. 

ISconc — Olnitoau do la Tore. 



" "Weak Woman," 
an Original Comedy in Tlnvc Acts, by II. J. Byron. 

Doctor Fleming, a London IMiysician A. E. Hardman. 

Captain Ginger, of the Bungleshirc Bull's T. IMidgley. 

Artlnu- j\Ied\vyn, a Young Farmer J. W. lloulden. 

Tootal, a Provincial Swell Charles Fox. 

Frederick Fanshawo J. Ivedmond. 

Edwards, a ]\Ian Servant J. Fletcher. 

Helen Gaytliorno ) p Miss M. Slater. 

Lilian Caythorno | '-"^"'^i"^ Miss A. Lea. 

Mrs. Gunn, a Distant Belativo Miss M. Flynn. 

Scene : Act I. — Exterior of Country House. 
Scene : Acts II. and III, — Drawing Boom in the House. 



Mr. F. Myers's Band supplied tlie Music. 

THE RELATION OF LITERATURE TO 
PAINTING. 

By GEORGE MILXEIi, I'lrsidnit of the Manchester Literan/ 

Club ; 

Also A,l,lress h;/ the rirsi,leiit, HENRY IIOULDING, 

September 30th, 188i. 



On introducing ^Ir. Milncr, Mr. Iloulding said ; — Burnley has 
risen within the memory of living persons from something like a 
country village to a town of seventy thousand inhabitants, with, 
it is said, more factory chimneys than any other town in the 
world. Hitlierto it has not been remarkable for its artistic or 
literary associations, but rather for the absence of these. It3 
local art treasures cannot be collected, for thoy have yet to be 
produced, its local poets are unknown to fame, its local historians 
are waiting for the local history to "make itself."' A stranger 
coming to a town of seventy thousand inhabitants, and an 
uneciualled number of factory chimneys, might haply enquire for 
our art gallery, our theatre, our athenanim, our representatives 
of letters and philosophy, or' for the quiet places of resort where 
those meet who love the high and beautiful things which uplift 
humanity above the dead level of material necessities and 
material ideas, into regions mild of calm and serene air; and he 
might enquire in vain. Literature, art, philosophy, these are 



51 

high names, and they have made cities famous, and villages 
into holy places, but they have hardly yet made for themselves a 
" local habitation and a name" on the banks of our not altogether 
unknown Jhun. It has been whispered that Spenser caine to 
Hurstwood or to " Bpensers " in Pcndle Forest in his youth, 
pursued " by solemn vision and bright silver dream "; and some 
of us believe the whisper still. Wo have had a liamerton who 
could find here no resting place, no permanent home for his 
aspiring soul. 

" Far off the spectral glaciers shone ! " 
From Eylstone Fell Wordsworth saw Pcndle, with its lonely 
cloud, and recorded the fact in his " WhiteDoe," and Charlotte 
Bronte visited Gawthorpe, coming over the moors from Haworth, 
These names touch our factoi-y chimneys as with a gleam of 
romance, and well-nigh exhaust our high literary associations. 
And now we shall have anotlicr association to mention along with 
these, for to-night the president of the Manchester Literary Club 
comes on a friendly visit to our Literary and Scientific Club, to 
talk to us on some of the high and beautiful things connected 
with literature and painting. Visits of this kind have been in 
Burnley hitherto, like those of the celestials, few and far between. 
Let us hope that one of the good things our society will accom- 
plish will be the bringing amongst us more frequently these 
messengers of light from the great centres of light. "Wo dwell 
in darkness, we are " moving about in worlds not realized," yet 
we of this association at least have turned our faces to the light, 
and welcome the torch-bearer who comes from afar. Manchester 
has a literary and artistic history of its own. It has riches of 
its own, and rare privileges to which we only as yet aspire. Men 
like Mr. Milner, who bring to us good things fi'om lordly treasuries 
of art and poetry, are pure benefactors, and must never hope 
to receive anything in return from us in the same kind. We 
have yet to build our Palace of Art. We have yet a great many 
things to do before we can lay the first stone. We are in a pos- 
ition to receive, but not to give, and are likely to be in that 
position for some time to come. But we may be content, knowing 
that it is good also to receive, and according to our capacities and 
opportunities, to enjoy, " the things that others understand." 

Mr. Milner then said: — The subject of the relationship 
which exists between Literature and Painting is beset with 
difficulties and hedged about with much controversy. Eeaders 
of Lessini/'s Laolcoon and of Sir Joshua Ileijnolih's iJiscourses will 
know to what it is that I am alluding. On this point there have 
always been two distinct schools of criticism, the one contending 
for sharp definitions and accurate lines of distinction between the 
various arts, and tlic other being more or less inclined to merge 
differences and to discover analogies. A writer in the Quarterly 



52 

Review, discussing " The Progress of Taste," re-opens the vexed 
question. He thinks there is at the present time a tendency to 
disregard the fundamental difference which exists between one 
form of art and another. He objects to Mr. Comyns Carr praising 
Keats for having composed hke a painter ; and when he is 
considering a passage in which Mr. Euskin says — 

We should call a man a great painter only as he excelled in precision and 
force in the language of lines, and a great versifier as he excelled in precision 
or force in the language of words. A great poet would thus be a term strictly, 
and in j^reciseltj the same sense, applicable to both, if warranted by the 
character of the images or thoughts which each in their respective languages 
conveyed — 

he asks: "Is there anything hke that analogy between the 
language of poetry and painting which Mr. Euskin suggests ? " 
And, furtlier, he considers this tendency to be only one of many 
symptoms of revolt against the law of nature ; and in a passage 
which is amusing in its plaiutiveness, he regrets that traditions 
are cast off and beaten paths abandoned. " Poetry," he says, as 
though his moral sense had been offended by an incestuous union, 
" seeks support from philosophy or painting ; painting shows a 
tendency to abuse the natural affinities existing between itself and 
music ; while music, discarding melody, strives to usurp the 
functions of the poetic drama." 

Now, I am not going to set myself against the weight of 
tradition. I am willing to admit, nay, I am even anxious to 
acknowledge, that the several arts have their own proper limit- 
ations ; but I am more inclined to dwell upon the analogies 
Avhich seem to exist among them, than to emphasize the points 
of difference. In pursuing this course I shall confine myself to 
the arts of literature and painting. I avoid that very misleading 
phrase, " literature and art," because such an expression 
presupposes that literature is not an art ; and my object is to 
consider that literature n,nd.that only which, whether expressed in 
prose or in verse, can show for itself a fair claim, by its motive 
and by its form, to take rank as one of the most perfect of the 
arts. 

Assuming therefore, that literature equally with painting 
may be regarded as a fine art, I proceed to offer some observations 
upon a few of those points which show how nearly the two 
pursuits are related, and how largely the same principles apply 
to each. First, then, I insist that they have the same primary 
motive ; and that this motive is to give pleasure — pleasure of the 
highest kind. Other considerations may have their due weight 
in the mind of the artist ; and it may even be contended that the 
pleasure of which I speak is ni itself a moral force ; but it is 
none the less essential pleasure which must first be sought. _ The 
artist who writes and the artist who paints have alike to aim at 
increasing the total sense of enjoyment, and of lieightening, if 



5^ 

one may so speak, the mental and spiritual pulse. The moment 
this high office is forgotten — high, though despised hy some — the 
moment you hecome indifferent as to whether your work will 
please or not ; or, worse still, the moment you permit yourself 
to become primarily and visibly didactic, at that moment j'our 
work as a pure artist is at an end. You have nothing to do 
with teaching. Inyoiu" school, paradoxical as it may seem, men 
learn, indeed, but they are not taught. You have nothing to do 
with morals, per se ; and yet it is quite true that you may make 
for those who come under your influence a moral atmosphere 
pui'e as the heavens above, or an immoral atmosphere debasing 
as the pit of heU. 

If this consideration were kept steadily before us, both 
picture and poem would often be very different in character from 
what they now are. We should instinctively shun the present- 
ation of what is mean, deformed, or repulsive ; and, quite as 
naturally, we should take the highest pleasure in setting forth 
those things which are "lovely and of good report." This does not 
mean that we are not to appeal to the tragic sense. Sorrow, 
alike in its simplest and its grandest forms ; the tenderest and 
most melting pity; terror even, are all within the artistic 
range ; but loathing and unmitigated hoiror are radically and by 
their own nature inadmissible. The work of a certain contem- 
porary school of French painters would illustrate this point. The 
subjects which these men choose are outside the pale of art ; and 
neither thoroughness of scholastic training, nor the most won- 
derful technical skill, wiU avail to save their productions from 
ultimate reijrobation. In literature the same thing holds, and 
modern instances are by no means wanting. We all know the 
poets with regard to w^hom fecundity of fancy, and a very cataract 
of words, and melody which is only too abundant and too obvious, 
will not be found sufficient to outweigh the intriusical and primary 
defect which attaches to some of their poems in consequence of 
the subjects themselves being outside the proper domain of art. 

For final arbitrament on this point we are seldom wrong if 
we go to Shakspere. One might ofi'er without rashness to 
construct out of his works alone, and guided alone by his practice 
and example, a complete canon upon the subject of the limitations 
of art, which should be as applicable to the pm-pose of the painter 
as it would be to that of tlie poet. Contrast his work with that 
of his contemporaries, and you will soon perceive how delicate 
and unerring was the instrument of his artistic apprehension. 
To him, indeed, it was given to try every spirit whether it was 
good or evil. His genius was in his hand as a divining rod, 
which told him uufaihngly where his steps might safely tend, 
and where they must be promptly withdrawn. Considering him 
as an artist only, we see how much the broad sanity and clear 



54 

healthiness of his mind had to do with keeping him from the 
pitfalls into which others stumbled and fell. We know how 
superb a poet Avas Christopher Marlowe ; and for his " mighty 
line " we have nothing but homage ; but, as a pure artist how 
far he comes below Shakspere. The latter would scarcely have 
permitted himself to write such a passage as this : 

Now Faustus let thine eyes with horror stare 

Into that vast perpetual torture-house : 

There are the furies tossing damned souls 

On burning forks ; there bodies boil in lead ; 

There are live quarters broiling on the coals 

That ne'er can die. 
These lines are to be condemned because, so far as they are not 
ludicrous, the feehng which they awaken is one of those which I 
have held to be inadmissible in art — the feehng of unmitigated 
horror. No wise artist would attempt the delineation of such a 
scene. And yet if, on the other hand, we want an instance — a 
typical instance — of entirely legitimate art - art as perfect in con- 
ception as in expression, we have only to turn over tlie^ pages of 
that same drama from which I have j ust quoted — the Faustus of 
Marlowe — and we come upon this divine speech : 

Was this the face that launch'd a thousand ships, 
And burnt the topmost towers of Ilium ? 
Sweet Helen make me immortal with a kiss — 

O, thou art fairer than the evening air, 
Clad in the beauty of a thousand stars ; 
Brighter art thou than flaming Jupiter, 
"When he appeared to hapless Semele ; 
More lovely than the monarch of the sky 
In wanton Arethusa's azur'd arms. 

I suppose it will be admitted that we have had no more 
consummate artist among modern poets than Samuel Taylor 
Coleridge. In saying this we are thinking of the quality of his 
work rather than of its quantity. It was his speciality, perhaps, 
that while he had the power, with the best, to do the best and 
highest work, he had also that which some of them lacked— the 
power to tell whu he had done it. Study of Jiim, therefore, is 
profitable both to painter and to poet. Note the splendid pictorial 
character of the Ancient Mariner ; and observe how a single vivid 
phrase gives life and vigour to what might otherwise have been 
a dead presentment : — 

The bride hath paced into the hall, 

Ked as a rose is she ; 
Nodding their heads before her goes 

The merry minstrelsy. 

"Nodding their heads" — those are the words which give the 
breath of life to the picture. As an instance of artistic grasp and 



i 



55 

perfect presentation of appropriate subject take the following : — 

Like one that on a lonesome road 
Doth walk in fear and dread, 
And having once turned round, walks on 
And turns no more his head ; 
Because he knows a frightful fiend 
Doth close behind him tread. 

It was not for this purpose, however, that I have referred to 
Coleridge. I wislied, rather, to show how perfect was his con- 
ception of the limitations of art ; and how he shrank from the 
deliberate delineation of that which was simply repulsive or 
horrible. If you Avish to see this, get the first di-aft of The Ancient 
Maniwr — that which made its appearance along with the famous 
Lyncal Ballads of Wordsworth, and then compare it with a later 
and revised edition of the same poem. Such comj)arison is always 
of service to tlie student of art. The poet's changes may be 
vexatious, and are h-equently wrong ; but none the less we shall 
find them — right or wrong — full of suggestive guidance. You 
will remember that wonderfully imaginative picture in the Third 
Part of The Ancient Mariner, where, without wind or tide, there 
comes forward that phantom ship on which Death, and Life-in- 
Death — vaguely awful pan* — are casting dice. Tlie woman, 
Death's mate, Life-in-Death, is described : — 

Her lips were red, her looks were free, 
Her locks were yellow as gold ; 
Her skin was as white as leprosy ; 
The Night-mare Life-in-Death was she, 
Who thicks men's blood with cold. 

That is fearful enough ; it goes quite far enough ; but it is legiti- 
mate, and within the bounds of art. In the earlier edition, 
however— I use that of 1802 — Death himself is also described in 
two stanzas, both of which are omitted in the later editions. And 
why ? Because his fine artistic sense forbade the poet to retain 
that which in the fervour of conception he had allowed to pass. 
I quote the lines in order to show what it was that he considered 
inadmissible : 

His bones were black with many a crack, 
All black and bare, I ween ; 

Jet-black and bare, save where with rust 

Of mouldy damps and charnel crust. 

They were patched with purple and green. 

A gust of wind sterte up behind 
And whistled thro' his bones ; 
Thro' the hole of his eyes and the hole of his mouth 
HaK whistles and half groans. 
These black and mouldy bones, and these holes of eye and mouth 
are simply horrible, and must therefore be omitted. It is a preg- 
nant instance of the clear judgment and the self- con troUing 
reticence of true art. 



56 

To communicate pleasm-e, therefore, pleasm-e of the highest 
sort, is the ohject of all art whether in literature or painting. 
When an artist finds himself considering, as primary, some otlier 
ohject than this, his condition is usually more or less morhid, and 
he should seek for a diagnosis of his disease. The greatest 
offenders in this direction are generally the imperfectly developed 
artists, or the men whose aspirations are out of proportion with 
their powers. Work of this kind is often nohle in its motive, 
hut it is none the less mistaken. This doctrine of the sufficiency 
of pleasure as the ohject of art needs to he insisted upon with 
the reader and the connoisseur no less than with the artist. The 
reader is apt to say, " What does it all come to ?" He hegs for 
a little moral ; and the connoisseur, unable to content himself with 
simple beauty, craves for what he calls, perhaps, " High art." 
These are weak brethren. The manna of beauty, even if it fall 
from heaven, is not sufficient for them : they lust after the flesh- 
pots of Egypt. " What does it all come to? " Well, you can 
only answer — " It comes to what you see ; if that is not enough, 
there is no help for you." 

The intimate relation of literature and painting is still further 
seen if we enquire how far, in each kind, the temperament of the 
artist is the same. To me they seem to be almost identical. All 
art, says Mr. John A. Symonds, consists in presentation. The 
generalization is a large one, but I believe it to be essentially 
correct. The work of the painter, then, is to present. Literature 
in its highest form does the same thing. Before you can present 
you must receive ; and accordingly we find that the painter and 
the poet are, before all things, receptive — omnivorous of impres- 
sions, tremblingly responsive, tenaciously retentive. This is one 
side only. This is the essential side, for without it the very 
beginnings of art are impossible ; and yet it is the side which 
implies weakness. The other aspect of the artistic temperament 
is one of power. It is that which broods, quickens, fertilizes, 
and ultimately, in the fulness of strength, jjroduces. The first of 
these gives us the artist in posse ; only when the second is added 
do we get the artist in esse. It is the necessary combination of 
these two in high degree which makes the rarity of the great 
artist. It is the necessary presence in one frail tabernacle of 
these apparently oj^posing spirits which gives to the process of 
artistic creation its wcarimj and exhaustive character. The poets 
sown by Natur-3, of whom we read in the familiar passage of 
The Excursion — 

Men endowed with highest gifts, 
The vision and the faculty divine, 
Yet wanting the accomphshment of verse- 
are not so much the men who, as Wordsworth put it, are silent 

Through lack 
Of culture and the inspiring aid of books ; 



A 



57 

they are rather those who possess the first of the quahfications of 
which I have heen speaking, hut who are wanting in the second. 
And it is just ihe same with regard to painters. 

And not only is the power and the temperament the same, the 
material and the field of work also are largely identical, although 
the mode of treatment may widely differ. It is, of course, to 
Nature that both the painter and the poet must go, and to her 
must he made the last appeal. And this leads me to insist upon 
the importance which must be given, in both these arts, to the 
faculty of observation. It is a truism to say that few people ever 
really think. The number oi those who really observe is quite as 
small. The greatest writers and the greatest painters are chose 
who have possessed this faculty of observation, with that of reten- 
tion, in the highest degree. They know everything ; nothing 
escapes them ; nothing is forgotten ; and when the true artist 
seems to be working most broadly, and to be dealing only with 
the most general aspect of things, his work exercises power over 
us because, behind this apparent insufficiency, there is the most 
minute and accurate knowledge of details. The truth of Nature 
is at the basis of all good work. 

I have already alluded to Coleridge and to his knowledge of 
the laws of Hterature. Whatever we may think of his philosophy 
in general, his literary philosophy is seldom at fault. In the 
Biographia Literaria there is a passage in which he lays down 
the two cardinal points of poetry. These are, he says : — 

" The power of exciting the sympathy of a reader by a faithful adherence 
to the truth of nature and the power of giving the interest of novelty by the 
modifying colours of imagination. The sudden charm which accidents of 
light and shade, which moonlight or sunset diffused over a known and 
familiar landscape, appeared to represent the practicability of combming 
both. These are the poetry of nature." 

I think you will perceive at once that these cardinal points 
are as apphcable to painting as they are to literatm-e. It is of the 
first, however — adherence to the truth of nature — that we are at 
present speaking. And what do we mean by adherence to the 
truth of nature ? This is at once a difficult and a crucial point ; 
and it is one on which we should speak plainly or not at all. It 
is not enough to say, " You must copy nature, unhesitatingly, 
carefully, faithfully." We know how misleading such ad\ice may 
become ; and how hard and poor may be the product resulting 
from such a style of work. The most devout copying is not in 
itself art-work ; the most cunning transcription will not suffice. 
To copy and to transcribe are essential ; but the true quahty of 
art is only given by making the ideal supreme. The truth is that 
Nature in relation to the artist holds a position singular and unique. 
She is at once the mistress and the servant ; the soiu-ce of the 
mind's inspiration, and the humble material upon which the mind 
imperiously works. If I tiy to put this paradoxical matter into 



58 

shape for my own giuclauce I arrive at the foUowmg conclusion : 
The artist does not copy nature except for instruction ; but by 
loving, unwearied, unceasing observation, he gradually sets up in 
the mind a certain ideal — which is Nature's and also his own — 
by wliich he is guided. He does not copy, therefore, but he 
works in the spirit of this ideal, and by reference to it he knows 
when he is falling into error no less than when he is eminently 
true. In time the highest and the best in nature, the loftiest 
moods and the most i^erfect harmonies that he is capable of 
comprehending or assimilating, come to be something by which 
he even helps or corrects the lower manifestations. It is mere 
fanaticism when men hold that for art purposes every indis- 
criminate aspect of nature is right and good. 

While speaking of truth to nature, I wish to add two things : 
First, how careful we should be in our judgments to distinguish 
inadequacy of representation or of treatment from absolute error. 
I am never inclined to complain because a work is slight ; but 
only because it is false, perverse, or idle — false, when from igno- 
rance it conforms to no standard, either material or ideal ; 
perverse, when it persistently sins against knowledge ; idle, when 
it is habitually below the level of the artist's known power. And, 
second, I wish to urge a more accurate and thorough study of 
nature upon those who venture to criticise the art either of the 
poet or the painter. Nothing is more disheartening to the artist 
than the uncertainty, the wilfulness, the uninformed audacity of 
Criticism. Here is universal nature, a region where all things 
are Protean and subtle ; where the impossible is that which is for 
ever happening ; where no two shapes are alike ; where effects 
are legion, and developments infinite. Yet it is here that your 
critic will dogmatize and condemn upon the slightest and most 
casual study. I think I am justified in saying that both the critic 
and the painter in this matter should learn of the poet. From 
two men especially the lesson may be got — William Cowper and 
William Wordsworth. Opinion will always be divided as to how 
much of what is valuable these have taught, or may hereafter be 
able to teach us ; but this one thing is indisputable — they have 
shown us better than any others in what spirit Nature should be 
approached, after what manner she should be studied, and with 
what kind of unswerving faithfulness she should be served. And 
the secret of their power as teachers in this regard will be found 
in the fact that their love for Nature — a rare thing, indeed — was 
entirely without affectation, and their devotion to her wholly 
without hypocrisy. If we would really understand that which is 
the ground of art we must have the same affection for Nature 
which Cowper expressed when he said — " Oh ! I could spend 
whole days and nights in gazing upon a lovely prospect ! My 
eyes drink the rivers as they flow." We must understand with 



59 

Wordsworth what is meant by the 

Eeverend watching of each still report 
That Nature utters from her rural shrine ; 
we must learn with him 

To look on Nature with a humble heart, 
Self-questioned where it does not understand, 
And with a superstitious eye of love ; 
and to commune with the glorious universe must continue through 
life, with us as it did with him — 

The first and virgin passion of a soul. 
The most important relation, however, between literature 
and painting arises under the head of the imagination ; and of 
this I propose briefly to speak. It may be granted that in all art 
expression is the first essential ; and no part of the artistic gift is 
more largely native than this. When the poet and the painter 
are born it is this which is born with them — power of language, 
the expression of literature ; power of outline and colour, the 
expression of painting. But if expression be the earUest factor in 
art and absolutely essential, imagination is incomparably the 
greatest. Granted expression, with an artistically receptive tem- 
perament, and a certain kind of artistic work is possible, even 
without imagination. The highest and best work, however, is 
never reached, or even entered upon at all, unless the artist has 
been endowed with this — the most bountiful gift of all those 
which the Muses have it in them to bestow. And, it must be 
added, with imagination the smallest and most circumscribed 
productions become valuable. 

It will be worth while, therefore, to ask what it is that we 
mean by imagination ? and further, perhaps, how it differs from 
what we call fancy ? These two words are used so loosely, and 
in so many senses, and with such overlapping confusion, that it 
is no wonder our ideas with regard to them should often be of 
the vaguest character. Many a student of literature and of 
painting, I should suppose, must have sought in vain for a dis- 
tinct and cohesive definition. At the root of much error on this 
subject there lies the way in which we use the words " real" and 
"unreal." We make the "real," in common phrase, to be the 
antithesis of the " ideal." It is no such thing. We make the 
" unreal" to be synonymous with what we are pleased to call the 
"imaginative". It is no such thing. To say that a thing is 
" merely imaginative" is our way of condemning it. The true 
antithesis is this — the ideal and the material. Unreality has no 
necessaiy connection with either. The material is real : the 
ideal is certainly not less so. 

And now, let us ask : what is it to exercise the imagination ? 
For clearness' sake the answer had better be given by successive 
statements. It is, of course, first and primarily, to make an imar/e 
in the mind. But it is more than this — it is to embody in a 



60 

harmojimis ivhole the mincVs fragmentary conceptions. Further, it 
is to create out of simple elements a new existence, wliich, when created, 
shall be essentially real and true. And, yet further still — it is to do 
all this with emotion, and with the conscious purpose of yivinq 
■pleasure — crstlietic pleasure arisiny from a sense of beauty. The 
ima'Tination, therefore, takes what has heen accumulated ; aud 
then selects, rejects, controls, arranges, harmonizes ; and, finally, 
creates. Although the power of the imagination is seen as much 
in what it refuses as in what it accepts, its domain is one of 
synthesis rather than analysis. Its action, it may be added, is 
intimately connected with that of sympathy. The imaginative 
artist has the power of going out of himself, both emotionally and 
intellectually ; aul this is probably the reason wliy works of the 
highest art are seldom produced except under conditions which 
afford sympathy towards the artist. That which he gives he 
asks for in return. 

One of the finest symbols of the imaginative process, as I 
understand it, is given us in the Mosaic story of the Creation :— 
" And God said, let us make man in our image, after oiu- like- 
ness. . . . And the Lord God formed man of the dust of 
the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and 
man became a living soul." Here is the express work of the 
imagination. The Supreme is set before us as a maker — the 
ancient name given to the poet. Something is made, and it is 
made in an image. The image is that of the Maker himself — 
exactly the process of art. The thing made is out of the dust of 
the earth. This represents to us the humble material — nature, 
which is the true basis of the artist's work. Finally, tlie Maker's 
own breath of life is needed before we can have a living soul, 
precisely what occurs in art : it is the artist's own life, and that 
only which can ever make his work to live. The magnificent 
eulogy which Shakspere pronounced upon that first creation is 
pretty much what we have to say over the greatest works of art : 
" What a piece of work is a man ! how noble in reason ! how 
infinite in faculty ! in form and moving how express and admir- 
able ! in action howr like an angel ! in apprehension how like 
a god." 

Such, I believe, is the Imagination when rightly defined ; 
and its office in painting is entirely the same as in literature. 
When the poem or the painting fails, it is usually because the 
artist has lacked this faculty, and consequently has been unable 
to see at one time both the individual and the general — unable to 
keep his mind grasping the whole while he laboured upon a part. 
It will be seen, therefore, that in our judgment the imagination 
is not merely, as is often supposed, an idle or vagrant function 
of the mind, fluttering aimlessly from thought to thought, or 
dealing only with fantastic unrealities ; but rather that it is, on 



61 

tlie contrary, a function which, equally with that of tlie man of 
science, loves before all things — fitness, order, harmony. 

And now let me ask : what do we mean by the fancy, and how 
does it differ in art from the imagination ? Often enough it is 
used for the imagination simply, or for a lower kind of imagina- 
tion. Some writers seem to regard it as the imaginative faculty 
dealing with what they call fantastic or unreal things. I should, 
however, define it as that which sets forth separate or fi-agment- 
ary images in opposition to images combined and harmonious. 
It is quick, nimble, casual ; while the imagination is deliberative 
and reflective in its operations. It is also the faculty which 
seizes upon the similitudes and likenesses of things, and on this 
side it approaches to wit. Finally, while the imagination is 
essentially constructive, the fancy is decorative ; the first deals 
with essentials, the second with embellishments. 

In that delightful little book of meditative devotion, for the 
issue of which we have to thank our friend Mr. John E. Bailey, 
there is a quaint passage about meditation and contemplation of 
which we are reminded by this comparison of the imagination 
and the fancy : 

For Meditation considers her objects piece by piece ; but Contemplation 
sums them all together and sees, as in a gross, all the several beauties of 
Meditation's objects. Meditation is with a man as he that smells the violet, 
the rose, the jessamine, and the orange flowers dividually. (My meditations 
of the Lord are sweet of themselves, saith David.) But Contemplation is a 
water compounded of them all. 

The way in which the imagination and the fancy work in 
painting as in literature, Avould be well seen by a study of such a 
masterpiece as that inimitable lyric of Shelley's, the Ode To a 
Skylark. We should probably first discover that the genesis of 
such a piece of art would lie in some instantaneous impulse from 
within ; or in some flashing hint from without. I believe that 
all the highest work of painter or of poet does so begin. It is not 
built as a tower ; or woven as a web : it starts fi'om a central 
germ, and round that it grows and gathers by the force of its first 
intention. We should see, in the study of this poem, that it was 
the imagination which formed the image of a bird, v/hich yet is 
not a bird, but an unbodied spuit of joy; which developed this 
conception, and determined how far it should be carried ; which 
decided what was and what was not in harmony with it ; and 
which regulated the force of the initial emotion. But it is the 
fancy, working in subservience to the imagination, which gives 
us the successive and fragmentary similitudes which we have, for 
instance, in the following stanzas: — 

Like a high-born maiden 
In a palace tower. 

Soothing her love-laden 

Soul in secret hour. 

With music sweet as love, which overflows her bower : 



62 

Like a glow worm golden 

In a dell of dew, 
Scattering unbeholden 

Its aorial line 
Among the flowers and grass, which screen it from the view : 

Like the rose embowered 

In its own green leaves, 
By warm winds deflowered, 
Till the scent it gives 
Makes faint with too much sweet these heavy-winged thieves. 
Sound of vernal showers 

On the twinkling grass, 
Eain-awakened flowers 
All that ever was 
Joyous and clear and fresh, Uhy music doth surpass. 

Such is the work of the fancy. But it was the higher faculty 
which conceived and harmonized the idea of setting up, as 
against the joyous and unreflecting bird, the image of a man 
tragically bearing his load of sorrow and of knowledge : 
We look before and after, 

And pine for what is not ; 
Our sincerest laughter 

With some pain is fraught ; 
Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought. 
Better than all measures 

Of delightful sound, 
Better than all treasures 
That in books are found. 
Thy skill to poet were, thou scorner of the ground ! 
Teach me half the gladness 

That thy brain must know, 
Such harmonious madness 
From my lips would flow. 
The world would listen then, as I am listening now. 

I have quoted only those stanzas of this poem which, as it 
seemed to me, Avould help us to understand the distinct and yet 
the nearly allied work of the imagination and the fancy. The 
whole poem, however, would be found fruitful in teaching both 
to the painter and the poet, and cannot be too carefully studied 
by either. 

The limits of this address forbid that I should pursue the 
subject further. Otherwise there are many other relations 
existing between the arts of literature and painting to which our 
consideration might be given. It would be profitable for instance, 
to enquire how far that quality which Ave call stijle is identical in 
its nature, and how far also, in the two cases, it is the one thing 
which, although apparently not of the essence of the work is 
absolutely essential to survival and to the exercise of permanent 
power over mankind. In another branch of the subject it would 
have been pleasant to dwell upon the painters who have given 
their best work to the illustration and embodiment of the poets 



68 

imaginings ; and to have seen how many of the very finest 
passages in our hterature have heen given to the description and 
ehicidation of the paintei's' art. We might have gone over the 
roll of painters who have simg and of poets who have painted, 
but all this must be omitted. I have, however, I hope, succeeded 
in making a httle clearer the real limits and aims of the two 
sister arts — each noble in itself and helpful to the general 
cidture of human life and the amehoration of its somewhat hard 
conditions. 



CORALS. 

By A. E. TOVEY, D.Sc. October 7th, J884. 



Corals are formed by animals, caUed polyps, the most 
important of which are nearly identical in structure with our 
common sea anemones. The polj^ps are more or less cylindrical 
in shape, one end of the cylinder bemg closed, and generally 
fixed ; the other end being fi-ee, having a mouth in its centre, and 
being fringed with one or more circle of tentacles. The mouth 
leads into a sac, which opens below into the general body-cavity. 
This body-cavity is divided into compartments by partitions 
(mesenteries) which radiate from the wall of the sac to that of 
the body. The body-cavitj' is continued into the tentacles, which 
are generally perforated at then- extremities. The body wall is 
composed of three layers : the exterior layer, or ectoderm, which 
is continued over the oral surface, and lines the gastric sac, being 
formed of somewhat cylindrical cells interspersed with cells 
supposed to be tactile, and with other cells containing 
introverted threads, used in the captm-e of its prey, hence 
called thread-cells ; a middle layer, or mesoderm, consisting 
of longitiidinal and transverse layers of contractUe fibres, by 
which the movements of the polyj) are effected ; and a layer, 
called the endoderm, which lines the body-cavity, consisting 
of nutritive and reproductive cells. The polyps increase by 
budding; by fission, i.e., a large polyp di\dding longitudinally 
into two ; and by sexual reproduction, when the ovum gives rise 
to a free swimming ciliated oval embryo, which developes mouth, 
mesenteries, gastric sac, &c. The coral is a calcareous skeleton 
which makes its first appearance as a radiating series of plates 
in the mesoderm of the base of the polyp ; a calcareous ring is 
then developed exterior to the plates, which finally coalesce 
with it. As the polyp grows in length, the coral also increases 
in length, and as the exterior ring is generally the fm-thest 
advanced part of the coral, a sort of cup or calycle is formed at 



64 

its growing end. As the polyp divides oi- buds, fresh coral tubes 
are also developed. The various specimens which were shown 
(kindly lent by tlie Blackburn ]\Iuseum and by Mr. F. H. Hill) 
illustrated how the form of the coral depended on the size of the 
individual polyps, and their mode of fission or budding. Reef 
building polyps flourish only in seas whose temperature is never 
less than 680 Fahr. nor at greater depths than about 26 fathoms. 
Yet reefs of corals exist springing from the bottom of an ocean 
1000 fathoms below the surface. This was shewn to be owing 
to the subsidence of the ocean bed ; and the condition of the 
reef, whether fringing reef, barrier reef or atoll, depends on the 
amount of subsidence which the ocean bed on which the reef is 
resting has undergone. The structure of the sclerobasic red coral 
and of the hydrocorallinse was swiftly glanced at, as time would 
not allow a fuller description. 

Dr. Tovey also touched upon the interesting question of the 
rate of growth of corals, and also of their commercial value. For 
the elucidation of the lecture drawings in various colored chalks 
were produced on the blackboard by the lecturer. 



STRAY NOTES ON THE ANCIENT AND 
MODERN HISTORY OF EAST LANCASHIRE. 

Bi/ TAJTERSALL WILKINSON. Octoher Uth, 1884. 



BURWAINS. 

This pretty, sequestered manorial house stands on the side of 
a deep clough, which runs up from Catlow Bottoms. It com- 
mands delightful views botli up and down the Walverden Valley, 
while the heathery crown of old Boulsworth, forms a charming 
apex to the eastern horizon. From an inscription over the porch, 
it appears that this house was built by John Briercliffe, in 1642, 
two years previous to the battle of Marston Moor, at a time when 
England was convulsed in the deadly throes of a civil war. It 
seems that the De Briercliffes held lands in Briercliffe in the 14th 
century. There can be no doubt that this ancient family was 
located here immediately after the conquest, and derived their 
name from the township. The Briercliffes continued to reside 
here up to the beginning of the 18th century, when Burwains 
finally passed into the possession of the Robertshaws, of Cold- 
weather House, who are the present owners. Prior to 1642, 
when the present structure was erected, there existed an old 
building, and when the new hall was finished, John Briercliffe 
had the original inscription of the old house placed over the 



65 

entrance of the porch. In consequence of some misapprehension 
on the part of the late Mr. John Eohertshaw, he had it taken 
down and destroyed. During a visit to the Burwains a short 
time ago, I found in tlie north-west angle of the mansion a small 
room that had formerly been a Eoman Catholic chapel ; the 
mouldings on the ceiling, and niches on the walls, with their 
antique Norman arched pattern, together with the two family 
crests of the Briercliifes and Parkers on each side of the mantel- 
piece, are in a remarkable state of preservation. The original 
fireplace built in the style of the sixteenth century, is walled up, 
and a modern one supplies its place. At the end of the dining 
room opposite the fireplace is a large oak frame, well filled with 
fine specimens of old English pewter plates and dishes, some 
bearing the date 1709. On the landing at the top of the stairs 
there is a fine oak cist, richly carved on the frames and round 
the panels, and bearing the following inscription : — " M.S., 1666." 
This cist was the property of Margaret Briercliffe, granddaughter 
of John Briercliffe, afterwards the wife of William Sagar, the 
founder of Catlow Hall. The inscription over the door of the 
latter mansion is, " William Sagar and Margaret his wife, July 
24, 1666." It appears from a number of old documents placed 
at my disposal by Mrs. Eobertshaw, that frequent marriages have 
taken place between the Sagars of Catlow Hall and the Eobert- 
shaws. I also found one among the number bearing date 1663, 
in which Eichard Tattersall, of the Eidge and Hurstwood (an 
ancestor of the Tattersalls of Hyde Park Corner, London), gives 
a receipt to his brother-in-law, William Sagar, of Catlow, for the 
sum of £80, being the balance of his wife's dowry, and absolves 
him from all further responsibility from the beginning of the 
world up to the above date. During the troubles that occurred 
in the middle ages, when every township supplied its quota of 
men-at-arms, the weapons were generally stored at a convenient 
central depot. It appears that Burwains was the repository for 
Briercliffe, and some of these primitive weapons, in the shape of 
rusty rapiers and flint firelocks, are to be seen there at the 
present day. In an old building formerly used as a coach-house, 
with harness-room above, I was informed that the Baptists held 
their meetings in the latter place over a century ago, prior to the 
building of the old chapel at the east side of Haggate. 

AN OLD QUAKEB BURIAL GEOUND. 

Crossing the glen, thickly planted with oak, sycamore, and 
orchard trees, are the Quaker burial ground, and the quaint old 
house, with its rough grit corners and chimney, a model of rural 
comfort and beauty. A plain low room on the ground floor is 
pointed out as the meeting house. Opposite the old house the 
limits of " God's acre" are indicated by a low wall on the north 



66 

aud east, while a deep ditch, interspersed with several fine trees, 
marks the west and southern border. Several gravestones without 
inscriptions cover the resting places of the silent dead. One 
contains the following inscription : — ■'' Here lyeth the body of 
Elizabeth, the wife of John Vipont, 1G81." The name is not 
familiar to the district, although I have been informed that 
several Vipouts live in the neighbourhood of Colne. The view 
from this charming spot is beautiful beyond description. Cat- 
low Water meanders prettily down the woody vale toward Pendle 
Water, while the " Forest" with its smiling farmsteads — a truly 
English scene — backed by old Pendle, bars the view westward. 

" NEW HOUSE " IN BKIERCLIFFE. 

From an inscription on a grit slab over the door of this 
farmhouse, which reads as follows, we learn that " Eobert Parker 
and Jane his wife, Robert and Henry their sons, built this house. 
May 2nd, 1G72." A postscript at the bottom, probably written by 
Robert, their sou, says : — " Thou of mighty most blessed and 
them that made this cot. R.P., 1672." Over a door in another 
part of the building is written " Robert Parker and Grace his 
wife, 1677." The Robert Parker first mentioned was the grandson 
of Eobert Parker, of Extwistle, who married Jane Haydock, 
daughter of Evan Haydock, Heasandford (Pheasantford), who died 
December, 1597. 

THE CAMP AT THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN. 

During the civil wars the strong castle at Skipton was held 
by a powerful garrison for the king, under the command of Sir 
John Malory. It was besieged by the soldiers of the Common- 
wealth under General Lambert, who was born at Carleton, and 
was the sou of a private gentleman. The siege commenced in 
December, 1642, and continued until December, 1645. During 
its continuation strong garrisons were formed at Thornton and 
Gisburne by the Cromwellians, for the purpose of providing 
forage for the troops at Skipton, and also to keep down the 
Royalist gentry who were very numerous in East Lancashire. 
The Roundheads made frequent raids through this neighbourhood 
for the purpose of levying contributions on the money and 
j)roperty of the Royalists. 

Mr. Parker, of Browsholme, after having been repeatedly 
plundered by both parties, like a wise man sought and obtained 
a letter of protection from both parties, of which the following 
are copies : — 

For the Col. and Lieu. -Col. within Craven, these Noble Gentlemen. I 
could desire to move you in behalfe of Mr. Ed. Parker, of Broosome, that 
you would be pleased to take notice of his house, and give orders to the 
officiers and soldiers of your regiments that they plunder not, nor violently 
take away, any of his goods, without your privities ; for truly the proneness 



67 

of souldiers sometimes to commit some insolencies w'out comaud from their 
supiors is the cause of my writing this time ; hoping, hereby, through 
your care, to prevent a further evill, in all thankfulness, I shall acknowledge 
(besides the great obligation you putt on Mr. Parker,) myself e to bee, your 
much obliged, Eic. Shuttleworth. Gawthrop, 13 Feb., 1644. 

The following is a protection from the Eoyalists : — 
These are to intreat all officiers and souldieres of the Scottish armie, 
and to require all officiers and souldieres of the English armie under my 
command that they forbeare to take or trouble the p'son of Edward Parker, of 
Browsholme, Esqr., or to plunder his goods, or anie other or damage to 
doe unto him in his estate, Tho. Tyldesley. This 8th day of August, 1648. 

The Eoundheacls made a raid into Briercliffe and Extwistle, 
for the purpose of plundering the supporters of the Royal cause. 
A party sacked High Halstead, near Swindean, taking all they 
could lay their hands on, and ultimately driving away ten oxen and 
two other beasts to the value of £45. The noise and tumult made 
by the marauders was heard across the valley from Extwistle by 
Mr. Parker, who immediately drove all the cattle within reach 
into the thickets of Eonclehurst Wood ; also hiding away most of 
the valuables in the hall. On finding themselves checkmated 
they attempted to fire the place, but having to decamp hastily 
very little damage was done. 

On the 25th day of May, 1644, Prince Eupert entered 
Lancashire by way of Stockport, with an army of 8,000 men, 
destined for the relief of Lathom House. Eigby, who commanded 
the besiegers, immediately retired to Bolton with a force of 2,000 
soldiers. The storming of the latter place soon followed, after 
which the Eoyalists poured across the hills into Burnley valley 
on the way to join the King's forces at York a few days i)revious 
to the battle of Marston Moor, where the star of the Eoyal 
Stuarts destiny set for ever. Breaking uj) into small 
detachments for the purpose of foraging on the line of route, they 
commenced to plunder indiscriminately both friend and foe. A 
party of 200 made their appearance in Worsthorne on the eve of 
a summer's afternoon, where they blackmailed the farmers' 
larders of all the edibles and drinkables they could lay theu' 
hands on, the officers living at free quarters at an old public- 
house, which was demolished during the early part of the last 
century. It was called "Cross House," hence the name of the 
locality Cross House Green. The house is gone, but a portion 
of the garden fence exists at the present time. The following 
morning they seized and drove the cattle out of the fields along the 
line of march. Passing the farm house at Bottin, one of them 
entered the place and took possession of a panful of potatoes. 
At High Halstead two horses were unyoked and taken out of two 
carts, and a herd of cattle was taken possession of. The despoiled 
farmers, incensed by the cruel treatment they had received, armed 
themselves with all kinds of rude weapons, and hung on the rear 
of the invaders, bent upon rescuing some of their cattle. On 



68 

arriving at Cockdeu Water, a few soldiers remained straggling 
behind, and the pursuers taking a short cut by Ormerod Bridge, 
overtook them in the hollow opposite to the barn belonging to 
Miss Halstead. Here a fierce struggle took place, in which the 
troops had the advantage,, leaving two farmers and several 
soldiers dead. The names of the farmers were Peter Hitchon, of 
Worsthorue, and Barnard Smith, of Hurstwood. Their names 
are recorded in the register of the Parish Church at Burnley. 

WINDLE HOUSE. 

This old house stands on an eminence to the east of Black 
House Lane, in the Township of Briercliffe. The family from 
whom the name is derived is of ancient date, but none of its 
members seem to have taken any important part in the history 
of the district. 1 find in a copy of the Towneley manuscripts 
kindly placed at my disposal by Mr. W. VVaddiugton, that John, 
the son of Wm. Winhall, conveyed to John, son of Gilbert de 
la Leigh, all the lands he held in Worsthorne for the sum of one 
penny. This deed is dated 1311. The descendants of the 
Winhalls, under the name of Windle, still exist, some of them in 
humble circumstances, in Burnley and the neighbourhood. 

THE SPENSER FAMILY. 

It is not my intention to deal fully with the history of this 
East Lancashire family. I hope to have a special paper at some 
future time on that subject. I may say that I coincide with the 
opinion of Dr. Grossart with reference to the connections of the 
great poet with this part of the north. 

THE SITE OF MONK HALL. 

This ancient house, together with the land adjoining, 
amounting to a caracute (100 acres) was in the possession of the 
Abbot and monks of Newbo, near Lincoln, temp. Henry III, 
and it was afterwards granted to the monks of St. Mary's, at 
Kirkstall Abbey, near Leeds, by Henry, Duke of Lancaster 
(Birch's MSS.) from whom the name of " Monk Hall " is derived. 
In a croft abutting upon the road adjoining the modern Monk 
Hall, remains of the original foundations may still be traced. 
The main structure seems to have been in the form of a square, 
witli outbuildings attached. An old building in the immediate 
vicinity, with antique mullioned wmdows and capacious fireplace, 
has in all probability been an appurtenance to the old hall. In 
those days the laud to the west would be an open moor. An old 
road commences here, passing by Nogworth Cross over Extwistle 
Hill, and by way of Eonclehurst to another cross of a similar 
description near Hebrew Hall Bar, Burnley Koad. It stood built 
into the fence wall on the spot where a modern shop was erected 
by Mr. Holt, of Lee Green. The x^linth was broken, and all 
traces are now lost. 



69 

REMINISCENCES OF WOKSTHORNE. 

Cock fighting and bull baiting were carried on here until a 
very recent date. I have a keen remembrance of the last bull 
bait that took place. The bull belonged to Jim Anson, and was 
chained to a stake near the present chiu-ch gates. The game 
consisted of tying the bull with a tether of some fifteen yards in 
length to a strong stake driven into the ground. All being ready, 
a bull dog was loosed on the infuriated animal. As soon as the 
dog pinned the bull by the nose, its master had to seize it by one 
of the forelegs, and if the twain could manage to hold firm for 
three minutes the dog was declared the victor, if not, rice versa. 
On this occasion old Nick 0' Ellis's, with his dog " Crib,' was 
declared the victor. The brutal game of cock fighting generally 
took place at the bottom of tlie moor during the middle of the 
last century. "Mains" were fought on Sundays. This savage 
practice was much followed by men of the higher circles of 
society as well as those of the lower degree. Up to 1830, these 
battles were very fi-equent, and a number of local gentry attended. 
The game was often delayed until the arrival of old Jimmy 
Roberts, cotton manufacturer, of Burnley, who came riding on 
a bay pony. He was born in 1779, and died in 1830. 

THE FIGHTING COCKS AT MEEECLOUGH. 

The cockpit was on the Green, facing the old hostelry. A 
celebrated battle was fought here for a great stake between 
Ormerod's Butterfly, and Towneley's (Jagsar. During the fight 
Caesar knocked Butterfly down, and the bystanders thought it 
was all over with the latter. Ormerod, of Ormerod House, the 
owner of the bird, thought the same, and hurriedly left the field, 
but he had not gone far before he heard a great shout., which 
induced him to return. During his absence Butterfly had risen 
again and killed Caesar on the spot. In commemoration of this 
event the inn was named the Fighting Cocks, and that name it 
bears to this day. On the sign was the following verse : — 

For heaps of gold and silver we do fight ; 

Death comes at every blow if it hits right, 

Towneley's great Cssar doth bleeding lie ; 

Killed by Ormerod's gallant Butterfly. 

HALSTEAD COTE. 

On the eastern verge of the farm at High Halstead, and 
opposite the bank of the great reservoir in Swindean valley, in a 
section of a fence wall, are a number of stones whose well 
developed form show evident signs of the masons' handiwork. 
They extend some 12 or 14 yards in length. They are the only 
remains of an old one-stoiy cottage which remained standing up 
to about a century ago. It went by the name of " Halstead's 
Cot," and the place where it stood still retains the old title of 



70 

" Halstead Cote Nook." Situated on the borders of a solitary- 
moor, the Jacobite leaders chose this lonely spot for the rendez- 
vous a short time previous to the rebellion of 1745. Tlie rising 
of 1715 had proved disastrous to many of the old nobility who 
flocked to the standard of the Royal Stuart. Some had to fly 
the country, while others expiated their devotion to this unlucky 
family on the scaffold. The Earl of Derwentwater, Lord Ken- 
mure, and a host of others suffered at the hands of the execu- 
tioner. The gallows at Garstang, Preston, Liverpool, Lancaster 
and Tyburn, were employed in the execution of men of lower 
degree. Two men from the neighbourhood of Burnley were 
among the lot. Stephen Sagar from Dineley was hanged at Wigan 
on the eleventh of February, 1716. The other name I have 
forgotten. In the beginning of 1745 the hopes of the Stuarts again 
rose in the ascendant. Great numbers of the old Roman Catholic 
gentry looked anxiously forward to the landing of their darling 
prince. Francis Towneley, a brave and chivalrous young gentle- 
man, had been a long time a resident in France, and a frequent 
visitor to the mimic court held at St. Germains, where the head 
of the House of Stuart resided. Surongly attached to the religion 
of his ancestors he entered into the enterprise with all the 
ardour of youthful enthusiasm, and secretly collecting a number 
of men, principally tenants on the Towneley and other Roman 
Catholic gentlemen's estates, they frequently met in the lonely 
cot at Halstead Cote Nook for the purpose of drilling and pre- 
paring for the coming struggle. At length the time arrived. 
The news that the Prince had landed spread like wildfire among 
his confederates in Lancasliire. "With 200 men Towneley joined 
the standard of his prince at Mancliester, amid the ringing of 
the church bells and the martial tones of the bagpipes playing, 
" The king shall have his own again." I shall not dwell upon 
the disastrous undertaking which ended in the wholesale butchery 
on CuUoden Moor, and the hanging, drawing, and quartering on 
Kenuington Common. 

Mr. Wilkinson afterwards informed the audience that he 
had heard the story of secret drilling at Halstead's Cote from 
the lips of his grandfather, who was born in 1766. He had it 
from his father, who was one of the company who regularly 
assembled at that spot to prepare for the rising in favour of the 
Pretender. 

THE STOCKS AT WORSTHORNE. 

This ancient relic of Saxon times stood in full working order 
in the centre of Worsthorne up to a recent period, a teiTor to 
those incorrigible gamblers and drunkards who chanced to cross 
the path of the village constable or churchwarden for the time 
being. I remember three being sat in "doleful dumps" iu the 



71 

stocks at one time for gambling. Their names were Cheetham, 
Cracker, and Stitch. You must excuse these names being given 
in the vernacular. I have known the time when, if you asked 
for a person by his proper name you would probably not have 
found him. 

The paper was interspersed by humorous anecdotes. The 
curious Wapentake Law received notice, and a story in con- 
nection with an attempted enforcement at Worsthorne was 
graphically told. An episode in connection with the Stocks in 
the same village, in which figured Old Jim o'th Halstead, the 
village constable, was also related, as well as one concerning a 
former master and dame of the ancient manorial house of 
Burwains. 

Mr. Wilkinson concluded his paper with a few details of the 
ancient and important family of Parkers of Extwistle. An old 
manuscript — a deed of agreement bearing date Feb. 13th, 1634 
— was exhibited, and was examined with much interest. 

Amongst those who took part in the conversation which 
ensued was Mr. Eichard Charles, who entertained the audience 
by giving his recollections of persons, places and events in the 
early years of his long life. One incident which he narrated we 
reproduce. After observing that his father was born in 1773, 
and his grandfather in 1745, and that his grandfather who bore 
the name of Sagar, lived at Fenny Fold, in Hapton — Mr. Charles 
said that he had been told by his grandmother, whose birthplace 
was Fenny Fold, that in the " fatal '45," a small party of the 
Pretender's followers left the main body who were proceeding 
towards Manchester with Prince Charles Edward, and came on 
a foraging incursion into the Hapton district. They drove the 
cattle away from her father's farm, and the country-folk were so 
alarmed that they killed their poultry and hid them. Her father 
took the meal which was in the house, and placing it in a bag, 
secreted it in a sewer. Evening coming on, the good dame wept 
for apprehension as to how supper should be provided. Just 
then, however, there came lowing home a cow which had escaped 
the marauders' hands. The animal was peculiar in its habits, 
and would never associate with the rest of the herd ; and as it 
had been grazing apart in a plantation, it had avoided becoming 
the prey of the soldiery. The anxiety of the mother then gave 
place to joy and gratitude for the cow furnished the milk, which 
along with the meal produced from its hiding-place, enabled 
them to enjoy their customaiy repast. 



72 

ART MUSEUMS, CONSIDERED AS A MEANS 
OF EDUCATION. 

Bi/ Bev. W. S. CAIGEB. October 21st, 1884. 



Mr. Caiger remarked that mankiiHl had other needs than 
could be satisfied by bread aloue. Though utihty rather than 
beauty must remain as the first object to be attained among 
practical men, yet there uas a wide-spread conviction that there 
were other wants in human nature if it had to be healthy. There 
were times when deep longings after enlightenment and beauty 
filled the mind ; and such employment as the study of what was 
excellent in art provided largely for the satisfying of these 
emotions. Without art and the remains of art, history could not 
be adequately realized. Her glorious secrets could be appreciated 
in such undying works as could be seen in the British Museum 
and the National Gallery. The inspection and study of good 
examples of ancient art directly afi'ected technical work of all 
kinds, and instances were afforded in recent years of improve- 
ments resulting from displays of valuable ancient collections of 
art products. They did not wish meaningless design to be added 
to technical skill, but they desired that the work of the artisan 
should be sound in character and have tasteful decorations. For 
some time past there had been a gradual growth in art culture 
which had permeated all classes of the community. Not only 
had the improvement been noticeable in the homes of the cultured 
classes, but it had been reflected in the cottages of the labouring 
classes. It did not require the eloquence of John Ruskin to point 
out how mean was the life of the artisan in his usual surround- 
ings, presenting a monotony unbroken by new thoughts or 
emotions. There had been, and were being, attempts made, and 
not always futile, to invest the life of the operative and artisan 
with a certain beauty. In most men, even among the most 
ignorant, there was a sense and appreciation of beaiity. Mr. 
Caiger said that to him that appreciation was specially manifested 
on the occasion of the holding of the Exhibition in St. Jude's 
School, Whitechapel, London, a few years ago. The Rev. S. A. 
Baruett, with the assistance of some friends, instituted this 
Exhibition, and by lectures and description of the objects, 
imparted an educational and refining element to the influence of 
the Exhibition. Without asserting that art education was a 
universal panacea, yet much could be done by art museums for 
the elevation of the people. They taught the Divine lesson of 
discontent with what was ugly in their homes, and turned their 
minds into the world of beauty and thought. Much was wanting 
in their large manvifacturing towns. The ideal of municipal life 



73 

to which they should look forward was that in which not only 
utility but beauty was considered. He suggested that collections 
of local examples might be made as a means of initiating a series 
of exhibitions, which might subsequently result in some per- 
manent work. 



THE METHOD OF TEACHING THE DEAF AND 
DUMB TO SPEAK. 

By S. LAWSON, L.F.P.G. October 28th, 1884. 



Dr. Lawson said : 

There are only about two cases of dumb people except from 
deafness. Children are dumb because they are deaf and have 
never heard any one speak. They have no idea that they can 
create sound, or that hearing people communicate with one 
another by certain sounds called words, to which is attached a 
definite meaning that is commonly understood, and by which they 
convey thoughts, actions, intentions and so on. If deaf mutes can 
be informed that they can speak and are instructed how to speak, 
they will speak as well as hearing people, except that fi'om not 
being able to hear their own voices they do not know how to 
modulate and inflex it, and they speak somewhat in a monotone. 
They can, however, be made to communicate by speech and read 
the face and lips by sii/ht when spoken to, and hence become 
social members of society instead of Uttle more than animals. 

Deaf mutes have been taught what is called the "Sign" system, 
dactylology, or the French system of " talking " on their fingers. 
It has been called the French system because it was systematised 
by a Frenchman named Abbe de la Spee, but I think the sign 
or silent system is enough to prevent its adoption when we know 
that deaf mutes can be taught to speak. 

There is another system which consists of the silent and 
speech system combined, but it is found practically impossible to 
combine the two, as children that are to be taught to speak must 
not be allowed to use signs. 

The first instance on record of a deaf mute being made to 
speak was when John Bishop, of Beveiiey, trained a dumb boy, 
who used to come for alms, to speak. It was then looked upon 
as a miracle, but it was only a scientific fact, or rather discovery. 
Since then various countries have energetically undertaken the 
oral system of educating deaf mutes. 

Probably the first to practically undertake the task were the 
Spaniards, and next the Germans, where the oral system was 



74 

developed a long way towards its present state of comparative perfec- 
tion by a Samuel Heinicke, who opened a school in 1778, in Leipsic. 
This system is a great improvement upon the others, because the 
so called dumb ones can be made or taught to produce sounds by 
which they can be understood by anyone, and so use the organs 
with whicli nature has supplied them. All the powers of the 
mind and body are thus brought into action, and these unfor- 
tunate ones are placed in the natural position of hearing people 
instead of a position of almost perfect isolation. 

There is a still further advantage of the oral system, for in 
order to teach it the whole physical system of the body is 
developed, as they are taught by various healthy gymnastic 
exercises, which tend so much to prevent disease. 

The first requirement for deaf mutes is to teach them good 
behaviour, then large imitations such as sitting down, rising up, 
&c. After this, finer imitation is taught, such as lifting the 
arms, moving the body, motions of the tongue, &c. Then follow 
the lessons how to breathe, by deep, superficial, quick and slow 
respirations, letting them fill what is called the air bag again and 
again ; you then let them blow a feather or light ball suspended 
by a string, showing them what breath is and how it can be used 
and controlled. They are instructed to blow over the hand placed 
on a level with the lips, and you also blow over theirs with 
different degrees of velocity and volume, carefully observing that 
they see exactly the motions of the lips and the force used to 
propel tlie air and how it cari be restrained by withholding it, 
letting the pupil's hand be on the teacher's chest at the time to 
feel the movements. 

Next the motions of the tongue must be taught, taking care 
that the pupil is placed in such a position that he can see the 
motion of the teacher's tongue. 

Voice must then be got, and it is to be remembered that 
voice is nothing more than air passed through the vocal cords 
into the mouth and then vibrated by the tongue, cheeks, lips, &c., 
in such a manner as to produce a musical note ; to get this the 
pupil must be tickled, or any other method may be adopted to 
excite him to make a noise ; when he makes a noise one hand 
must be placed under the teacher's throat and the other under his 
own, so that he may feel the vibrations of the vocal cords and the 
motions of the larynx ; the teacher will get him to imitate the same 
in his own throat. After having got voice the articulations are 
taught. Let the hand be placed against the teacher's lips, and let 
him feel the force and volume of the air passing over it. Certain 
signs are used to show the value of a letter as a in father, a as 
in paid, a as in far. Then are taught those letters requiring 
little breath, as f sounded phonetically, then the 17 vowels ; then 
vocal and non-vocal are combined both initially and finally, and 



75 

then the alphabet. Afterwards the names of objects around are 
taught, the instructor touching the article mentioned and writing 
the name down, &c. Then nouns must be taught singly, and 
combined with the articles "a" and "the." Simple interroga- 
tives follow such as " what ?" and " who ?" In teaching verbs the 
pupil performs the action, and their reason and language become 
developed, and deaf mutes become equal to hearing children in 
society, except in the power of hearing. Sight becomes so 
quickened that they can follow almost any conversation from 
observing the motion of the lips and face. 

Seeing that such results can be obtained I think it is the 
duty of the State to step in and give help to these helpless ones, 
equally with the blind and the idiots. Almost all could be trained 
to provide for then* own existence, and most of them would 
doubtless become intelligent citizens. 



SHORT ANONYMOUS CONTRIBUTIONS. 

NOVEMBER 4th, 1884. 



1. " BY THE WAY." 

The paper styled " By the Way" was a protest against the 
modern word-twisting abortions intended for puns. The simple 
pun, i.e., the making use of a genuine English word in a double 
sense, as found in the writings of Tom Hood, might be excused 
for having at one time passed for wit, but that kind of joking had 
surely had its day. By way of warning, and as an illustration of 
the demoralizing effects of this species of humour, the author 
submitted an original sketch, entitled " The un-nappy history of 
Thomas Beaver." This production was in rhyme, and every 
stanza contained specimens of the pun. 

2. " PRONUNCIATION." 

The second paper opened by saying that " There are 
few things more distressing to the cultivated ear than bad 
pronunciation ; a false note in music is not more jarring to 
the susceptibilities, or more destructive of the celestial harmonies 
in the mind of a musician, than is an inaccurate vowel sound or 
other mispronunciation, spoken in the healing of one who loves 
his native tongue, and takes a proper English pride in its 
sweetness and melody. How many lofty thoughts clothed in 
most eloquent language, how many great moral lessons and 
spiritual truths have perished and crumbled to dust at their 
bkth, through some ludicrous or silly effect of sound attributable 



76 

only to the ignorance or affectation of the speaker." The 
wretched elocution and silly pronunciation of certain actors was 
held up to ridicule, and the affectation and lisping drawl of some 
of the clergy were severely criticised. 

As speech is the glory and privilege of man, being not only 
the great dividing line between man and the animal world, but 
exalting himself far above it, conferring upon him indeed a kind 
of immortality ; so a pure and correct enunciation of that speech 
becomes not only his duty, but should be his pride and glory also ; 
exalting him above those of his fellows who neglect it, and 
giving his words a power and value over and above the mere 
meaning of the words themselves. It would be difficult to say 
how much of the appreciation accorded to Mr. George Milner's 
address to the Club at the opening of the session was due — ou 
the one hand— to his subject, and his fine literary treatment 
of it; and how much was due— on the other hand — to his 
graceful utterance and pure and distinct pronunciation. A 
correct habit of pronunciation should be sought after and acquired 
by all. It does not require a musical voice, but by its aid the 
most harsh and disagreeable voice may triumph over the sweetest 
and most resonant. 

Articulation, i.e., the full, distinct and correct sounding of 
every syllable in a word ; and accentuation, i.e., laying the 
accent on the proper syllable of the word, constitute the primary 
features of good pronunciation. The correct articulation of the 
vowel sounds is especially important, giving breadtli and dignity 
to the speech, and forming the best safeguard against every kind 
of provincialism and cockneyism, as the case may be ; for while 
the provincials pervert the vowel sounds by substituting O's for 
A's, &c., making a greater mouthful of the word; the cockneys 
either chop them off short, or convert them into a listless drawl. 

Instances were then given of false prounciatious heard at 
some of the meetings of the Club. 

The last phase of false pronunciation noticed was that arising 
fi'om vulgar affectation. What motive could induce " bred and 
born Lancashire men" to adopt an effeminacy of speech belong- 
ing essentially to the Dundrearys of the South ? 

" Failings that are due to local influences acting upon us 
daily, we can excuse ; an occasional dropping of H's, or even of 
crowding them in where they are not wanted, is especially a 
Lancashire man's privilege ; indeed a man of sympathetic dis- 
position coming daily in contact with illiterate people, can hardly 
avoid this little weakness, however careful he may desire to be ; 
but for all the rest, I say ' Reform it altogether.' " 



77 

3. " CAELYLE AND HIS OPINIONS ON PUBLIC MEN." 

The man who spoke of his countrymen as 24 milhons, 
mostly fools, had little difficulty in setting down startling epithets 
for his most striking contemporaries. Of all public men in Great 
Britain — Peel excepted — Carlyle thought little better than he did 
of O'Connell whom he called "'chief quack of the Avorld" and 
"a lying scoundrel." He considered Mr. Koebuck an "acrid 
sandy barren character, dissonant speaking, dogmatic, trivial, 
with a singular exasperation, — restlessness as of diseased vanity 
written over his face when you came near it." He liked Lord 
Beaconsfield better than Mr. Gladstone on the express ground 
that Mr. Disraeli being a sham, knew it, and would not 
trouble his head to be anything else ; while Mr. Gladstone, 
being a sham, did not know it, and was sincere in his insinceri- 
ties. Mr. Disraeli could see facts ; he bore no malice ; if he was 
without any lofty vntue, he affected no virtuous airs. Carlyle 
considered Mr. Gladstone as " the representative of the multitu- 
dinous cants of the age — religious, social, political, hterary ; 
the cant actually seemed true to him, he believed it all, and was 
prepared to act on it ; again " Gladstone appears to me one of 
the contemptiblest men I ever looked on." And these opinions 
are the result of mighty ken, of marvellous genius ! But the 
verdict of history and justice may possibly be on the " side of 
the fools," who not without justiticatiori, with a view of the 
" eternal facts," placed in the hands of each for a season the 
guidance of the affair's of this mighty nation, beheving both to 
be possessed of " some virtue." 

Gladstone and Disraeli are men whom we ourselves know. 
Do we not all admit that both these men were lovers of their 
country, benefactors to their fellows, possessors of some modicum 
of the "virtue" of truth? Let us take Carlyle's advice, "Be 
just and fear not." And if we find that his opinion is not con- 
formable with the " facts and verities " of these great men as we 
know them, will it be an illogical position to take up if we refuse 
to accept his dogmatic opinions on other men whom we have not 
known personally, but whose works are their- witness ? 

We turn away with pain from the fierce invectives Carlyle 
has j)oured on the fair memories of cherished names like those 
of Charles Lamb, De Qiiincey, and Wordsworth. Even if we 
admit that these strictures were not meant for the public ear, 
and that little meaning should be attributed to such language, 
we cannot but take note of its wholesale apphcation, which no 
amount of dyspepsia, poverty, or difficulties can excuse ; and we 
are forced to the conclusion that although he possessed great 
knowledge, he lacked wisdom, — his opinions when weighed in 
the balances being found wanting. A man who gave such rein 



78 

to his intellectual ill-temper can hardly be a trusty guide in 
matters of the highest import. 

In the study of Carlyle we should keep in mind the principle 
of " discretionary extraction," taking the kernel, but leaving the 
husks. 

For a just estimate of Carlyle's character and worth to the 
world we must go to his published works. We sliall there see 
that he found two or three great subjects well suited to his 
unique genius, but he judged men and human society from a 
narrow point of view. By the denunciations of every thing 
around found in his later writings, he lost nearly all practical 
influence over the mind of a people wliose conscience his earlier 
books had done much to quicken and stimulate. When his sub- 
ject was in the main delineative, as in his " French Eevolutiou," 
" Cromwell," and " Frederick the Great," he was in his element 
and consequently successful ; and on these subjects his guidance 
may be accepted, not merely for his transcendent ability, but for 
his painstaking care in elucidating the smallest details and most 
obscure facts. 

But in politics, as he preferred to do battle with the isolated 
particular rather than embrace in his view a sequence of events, 
he disqualified himself from taking a comprehensive survey of men 
and things. In religious matters, Carlyle failed to guide the 
English people. He did not believe in historical Christianity. 
The Church he looked upon as an institution which accumulated 
formulas, paralysed eft'ort and imposed error. He had no creation 
of his own to offer in place of the Church. He praised a religious 
spirit, yet spoke of Newman (because he was a Roman Catholic) 
as " not having so much intellect as a rabbit," and of Keble 
(because he wrote religious poems) as " a little ape called Keble 
of the Christian Year. 

Imagination, Carlyle possessed, and by its aid lighted up 
special points and scenes in the world's history with marvellous 
force. But he judged the world by its superficial babble, and 
never seemed to remember that there were any " silent actions" 
of which he could not form a judgment, because they had never 
been brought to his knowledge. 

4. " A TAX ON BACHELORS." 

Referring to the rumour that the French Government intended 
to impose a tax on Bachelors, the author, in a humorous manner, 
reckoned up the comparative advantages and disadvantages of 
thus dealing separately with a despised portion of the community. 
The tax was considered in its influence upon the revenue, and 
also in its impulsive effect towards matrimony. 



79 

5. — " TREE CULTIVATION." 

Tree planting Las almost ceased to be a branch of British 
Agriculture. In the time of the Plantagenets the forests of 
England were almost impenetrable. Evidence of the extent of 
the woodlands known under the several terms of " forest," 
"chase," "park," and "warren" is afforded by the numerous 
names of officers connected with those tracts, which have become 
firmly embedded in our list of surnames. 

To plant for futm-e generations is what Washington Irving 
calls " heroic culture." From a commercial point of view timber 
planting could be made profitable in many parts of our Island. 
Plantations formed in Scotland 40 years ago are not only an 
ornament to the scenery of the Highlands, but are yielding a 
revenue equal to that of the finest arable land in the country, 
where the ground previously was not worth one shilling an acre. 
We pay £20,000,000 per annum for timber and forest products 
imported from abroad. Timber has never decreased in value ; 
indeed to day the cost is 300 per cent, more than it was 60 years 
ago. In the backwoods of Canada and the United States there 
is often wholesale destruction of timber, owing to the recklessness 
of the hunters or settlers. The ravages caused by forest fires 
have been enormous. The regions thus denuded suffer in various 
other ways, for forests have an important influence on climate, 
on rainfall, on river-courses, and on fish in forest-bordered 
streams and lakes. 

Strenuous effoi-ts are being made to re-afforest denuded 
areas by piiblic or private means. In some continental countries 
the regulation of forests is the business of a department of the 
State. Trees ought to be planted in the squares and thorough- 
fares of our cities. . In manufacturing towns there is need 
for something to diminish the dulness of our streets and the 
cheerlessness of our surroundings. Burnley, with its population 
of 60,000, is not adequately supplied with those accessories of 
advanced civilization which give brightness, dignity, and com- 
pleteness to onr social life. Is it not desirable to obtain a fuller 
diffusion of " sweetness and light ?" Plant life is refi-eshing to 
the eye, giving an inward pleasant emotion ; it is refreshing to 
the sense of smell — exhaling odours in which we dehght. There 
are trees which are adapted for town growth, and are patient of 
town smoke. The subject is worthy the attention of the Cor- 
poration of Burnley ; for though they could not hope to prodiice 
stately avenues and construct ornamented boulevards, yet they 
could give us something beautiful, which would stimulate our 
energies, and minister to our happiness. 



80 

6. — "a few stray thoughts about pendle hill." 
Tbe influences of nature's wear and tear, silently but surely, 
are maldug themselves felt on Pendle Hill. It is the parent of 
many an oozy spring, that gushing from the hill make up the 
rivers that circulate at its base. All these streams although 
starting from points widely divergent, are eventually united in 
the Eibble. The springs are slowly reducing the bulk of Pendle. 
It is not the mountain it was centuries ago. Professor Dawkius 
states that at some era of its history Pendle had lost from its 
summit 13,900 feet of rock. For long ages the hill was subject to 
change through external forces, principally from the sea, ice, and 
frost. But lately internal forces have worked the changes. It 
was the internal forces that altered the original shape of Pendle. 
For many centuries the big mountain sucked in the rain and 
mist, held in its pools the water which gradually accumulated in 
its recesses, until, unable to contain it longer, the mountain 
" burst," and the yawning chasm of Ogden Clough was formed. 
The amount of earth removed by this catastrophe amounted to 
nearly one eighth of the whole area of the hill. Whether the 
eruptions of Pendle have been characterized by a certain amount 
of regularity must be left to conjecture. In addition to Ogden 
Clough, there are Brast Clough, Eatten Clough, and Churn 
Clough, as well as smaller fissures. The enquiry arises when 
will the hour be ripe for another eruption from this stately hill ? 
A " burst " must inevitably come. The last recorded eruption of 
a serious kind was in 1679, when the hollow of Brast Clough 
was carved. It is believed that the eruption mentioned by the 
Antiquary Camden took place about 200 years before that of 
Brast Clough. Are we to expect that at the expiration of another 
two centuries the hill will once more be rent asunder ? 

7. " THE REPORTERS." 

This was a satirical paper dealing with the newspaper 
reporter in the ideal and in reality. Reference was made to 
many very amusing mistakes in the local newspapers. 



HOGHTON TOWER. 

Uij the Fu'v. J. SHORTT, M.A., Vicar of Hor/hton. 
November 11th, 1884. 
Mr. Shortt began by describing the geological formation of 
tbe hill on which Hoghton Tower stands. It forms part of the 
Pendle Range. If all the beds of rock that enter into tJje com- 
position of that range were entire, it would lie on the flank of a 
huge mountain. It is bounded on the east by a remarkable 



81 

gorge cut by the river Darwen in post-glacial times out of mas- 
sive rocks. This iusignificaut stream was able to effect this 
owing to beds of shale and softer rocks lying between more 
solid ones, just as for the same reason at present the falls of 
Niagara are continually retreating and the gorge lengthening. 

The lecturer speculated on the origin of the name, and 
after alluding to the historical interest attaching to local names, 
pronounced his opinion that Hoghtou was equivalent to Hill-town. 
He had seen it written in 13 different ways : a neighbouring 
township, Withnell, had 45, and Samlesbury 31 different spell- 
ings. The Hoghton family had owned the j)lace for 800 years. 
It was descended fi'om a daughter of one of William the Con- 
queror's soldiers. Her son was Adam lord of Hocton, and the 
family have retained possession of the property up to the present 
time. Not much is known of its early history, but we find that 
Richard Hoghton in 1309 married a supposed lineal descendant 
of Godiva, and Leofric, Earl of Mercia. The Hoghtons, it 
would appear, had owned a great tract of land near Liverpool 
from 1309 to the time of Charles I. Many of them have been 
sheriffs of the county, and members of Parliament. One of the 
family. Sir Richard, married the heiress of Sir Thomas Ashton, 
and we find him possessed of land in 47 different townships in 
Lancashii'e, besides proj)erty in Cheshire. This Sir Richard was 
married three times, and had eighteen children. He seems to 
have been economical with the names he gave to his children, 
as two of them were called Thomas, three of them Richard, and 
three of his daughters Ehzabeth. This kind of thing was not 
by any means uncommon in those days, and it often makes it 
very difficult to unravel pedigrees in particular families. When 
this gentleman died he was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas, 
who built the tower. The Hoghtons had probably lived at Lea, 
where there still stands an old mansion. 

At the time Queen Elizabeth was upon the throne, a great 
change was taking place in architecture and building in the 
country. Before time they had been mainly fortresses, j)ictur- 
esque in appearance, but very uncomfortable, deficient in venti- 
lation, light, and drainage. But when the country got more 
settled there sprang up the more comfortable habitations of 
Elizabeth's time. Thomas Hoghton had great difficulty with 
his masons. We find that Bernard Towneley, his master mason, 
was seduced away from his work, and Thomas complained to the 
Chancellor of the Duchy. The truant mason retm-ned, and the 
building was finished in 1565. Thomas Hoghton did not con- 
form to the ordinances of Queen Elizabeth, and he died on the 
continent at Liege, where his will was found not many years ago 
by the late Sir Henry de Hoghton. He left an only daughter 
Jane, from whom are descended the Earls of Crawford and 



82 

Balcarres. His brother Alexander succeeded to the Hoghton 
estates. He left these to his half-brother, who came to an 
untimely end in a dispute about some cattle. He was killed on 
the night of November 20th, 1589, in a fray with Thomas Langton, 
Baron of Newton, a kinsman of his own. Lord Derby, the 
lord-lieutenant of the country, was directed to make an enquiry 
into the turmoil, but he found so many were implicated in the 
dispute, and the laws were so very severe, that it would appear 
he deemed it best to let the matter rest. Kestitution was, how- 
ever, made to the Hoghton family. Walton-le-Dale was given 
as compensation for the murder of Thomas, and although no 
deeds exist showing their title, that manor belongs to the Hogh- 
tons to this day. Sir Eichard Hoghton next on the roll, paid £1,000 
to King James for the dignity of a baronetcy. He had been 
knighted before by the Earl of Essex in Ireland. He invited the 
King, on his return from Scotland to London, to visit Hoghton 
Tower. This was in 1617. The king occupied himself with 
hunting in the ancient deer park, one of the oldest in the king- 
dom. So careful were the proprietors of the estate to preserve 
game for the chase, that it is said in a part of Hoghton Park 
the trees were so thick that the sun's rays could not reach the 
ground. The famous dun-coloured cattle, the old English breed, 
were kept here, similar to those that existed in later years at 
Gisburn. The crest of the Hoghtons is a white bull, and their 
supporters are two animals of the same kind. 

On the second day of his visit, the king visited the alum 
mines, close to the park wall. The site of these mines is very 
picturesque, and worth seeing. 

The next day was Sunday, and a grand dinner was prepared 
for his Majesty. The list of the eatables prepared for the delectation 
of the king for dinner and supper was read, and it contained all 
the choicest joints and viands that could be procured. The well- 
known story that the king knighted the loin of beef here lacks 
confirmation. The term "sirloin" was certainly known long 
before. It was used in the time of King Henry VI. Troublous 
times were now coming upon the land. Sir Gilbert Hoghton 
had succeeded to the estates, and he was a personal friend of 
King Charles I. 

In the troubles of the civil war in the early part of the 17th 
century, when the land was divided into two great camps, the 
Hoghtons sided with the king ; but in this district the Starkies 
of Huntroyd, the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe, and the Ashtons 
supported the claims of the Parliamentarians. When the war 
broke out Pi'estou was stormed by the Parliamentarian forces. 
Sir Gilbert escaped. Two hundred men in charge of Captain 
Starkie, of Huntroyd, were directed to take Hoghton Tower. 
The tower was defended by a garrison of 40 or 50 musketeers 



83 

who had one cannon. The troops assembled in front of the 
tower and summoned the garrison to surrender. Time was wiven 
for consideration and the garrison of the tower capitulated. 
Captain Starkie and his men marched in, but soon after they had 
got inside the building a great explosion of powder took place, 
and Captain Starkie and a number of his men were killed. The 
explosion was attributed by some to treachery, and by others to 
the carelessness of the troopers in lighting their pipes. 

Some time after, a strange adventure befel the Eoyalist 
levies assembled at Whalley under Lord Derby. They had been 
successful in their expedition ; but a number of shouters from 
Padiham caused such a fearful noise that Lord Derby, Sir Gilbert 
Hoghton and 1700 men fled in a panic down the valley of the 
Kibble ; Lord Derby not drawing rein till he got to Penwortham. 
The " shouters from Padiham " numbered 90. 

The son of Su- Gilbert (Eichard) was a staunch supporter of 
Oliver Cromwell. He was one of the members of the Long 
Parliament, and he also occupied a seat in the Barebones Par- 
liament. He was a Presbyterian, and in his time was fought the 
bloody battle at Preston, when Cromwell, commanding troops to 
the number of 8,000, defeated the Duke of Hamilton, who had 
three times as many soldiers under his command, killing 3,000 
Eoyahsts and taking 10,000 men prisoners. The battle raged 
over three days, and the loss of the Parliamentarian troops was 
not more than 100. This took place in 1648. The next pos- 
sessor of the Hoghton estates (Charles) was in Parliament in 
four different reigns. He was succeeded by Sir Henry Hoghton, 
who commanded the Lancashii-e Militia in the year 1715, fighting 
against the adherents of the Pretender. A contest took place in 
the streets of Preston, which were barricaded, the chief barricade 
being in Church Street. The lecturer said he had recently had 
the pleasure of procuring for the Preston Museum a medal which 
was struck in honour of this battle. His successor. Sir Henry, 
took great interest in the then new invention of calico printing, 
and even puDed down part of the tower to build a factory. The 
brother of the present owner began to restore the tower some 
years ago. The process of reparation has been very extensive. 
The rock upon which the building stands is of a friable nature, 
and it has been found necessary to underpin the walls in various 
places. Over £50,000 has been spent upon the work of restoration 
by the late and the present baronet. Sir Charles, who is the 10th 
baronet, and second upon the roll of baronets in the United 
Kingdom, is nobly following up the work begun by his brother. 
He is an exceedingly kind-hearted man, and he maintains the 
reputation which the Hoghtons have long held, of being o-ood 
landlords. 

The lecturer concluded by characterising the place, and 



84 

family connected with it, as typically representative of English 
history ; and even of world-history. Its surface furnished traces 
of mighty events in past epochs of the globe ; and its name, its 
ownership, and its buildings marked important occurrences in 
the hfe of the English nation. 



BULWER LYTTONS DRAMATIC WORKS. 

Bj R. T. SUTCLIFFE. Noveiuher 18th, iSSi. 



Mr. Sutcliffe commenced by enumerating the works of the 
author, which number only seven, viz., " The Duchesse de la 
Valliere,"' " Not so bad as we seem," " Rightful Heir," " Daruley," 
"Lady of Lyons," "Richelieu," anrl ." Money." The latter 
three he designated plays, and gave the following definition of 
the pi'efix, that it is neither comedi/ nor traqedij, but a cut between 
the two ; more serious than the one, not so sombre as the other, 
yet a judicious mixture of the two ; in fact, a dramatic salad, in 
the flavour of which neither the oil nor the vinegar has an undue 
preponderance. The denouement is sure to be happy ; no matter 
the storms and tempests, the rocks ahead, the sea of troubles 
upon which the hero and heroine may be tossed, they are sure to 
come safe to port. The first work brought under notice was the 
" Duchesse de la Valliere," which was produced at Covent Garden 
in 1837. Mr. Sutcliffe gave a sketch of the plot of the play, and 
wound up with a reading of the scene between Louis XIV. and 
the Monk Bragelone. The " Lady of Lyons" was the next play 
taken in hand, and the Times criticism of that period was read, 
from which it appeared the leading paper of the day made a dead 
set at the piece. It was first produced on the 15tli February, 
1838, at the Covent Garden Theatre, under Mr. Macready. Mr. 
Sutcliffe gave a very careful description of the plot of this popular 
play, and illustrated it by two scenes which he recited, taking all 
the characters in the same. The scenes selected were the garden 
scene in the second act, where Claude Melnotte describes his 
imaginary home on the Lake of Como, and the other one that 
heartrending scene in his own home, where he has taken Pauline 
in fulfilment of his oath to Beauseant, and where he puts forth 
in such eloquence his apology and defence for his conduct. The 
reader then went on to criticise the characters of the play, and 
said that Claude and Pauline had an equal chance with their 
audience, as their parts were evenly balanced. The play " Not 
so bad as we seem," was next briefly noticed and Mr. Sutcliffe 



passed on to the comedy " Mouey," which is founded on that old 

truism- — 

'Tis a very good world we live in, 

To lend or to spend or to give in, 

But to beg or to borrow or get a man's own, 

'Tis the very worst world that ever was known. 

In describing the plot of this comedy, the will of the eccentric old 
uncle was read. The play is a true picture of human nature, 
and points out very strongly that a man is judged by the depth 
of his pocket more than by his brains. " Darnley" and " Right- 
ful Heir" were next shortly criticised, and the paper concluded 
with a detailed sketch of the well-known play " Eichelieu," which 
was produced at Coven fc Garden, on the 7th March, 1839, under 
Macready. Macready threw his whole soul and energy into the 
work, and author and actor met fi-equently to discuss the piece as 
it grew act by act, an arrangement wliich has always proved 
beneficial to both, and been the means of producing the best 
plays. Like our own Wolsey, Eichelieu is a familiar picture, 
there is a fascination about him or his name and it is admirably 
suited to the dramatist. With regard to Richelieu's character 
there is a diversity of opinion, some have thought him cold and 
ambitious, having only the Avelfare of France at heart when his 
own interests were concerned, but our author gives us a Eichelieu 
who is warm-hearted, unselfish, with a love of country paramount 
over all. By turns the old man is grand, nay [terrible, then full 
of sly humour with the keen appreciation of a joke. Tbe role is 
one of the most favourite characters for tragedians, and they 
have scope to display their histrionic powers. It is a very 
difficult part to play, and requires immense study of character to 
give it with anything like the force and power required. He may 
or may not have been the man the author has set before i;s ; no 
matter, we have a character that is strongly dramatic, full of 
great opportunities for the actor, especially if he be comedian as 
well as tragedian. There are those ever-shifting changes from 
the feebleness of old age to indomitable will and power, the pride 
and pomp of state, the downfall, and the restoration. 
What situation can be grander or produce a greater theatrical 
effect than the sudden appearance of Richelieu after his reported 
death, and also again when he is brought into the presence of 
His Majesty in the last scene — when he is in a dying condition, 
having resigned his ministry. See how keenly he watches the 
embarrassment of the King and the new Minister ; and then, 
when as it were crushed and fallen, comes the renewal of his 
power and vigour as he grasps the conspirators' despatch, the 
possession of which foils his enemies and reinstates him in power. 
Also in the Garden of the Louvre, when he towers up in his 
weakness and launches the awful curse of Rome at those who 



86 

seek to take Julie to His Majesty, is the Cardinal superb. Let 
the actor only rise to the occasion and the dramatic effect is 
complete. The audience know it is in stoie for them, and they 
sit hushed with 'bated breath' until the last word of that sentence 
is uttered. The speech might almost have been an anti-climax, 
had not the author with consummate skill reserved the powerful 
lines which end the scene, where Eichelieu denounces Baradas. 
Mr. Sutcliffe recited several short passages from the play and the 
second scene in Act I., where Du Mauprat is brought before the 
Cardinal. 



DISCUSSION: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICA 
IN ITS RELATION TO BRITISH COMMERCE. 

Introduced hy W. L. GRANT. November 25th, 188J-. 



Mr. James Lancaster had undertaken to open the discussion 
but illness prevented him from fulfilling the engagement. After 
remarking that Mr. Lancaster had taken special interest in all 
commercial questions relating to Africa, and that he had made 
himself acquainted with the results of recent explorations and 
obtained valuable data for the purpose of the intended paper, 
Mr. Grant referred to the fact that exactly five years before from 
that day Mr. Alderman Greenwood had initiated a discussion on 
the kindred question " Is Africa likely to become a Second India 
commercially?" Mr. Grant then said that the recent discoveries 
of Stanley, the intrepid traveller, had once again brought the 
"dark continent" into prominence. Attention was more par- 
ticularly concentrated on the Congo basin, as Stanley's last 
labours had been to unravel the mysteries of the district traversed 
by that remarkable river, to map out the great basin, and bring it 
" within the fold of the civilized world." Trade generally was 
depressed, fresh markets for our productions were urgently re- 
quired, and the statements therefore that Africa presented the 
possibilities of imparting fresh life to our languishing industries, 
and provided new opportunities of profitable enterprise deserved 
the most careful consideration. After briefly touching upon the 
immense advance of late years in our knowledge of Africa, Mr. 
Grant said the first question to consider was that of its area and 
population. Mr. Stanley estimated that tlie area was 13,000,000 
square miles, of which some 10,000,000 were not yet within the 
scoi^e of industrial intercliange. The portion capable of cultiva- 
tion he conjectured would be 8,000,000 square miles. The 
population he estimated at 286,000,000, of which number 



87 

176,000,000 occupied areas not yet reached by the trader. As 
to the means of communication, so as to make the markets 
accessible, there were gigantic rivers, which presented consider- 
able lengths available for navigation. The introduction of 
railways at the points of obstruction would be necessary. The 
Congo was navigable from its mouth for a distance of 110 miles ; 
by the construction of 250 miles of railway, as far as Stanley 
Pool, access would be obtained to 1,0G0 miles of the Congo, and 
still higher up there was a further navigable length of 1,100 
miles. This vast river had a basin of 1,300,000 square miles, 
with a population of 40,000,000. It was a mile wide, 1,700 miles 
by river from the sea, and at its mouth it was seven miles broad, 
with a depth of 1,312 feet. The lakes formed natural highways 
for commerce, and the Congo gave 30,000 square miles of lakes. 

Concerning the requirements of the people Mr. Grant al- 
luded to Mr. Stanley's statements before the Manchester Chamber 
of Commerce. Though they would admit that England's man- 
ufactures would be highly acceptable to the swarthy customers 
in these climes ; yet the main question for inquiry was, What 
had Africa to offer us in return ? To this question Mr. Stanley 
replied by stating that the lands of Equatorial Africa were of 
" matchless fertility ; " there were infinite spaces fit for thrifty 
and industrious colonists. The Congo district would yield ivory, 
palm-oil, gums, rubber, orchilla-weed, dye-stuffs. Other parts 
of Africa produced rice, cotton, grain, coffee. Along a length of 
280 miles at the mouth of the Congo there was trade done now 
to the value of £2,800,000 a year. 

Mr. Grant asked if Stanley's oft-repeated rose-coloured 
statements as to the value of Africa to European trade, were 
corroborated by the researches of other modern travellers. The 
difficulties presented by the character of the natives, and the 
question of their readiness to become amenable to civilizing 
influences were briefly examined ; and Mr. Grant concluded by 
expressing his gratification that the proposed Anglo-Portuguese 
treaty had broken down ; and trusted that absolute freedom of 
navigation and commerce would be secured for the splendid 
waterway afforded by the Congo. 

Mr. William Lancaster, Junr., thought Mr. Stanley's state- 
ments were too highly coloured. In opposition to them he 
quoted the opinion of Mr. Joseph Thompson, who was sent out 
by the Geographical Society. His evidence on the mineral 
resources of the country was valuable on account of his attain- 
ments as a geologist. He found that minerals did not exist to 
any great amount in Central Africa ; and ivory was becoming 
so scarce that the trade in that article was almost extinguished. 
Mr. Lancaster also laid stress on the serious river difficulties on 
account of the numerous cataracts, the arduous and costly nature 



of porterage, aud the deadly character of the climate. 

Mr. Alderman Greenwood said that he was inclined to take 
even a more gloomy view of the commercial future of Africa than 
when he brought the question before the Club five years ago. 
He considered Mr. Stanley's recent utterances in Manchester as 
enormous exaggerations ; nnd his calculations as to the quantity 
of cotton cloth which would be required by the natives were 
opposed to our experience of the trade with the more settled 
communities in India. The Board of Trade returns shewed that 
our exports to Africa had been stationary for the last ten years ; 
and that fact was important, inasmuch as we were already 
acquainted with the more civilized people of the continent. 
India aud the South American Republics were the only countries 
where there ha'i been an expansion in the cotton trade during the 
last decade. The outlook as regards Africa was after investiga- 
tion somewhat depressing. 

Mr. James Kay, J. P., argued that if the portions not yet 
opened up could maintain a population of 176 millions, it 
was only reasonable to suppose that the people could produce 
sufficient to sustain an equal number elsewhere. The produc- 
tions were abundant : the length of navigable rivers very great ; 
and he trusted that Mr. Stanley's sanguine expectations might 
be realized. 

After remarks from Messrs. W. Thompson, R. Nelson, W. 
Witham, and F. H. Hill, Mr. Joshua Rawlinson said that the 
primary difficulty was the absence of civilization, and until 
progress had been made in directing the natives in the ways of 
civilization, the suggested development of Africa could not suc- 
ceed. They must recollect that the lines upon which trade was 
conducted were the exchange of manufactured goods for agricul- 
tural products. He failed to see where, with the exception of 
Egypt, it was likely that agriculture would be so carried on as to 
enable produce to be exported to any important extent. The 
question of the development of India was of immensely more 
moment to Lancashire industries than the development of Africa. 
He did not anticipate that Africa would afford any sensible relief 
to commerce during the present generation. 

Mr. Grant made a few comments on topics which had arisen 
in the course of the debate, and the meeting then concluded. 



89 

SOIREE. HOUSE DECORATION. 

Director, T. PRESTON. December 2nd, 1884. 



The foUowiug is a resume of the paper read on the occasion 
by Mr. Preston, entitled : " Mural Decoration in connection with 
our Domestic Architecture." 

A really perfect form or a beautiful combination of colours 
instinctively yields us delight and extorts a spontaneous acknow- 
ledgment of joy, admiration, and often gratitude. Writing 
recently Mr. P. G. Hamerton says ' ' we are beginning to under- 
stand artistic relativity, to feel festhetic pleasure when it is 
observed, and aesthetic suffering or discontent when it is violated." 
This change has been brought about mainly by the efforts of a few 
of our leading artists, art critics, and decorators, to disseminate 
correct views, and furnish decorative examples more in accordance 
with festhetical requirements, — assisted by the advance of general 
culture. 

The best art education is to be found in recourse to approved 
examples of decoration. 

Mural painting is a special kind of art, harmonizing perfectly 
with architecture. 

Mural decoration was practised in very ancient times ; the 
wall decoration in Egypt, not less than 4,000 years old, shews not 
merely outline drawing but also painting in colour. The people 
of Phoenicia, and Assyria, of Persia, India, and China were all 
acquainted with the art of painting, which was always symbolical, 
and used as an accessory to architecture. Properly to understand 
the mural decoration of England it is necessary to consider the 
wonderful and diversified story of the origin and progress of our 
domestic architecture. The flimsy alcoves of the ancient Britons 
were followed by the wattle and clay huts, which in their turn 
were superseded by the cobwall building with thatched roof. The 
next advance consisted of covering both sides of the wattled walls 
with wet clay — much after the style which was in vogue in the 
middle ages to plaster the rude studding which divided the rooms. 
An example of this plaster composed of reeds with rudely impro- 
vised mortar daubed over them may be seen in the house next to 
the White Hait Inn, in Church Street — probably the oldest house 
in Burnley. 

The decorative arts in England may be said to have made a 
start with the advent of the Eomans. The more important 
Eomans in Britain had their houses painted and decorated after the 
manner of those found in such a perfect state at Pompeii. The 
general style of wall decoration consisted of a low dado, above 
which broad pilasters divided the wall into three or four compart- 
ments, the pilasters being united at the top by a frieze ; the panels 



90 

were of a lighter colour, and held pamtiugs of figures and fantastic 
ornaments. The common painting was executed in water colour, 
the more elahorate in tempera painting. 

Mosaic work was cultivated by the Greeks, who taught it to 
the Eomans. Oil Painting was used in mural decoration long 
before its so-called " discovery" in 1410. The distemper painting 
of the Eomans has been practised more or less ever since, and 
is still used for hasty decoration of public buildings. 

Coming down to the 15th century the wall decoration of the 
houses of the nobility consisted principally of tapestry. In 1572, 
Skipton Castle contained eight different tapestries. The walls of 
more than one mom at the old Bank House, Burnley, were draped 
witli tapestry, portions of which were in fair preservation in 1858. 
Painted tapestry has lately been introduced ; it is more exact in 
colouring, and exhibits greater freedom and energy in the painting 
than ordinary tapestiy allows. 

The rooms in the old mansions of North-East Lancashire 
were generally low, — there was not much wall space, therefore 
advantage was taken of the forests of the district, and the apart- 
ments were often panelled in oak wainscoting throughout, — some 
were ceiled in oak, and those not x^anelled throughout had an 
oak dado running round the room. Gawthorpe Hall is an 
example of the lavish plaster ornamentation which followed the 
introduction of Italian plasterers into England. There are 
interesting specimens of wood carving at Ormerod and Barcroft. 
Painted and gilded leather hangings, invented by the 
Spaniards, were first used in England in the reign of Henry VIII. 
Some of the apartments at Chatsworth are hung with leather 
richly embossed with gold. 

Before the invention of paperhangings, cheap imitations of 
the costly tapestry, velvet and silk hangings Avere made of cotton 
and linen. To from a raised pattern these sometimes received 
an application of powdered woollen, which, when applied on 
paper, became known as flock paper. The art of manufacturing 
paperhangings came from China. The French made several 
improvements, one of which was the use of rolls of paper instead 
of pasting the sheets together after the pattern was printed. The 
trade in French papers in England consists chiefly of decorated 
centres and borders, and a variety of gorgeous designs. Wall 
papers are now exported from England to every civilized country. 
Although the old forms of mural decoration are still used 
occasionally in England, paperhangings — possessing the advant- 
ages of being less costly and more easily prepared — are the chief 
wall decorations of the 19th century. Some papers are now 
printed with oil colours, and are easilj^ washed ; and successful 
attempts have been made to produce hygienic wall papers. The 
newest mural decorative material is Lincrusta ^Yalton, a mixture 



91 

of linseed oil, and wood fibre rolled on a fabric. On tins tlie 
most delicate ornamented relief is obtained by machinery. 
Lincrusta cannot be torn, it is impervious to damp, it is almost 
nninj arable, and it is difficult to think that anything more 
beautiful, useful, and permanent for interior decoration can be in 
store for us in the future. 

There was a profuse display of decorations, the principal 
exhibitors being Messrs. Jeffrey & Co., Scott, Cuthbertson & Co., 
William WooUams & Co., The Lincrusta Walton Co., William 
Dean & Co., and Messrs. Preston & Son. Hand-painted designs 
by Mr. Bottomley, of Leeds, and Mr. W. Henderson, of Burnley, 
were exhibited. In their inspection of the choice and varied 
articles, the members Avere assisted by Mv. Bottomley, Mr. 
Henderson, and the director of the soiree, Mr. Preston. 



CANADA AND THE MONTREAL MEETING OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

By J. BROWN, M.A., M.D. December 9th, 1884. 



Dr. Brown pointed out that the Dominion of Canada covered 
nearly three and a half millions of square miles, being two-fifths 
of the British possessions throughout the world — a greater area 
than all the United States and territories. The early European 
settlements in Canada were alluded to, and the various steps 
taken by the EnglisJi, French and Spaniards to colonize the 
region were traced, the conflicts between the English and French, 
ending in the downfall of the latter by the gallant victories of 
Wolfe, being vividly portrayed. The English colonists freed 
from all fear of their French neighbours now grew confident. 
England naturally tried to get from her colonies some reimburse- 
ment for the heavy sums the campaign had cost ; soon began 
the troubles about the Stamp Acts, and within 23 years of the 
taking of Montreal what might have been the brightest jewel of 
the British Crown was gone. Benjamin Franklin had laid the 
foundation of that mighty nation which within one hundred 
years had numbered its fifty-five millions. The loss was ours, 
but the gain to the world had probably been great. An account 
was then given of the English settlements in various parts of 
Canada, the lecturer stating that seventeen years ago the British 
North American Act of 1867 was passed creating the Dominion. 
The Act was passed at the request of Canada, which then con- 
sisted of the two provinces of Quebec and Ontario, the other 
provinces accepting the Act as each joined the Dominion, viz., 



9.2 

Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward's Island. In 

1870 tbe Dominion bouglit the vast territories of the Hudson 
Bay Company — the most important step they ever took — and in 

1871 British Columbia joined the Dominion, which had thus its 
boundaries extended from ocean to ocean. This last addition 
embraced 340,000 square miles, an area equal to Belgium, 
Holland, Italy and France combined. The most striking 
features of Canada were its waters and woods, the slope of the 
land being so gradual that the waterways afforded unusual 
facilities for transport. A large and important extent of country, 
namely, from "Winnipeg westward to near the iiocky Mountains, 
was, however, characterized by the absence of wood, and this 
was the laud of promise not only for the Dominion but in some 
respects for this country as well. The climate in winter, 
especially towards the eastern portion of the belt, was very 
severe ; but towards the west it became much milder, and in 
tliis portion cattle could be kept without artificial shelter on the 
natural grasses growing in many parts knee deep all over the 
prairie. The western portions also yielded an unequalled field 
for the growth of wheat. Many farmers from Ontario were 
selling their farms and moving westward, and if, as was hoped, 
it was found practicable to run a line of rail to Port Nelson and 
to slhp wheat thence to this country the development of that 
region would probably be rapid in the extreme. Incredible as it 
seemed, those fine lands, within 24 miles of the railway line, 
were being given away by the Government to every able-bodied 
male who would occupy and cultivate them — 160 acres were 
given free, while a further like extent might be purchased at 
the rate of ten shillings an acre. As to the trade of the 
Dominion the last year's returns gave a total of imports at 
£26,000,000 and exports £20,000,000, and close as Canada was 
to the States, as yet the larger share of trade was with the 
mother country. Like the great nation on their borders they 
were attempting to foster their national manufactures at the 
expense of the bulk of the people by heavy import duties, but 
the bad effects of this policy now followed for tliirteen years had 
already begun to show themselves. An ijiteresting description 
of the vast railways and some of the celebrated public buildings 
in Canada was then given, and Dr. Brown proceeded to speak of 
the visit of the British Association during the past summer. 
At Montreal no effort had been spared to make the visit a 
pleasant one. For the benefit of those who did not know how 
the British Association meetings are conducted, he stated that 
they lasted a week. The evenings were occupied by the intro- 
ductory address of the president, two scientific lectures, and 
one popular lecture to working-men; the two remaining evenings 
being devoted to entertainments of a social nature. During the 



93 

day eiglit different sections met in different rooms, and papers 
on various subjects were read and discussed. After alluding to a 
number of celebrities who were with the Association at Montreal, 
he proceeded to speak of the inaugural and subsequent meetings 
that were held. Wednesday, he said, was memorable for the 
admirable address of His Excellency the Marquis of Lansdowne, 
Governor- General of Canada. This had been followed by the 
address of the president, Lord Eayleigh, which was a review of 
many points of scientific interest. On the Thursday the sec- 
tional meetings had been commenced, and in the section 
devoted to economic science, Sir Eichard Temple had dealt with 
general statistics of the British Empire. The area directly and 
indirectly under its control he estimated at ten million square 
miles, or one-fifth of the habitable globe ; the population was 
about 315 millions, or 33 persons to each square mile ; and in 
England, where the population was densest, there were 485 
persons to each square mile. With regard to shipping he had 
said that, so far as steamers were concerned, the British flag 
covered as many of those as all other nations put together. One- 
third of the world's commerce belonged to the British Empire. 
The United Kingdom itself did one-thu-d of the banking business 
of the world. Tlie school statistics given had been very remark- 
able inasmuch as it had appeared from the same that there were five 
and a quarter millions of pupils in the United Kingdom with its 
population of thirty-six millions, and nearly nine millions in 
the British Empire with its three hundred and five millions of 
inhabitants. The United States, with a population of fifty-five 
millions, had ten millions of pupils, at a cost of seventeen 
millions sterling. By Mr. E. Atkinson, of Boston, a paper had 
been read showing that, for manufactures, as the cost of produc- 
tion was lowered, the labourers and not the owners gained the 
greatest advantage. Kates of wages varied inversely with the 
cost of production. It had been shown by the gentleman named 
that the average wage per operative, per year, rose from £35 in 
1840 to £55 8s. in 1883, an increase of 64 per cent., whilst the 
profit per yard fell 63 per cent. In the Biological Section a most 
interesting address on deep sea life had been given by Professor 
Moseley. Deep sea life had been divided into three diftereut 
groups by the Professor, namely, the Pelagic, the littoral, and 
the lowest hundred fathom zone. At great depth food was 
derived from the debris of the littoral and terrestrial fauna, and 
from that of the Pelagic or surface fauna. It was said to be 
possible that bacteria, which were the agents of decomposition, 
could not live under the enormous pressm-e there would be at 
great depths. It was also probable that the sense organs of 
animals living in such strange environments would yield many 
points of great interest when they came to be examined. The 



94 

absence of palfeozic i'oi'ms of life in the deep sea fauna had been 
also alluded to, and it had been suggested, as a probable cause, 
that terrestrial and littoral life must have existed to an extent 
before their debris could have supplied food for deep sea life. 
Another reason was that carbonic acid might have been much 
more largely present in the deep seas than is now the case. It 
seemed to Professor Moseley that all modern forms of the littoral 
fauna were capable of adapting themselves to deep sea life. 
Littoral fauna might have given rise to the whole terrestrial 
fauna. In connection with the address on this sul)ject there 
had been a water weed to which the Professor's attention had 
first been drawn by a shoemaker at Oxford. On its stalks were 
a series of natural bladders from which antennae projected, 
which guided little fish into the bladders. It had been said that 
Darwin had experimented with the plant, and had come to the 
conclusion that the fish were not digested but were decomposed 
by infusoria and various fungi, and from the decomposed matter 
the plant absorbed protoplasm. An interesting paper had been 
read on the rudimentary hir.d limbs of the whale, by Professor 
Struthers, of Aberdeen, after alluding to which, as also to other 
papers on subjects of a somewhat kindred nature. Dr. Brown pro- 
ceeded to state that at the committee meeting of the Biological 
Section on the Tuesday, Professor Moseley had read a telegram 
he had received from Sydney. The scientific corres]5ondent of 
the Times had written of that telegram: "It is doubtful if ever 
an announcement of greater scientific interest was made at any 
meeting of the British Association. The telegram was to the 
effect that the Monotremus, tlie very lowest form of mammalian 
life, had been found to lay eggs, and thus by laying eggs, yet 
suckling their young when hatched, they formed a link between 
fish, reptiles and amphibians on the one hand, and ordinary 
mammalia on the other. That forged one more link in the 
Darwinian chain, and pointed to the probability that all mammals, 
including man, had descended through the reptiles, and not 
through the amphibians, as Professor Huxley had been inclined 
to think. Dr. Brown next referred to some interesting papers 
that had been given in the engineering and other sections, also 
to several lectures that had been given by various eminent 
Professors. Finally he referred to the various sources of attrac- 
tion tliere were in which they had liad infinite pleasure, to the 
school system, the privileges of free education, the Universities, 
the Churches, Prince Edward's Island, the fire brigades, 
electricity, and the laws in the Dominion as to the sale of 
intoxicating liquors. 

It should here be stated that Dr. Brown represented the 
Burnley Literary and Scientific Club on the occasion of his visit 
to the Montreal meeting of the British Association. 



95 

MUSICAL SOIREE. 

Director, F. MYERS. December 17th, 1884. 



Tlie programme being somewhat lengthy, Mr. Myers omitted 
to read his paper on " Wagner." We are enabled, however, to 
append an abstract of the paper. Richard Wagner was born at 
Leipsic, May 22ud, 1813. His father, who was of the middle 
class of society and a man of some culture, died in the same 
year. At the age of nine Wagner entered the Kreuzsclmle at 
Dresden, but was not a successful student, lacking application, 
and being too divided and desultory in his choice of subjects. 
His favorite studies were Greek, Latin, Mythology, and Ancient 
Histoiy. He also took lessons on the Pianoforte and played 
Overtures and other pieces by ear, but he refused to practice and 
soon his master gave him up as hopeless. He also studied 
English for tlie purpose of reading Shakespeare in the original, 
and at the age of eleven wrote an extraordinary tragedy, " a 
kind of compound of Hamlet and King Lear."' Speaking of this 
in his autobiography written in 1842 he humorously remarks, 
" the design was grand in the extreme, 42 persons died in the 
course of the piece, and want of characters compelled me to let 
most of them re-appear as ghosts." Later on, however, he 
tm-ned his attention to musical composition, and at 18 was 
familiar with the works of Beethoven. At 26 he married an 
actress, and became conductor of a small operatic troupe at Riga, 
and shortly afterwards he wrote his first Grand Opera " Rieuzi," 
the subject being taken from Lord Lytton's novel. Having 
datermined to p)roduce this at the Grand Opera in Paris, he 
embarked on board a sailing vessel for London. The voyage 
was a stormy one, and occupied him nearly a month, it was not, 
however, without its good results, as it supplied him with the 
inspiration for his second Opera, "The Flying Dutchman." 
His journey to Paris proved utterly fruitless, and we find him 
buffeted on land by the storms of adversitj^ more terrible even 
than those he had encountered at sea. Even these, however, 
helped to bring out the stronger qualities of his mind. It was a 
great stride (in what we may now call the Wagnerian direction) 
from " Rienzi" to " The Fl3'iug Dutchman," the former being a 
historical opera, with fine spectacular effects, but ■written largely 
on the old lines, whilst the latter aimed at rendering emotional 
accents by purely artistic means. The transition fi-om one to 
the other has been compared to the sense of freedom one feels in 
passing from the scented atmosphere of a crowded opera-house 
into the bracing air of sea and forest. 

He abolished the formalities, which in the course of centuries 
had gathered round the dramatic poem. His operas are no longer 



96 

a series of separate pieces of music, of airs, duets, and finals, 
having little reference to tlie action of the piece, and merely 
connected together by a dry recitation. His supreme purpose 
Avas the attainment of musical expression and dramatic truth, 
and to accomplish this he ultimately sacrificed the whole 
apparatus of absolute musical forms. He totally abolished the 
Aria proper, the whole weight of his musical powers being 
placed in the dialogue, rising wherever occasion offers to the 
fervour of musical passion, and always surrounded with a flow 
of beautiful melody, but never descending to ill-timed sentiment- 
ality. He did not expel the Aria, etc., through any Avhim of 
destructive speculation, but he merely discontinued using these 
forms as unadapted to the particular thing he wanted to express ; 
he rejected them also on the ground that they impeded the 
action of the Drama, in order to aflbrd the singer time to display 
his power of vocalisation. In its place he substitutes a kind of 
Kecitative, full of dramatic passion, and supported by Orchestral 
accompaniments of the most varied and ingenious character, 
producing effects which no other composer has ever either 
attempted or imagined. Further he systematically and exten- 
sively introduced what he called " Motives" or " Illustrations" 
for the purpose of musically characterising, foreshadowing, and 
conjuring up to the minds of liearers, — persons, events, and things. 
In the " Nibelung's Eing" we find the following Motives : — 
the Primordial Element, the Eing, the Smithy, the Curse, the 
Sword, Love's Fetters, Love-longing, Love-greeting, Love, 
Eenunciation, Eide, Love of Travel, the Magic Delusion, the 
Giants', Wotan's Displeasure, Boding of Fate, Slumber, &c. 

The artistes on the occasion were : — Miss Horner, soprano ; 
C. A. Smith, tenor ; W. Arnold, baritone ; J. W. Ulough, basso ; 
A. Pollard, violin ; the Burnley Orchestral Union, conductor, 
F. Myers. 

The following was the Programme performed : — 

Part First {Selections from Wat/ner's ]Vorks). 

March "Hail! Bright Abode" — Tannhauser Band. 

Song " Star of the 'EiVenmQ^—Tannhauser Mr. Arnold. 

Song... "Lohengrin's reproof to Elsa" — L<)/ten(irin...Mv. Smith. 
Song... " A Ship was on the Ocean tossed" — Fli/in/j Dutchman... 

Miss HOENEE. 

Song " Daland's Song" — Fli/in// Dutchman Mr. Clough. 

Selection " The Flying Dutchman" Band. 

Part Second ( Miscellaneous ). 

Trio " Up, quit thy Bower" 

Miss HoRNEE, Messrs. Smith and Aenold. 
Song ''Down in the Deep"— Hafio?i Mr. Clough. 



97 

Violin Solo Eomauce in F — Beethoven Mr. A. Pollakd. 

Song " Mountain Lad" — Roeckel Miss Horner. 

Quartett Andante, Minuet and Trio — Fcsca 

Messrs. Pollard, Dent, Hargrea\'es, and Myers. 

Song "Nina" — J. Hohhs Mr. Smith. 

Song "The Desert" — L. Emmanuel... Mr. Arnold. 

Duet "Mighty Jove" (Barher of Seville) — Rossini 

Messrs. Smith and Clough. 
Overture " Bob Eoy " — Foster Band. 




98 



THE TOWNELEY MANUSCRIPTS: 

Purchased by the Club —November, 1883. 
By J. LANGFIELD WARD, M.A. 



This volume is described iu the Catalogue of the Sale as 
follows—" John Townley's Account Book, 1601—1608 ; Manu- 
script, instructive as to the prices, at the period, of Cattle, Sheep, 
Poultry, Game and Agricultural Produce — Near the end is the 
following receipt " Eeceived of Nicholas Bancrofte one of the 
Executors of John Towuley, Esqr., deceased to he disbursed 
towchinge a sale for Lands in Metheringham and for other uses 
the soine of Tenn Pownds. Augustine Halle." 

According to the pedigree, Sir Richard Townley, knighted at 
Leith, married Frances Wimbyshe of Nocton, about 7 miles from 
Lincoln ; their daughter Mary married a cousin, John Townley, 
and brought as a dowry an estate at Nocton, for the entries in 
this MS. refer principally to matters connected with Nocton. The 
volume ends in the year of John Townley's death, 1608. The 
pedigree describes him as having been persecuted, but this would 
probably have been during the preceding reign. I infer that he 
left one of his sons in charge of the property at Nocton, but 
which he selected it would have been rather difficult to say, had 
I not found something which proves that the entries are mostly 
the work of Christopher, who was born in 1570 and died in 1623 
at Pendle Hall. This was not the well-known Christopher, " the 
indefatigable transcriber," but an uncle of his. I find that 
Richard, the eldest brother of the second Christopher, was buried 
at Nocton, but whether the present family is connected at all 
with the village I have made no endeavours to ascertain. 

I said that most of the entries I attributed to Christopher 
Townley : it appears as if several hands had been engaged upon 
the book at various times, but I infer that one of the sons was 
the principal, for he speaks of " my brother Richard at Townley," 
and "my brother Charles." In one place however comes "the 
great mare that Micidleton did give to my master": implying 
that the lists of horses and cattle were drawn up by a steward. 

Page 1 consists of an enumeration of the " horses belonging 
to the right worshipful John Towuley, Esq., and remeninge 
about Nockton, this 15th day of October, 1601." At the end of 
the book is the list for the 1st of February, 1599. They are 
described separately by names or by disthictive marks as " the 
old whyte mare of John Townley, old Specke, a bay called the 



99 

stray mare, yonge Demdyke, yonge cracstones, and a yonge bay 
that trotteth." These with others make a total of 31. In 1599 
there were 46, but 22 were sent for a year to Townley. The 
name of Demdyke is curious, for this horse or rather these horses 
(for there were old and young Demdyke) were in Lincolnshire, 
and the name did not come into notoriety in connexion with the 
Lancashire witch trials till several years after. Next are enumer- 
ated the store of cattle, 31 draught oxen, 39 mUke kyne, bullocks, 
fat cows, bulls, steers, &c., altogether about 180. These lists are 
repeated in succeeding pages, with the modifications required for 
different years, and then begins the account of the sales. The 
first entry is a sale on Oct. 27, 1601, to Edw. Metcalfe, who as one 
might gather from his name without the corroborative evidence 
of the MS., was a butcher, of a branded steer for 43/4 and a red 
cow for 36/8. We may note in these prices the persistence of 
the old fashioned sums of 3/4 and 6/8, the half noble and the 
noble, though the coin was almost entirely out of use. The next 
month, the self-same butcher of Lincoln pays £6 16s. 8d. for 
three four-year old fat steers. As regards the prices of other 
animals, we find that fat wethers realised 8/-, calves 7/4, 8/-, 
while next May the wethers fetched 10/-, and the fat calves 
came down to 5/10 ; six pigs came to 6/-; 2 yoke of fat 
oxen were sold at Grantham for £24: 10s., by Ealph 
Proudlove and William Witton whereof 6d. given him again, 
and toll 6d., and spent by them 12d. Babbits seem to 
have been relatively more expensive, for 14 dozen of them (13 
couple to the dozen) were sold for £3 15s. 6d., which means 2^d. 
each, while some lots fetched even 4d. and 6d. each. There is a 
difference made between the black and the grey, the former being 
valued at half as much again as the latter : the cause lay in the 
money received for the skins. The prices of horses are as one 
might expect very variable : some idea may be gathered from the 
following entries — gray nagg £4 16s. 8d., nag called Walker £10 
Os. Od., bay nag£6 6s.8d.,thegreatbaymaref70s.0d.,theswallow 
colt £4 Os. Os., nag called Chin-lemayne £4 Os. Od., gray 3 year old filly 
42/-, filly (her colour black bay) 30/-, &c. : then at one grand effort 
a mare, two fillies and a colt for the apparently reasonable price of 
£6 17s. 6d. As for poultry we have 16 geese sold for 10/8, that is 
8d. each, two turkeys at /22 and /1 2 respectively ; 4 turkey hens 
went for 5/4 and 2 turkey cocks for 4/- ; pigeons were /lO a dozen. 
Mr. Townley appears to have done a considerable trade in skins, 
for the entries under this head seem to come on every page ; a 
steer skin sold for 5/8 in 1601, 8/4 in 1602, a bull skin for 20/-, 
and a cow skin for 9/-. The cost of the keep of a young cow for 
a week was set down in 1601 as /3, but in 1602 the meat of a 
stray steer kept for 6 weeks rises to 2/-. Grain of all kinds was 
very uncertaui in price, varying not only fi-om year to year, but 



100 

also cousidevably from one part of the year to another. The 
averages Avhich are given in books are found by adding the prices 
at Lady Day and at Michaelmas. It being such a changeable 
commodity, no fair inference, for comparison of its then price with 
its present price, can be made from the occasional entries in this 
book : but it is rather remarkable, and shows I should think the 
addition which cost of carriage made to the price of an article in 
former times, that while wheat in Lincolnshire was selling at 
26/8 the quarter, it cost in the Gawthorpe accounts 2/6 a peck 
or at the rate of 80/- a quarter. This is actually the price in 
those accounts through several years, and contrasts unfavourably 
with the modern prices of 45/- to 50/. Still more remarkable are 
the variations in the price of wool ; from being in 1581 at Gaw- 
thorpe 20/- or 22/- a tod (of 13 stones) it rose in 16 years to 
163/4, and in 1604 it was 97/6. In Lincolnshire in 1603 it was 
26/8. These instances are sufficient to show the great differences 
which existed in the cost of articles according to the place, and 
how things are completely changed by the improved means of 
communication. I consider that this book we have before us is 
valuable for the means it supplies of adding to the evidence of 
costs in a special part of the country. The question of com- 
parative prices is one on which there are disputes, and a book 
that throws some light from original sources on the subject 
deserves special attention. It is well, too, for every one to have 
some general ideas at any rate touching this point, for such 
knowledge is necessary if we wish to point out how the ordinary 
citizen of the present day stands when contrasted with his 
representatives 800 years ago in the particulars of wages, and 
purchasing power of wages. Serious mistakes are made by men 
who have not enquired into the subject. Froude, in the opening 
chapter of his history, enters upon a careful consideration of the 
position of the labouring classes with regard to means of subsist- 
ence. I think it is difficult to resist his conclusions, that when 
the wages of masons, bricklayers, joiners, &c., were 5^d. a day, 
and beef was ^d. a pound, mutton fd., a chicken a penny, the 
working-man was, even though wheat might be 6/8 a quarter, 
able to purchase more commodities than one can now. He was in 
other words able to buy for a week's wages, 661bs. of beef or 44 
of mutton, or 33 chickens, or half-a-quarter of wheat. The last 
he Avould certainly be able to do now, but I doubt his ability to 
compass the others. The farm labourer earned less, probably 
about 401bs. of beef. I prefer to give the comjiarison in beef, for 
that was no doubt the general food in the early Tudor period ; but 
whatever may have been the relative advantage of the working 
man then, I conceive the case was entirely changed when we 
come to the period of which our MS. treats. The price of com- 
modities seems in every case to have doubled at the very least ; 



101 

some articles have risen at a still more rapid rate ; wheat is 
trebled, lambs have trebled ; but while this increase was going 
on nothing similar was going on in the rate of wages. The 
master-mason who built Gawthorpe received for his work, what 
may appear to us a small sum, 30/- a quarter, or about 6d. a 
day ; with this he would also have provisions. His subordinates 
had to content themselves with 2d. to 4d. a day and their eatables. 
Hence it will be seen that wages had not only not increased 
during the later Tudor period, but had actually decreased. 
Speakmg generally I should say that the prices had about doubled 
between 1550 and 1600, and I judge it from the following 
particulars : — Fronde says at the former period geese were worth 
4d., in our manuscript they are 8d. ; fat wethers were 3/-±, in 
cm' time they were 8/- or 10/- ; fat oxen were 26/8, over £4 with 
us ; fat calves 3/4, as contrasted with 6/8 or 10/- ; but as I have 
incidentally remarked before, there were some things the price 
of which had undoubtedly trebled. It would no doubt be inter- 
esting to inquire whether the Lincolnshire or Lancashire prices 
for stock were the higher. I have not had time to go thoroughly 
into the matter, but I am inclined to say that the Lancashire were 
a little higher tlian the Lincolnshh-e, but it is a conclusion which I 
cannot confidently affirm. It was probable that Lincolnshire, 
lying as it did then among the manufacturing counties of 
England, would have great encouragement for cattle rearing ; 
Lancashire could not enter into competition because of the 
additional cost of conveyance. Tlie competition in those days 
would be confined to one's own district, and the cost of carriage 
to an out of the way part like Lancashire would prevent cheaper 
commodities coming in to lower the Lancashire prices. The 
reader then gave a few curious entries in the manuscript, and 
proceeded : Christopher Towueley began to keep the accounts, 
if change of writing is a correct guide, about May 1604 ; in 1608, 
after the death of John Towneley, Christopher and his brother 
Charles examine the accounts and enter as follows : — The suihe 
of all the foresaide debts owiuge by John Towneley of Towneley 
Esquire my father latelie deceased amounteth unto two hundrethe 
poundes one shillinge four pence half pennie," to which statement 
they put their signatures. On the 7th of May, 1609, the entries 
of the receipts end ; and on the 15th of December, 1620, brother 
Christopher settles with Charles. It was time to do so. The 
settling is in Charles' handwriting. 

" My brother Christopher his receipts in all are as appeareth 
before £1593 2s. whereunto adding £9 7s Id. being the remain of 
his last accompt and £6 7s. found delivered unto him by myself 
and £17 14s. 4d. being one half year's rent for Metheringham 
and unentered in his receipts do make his charge in all 
£1626. 10s. 5d. 



102 

His disbursements in all are as will appeal' by the book of 
his disbursemeuts £1508 8s. 5d., which deducted out of the fore- 
said sume of £1626 10s. 4d. do make his remain £118 Is. lid. — ■ 
perused by us Christofer Towneley, Charles Towneley. Eeceived 
the 15th day of December in anno Domini 1620 the sume of fifty 
nine pounds eleven pence ob (half penny) being the half of 
£118. Is. lid. found remaining in my brother Christopher his 
hands, upon his accopts, as will appear herebefore and so due 
unto me, I say received 

Per me CHA.ELES TOWNELEY. 

Fastened in the volume is a letter from Nicholas Bancrofte 
to Christopher Towneley at Noctone. 

Peculiar words are few, rigauld used as a noun and an 
adjective ; quee — a heifer, skins mortes and slaughters ; twinter 
— an ox or amimal two winters old, drape wethers, fat oxen well 
stricken with flesh, chawder of lime for chaldron. 

In conclusion I would just say that the period singularly 
enough is omitted by Eden in his " State of the Poor ;" it looks, 
according to Harland, as if he was unable to find any accounts 
from 1602 to 1608 to furnish him with prices, and this manu- 
script, covering from 1601 to 1608, helps with the Gawthorpe 
accounts to fill up the chasm which there is in that work. 



BAPTISMS AND ANNIVERSAEIES, &c., 1705 to 1722 ; 
WITH TERRIER OF DEMAINE OF MARTHOLME. 

By F. J. GRANT. 



The Terrier*= was copied in the book in 1667, and is believed 
to be in the writing of Christopher Towneley. Probably in the 
17th century the demesne of Martholme extended from Altham 
to within a short distance of Whalley. The names of several 
fields, &c., remain the same as at the time when the Terrier was 
made. 

Thirty-eight years after the Terrier was completed, the book 
was appropriated to the use of the Chaplain at Towneley, who 
for 16 years utilised its spare pages for the record of his masses, 
and as a register of the Marriages and Baptisms in the Family 
Chapel. 

The priest's entries divide themselves into three portions. 
1. Record of those '■ christened since I came to Towne- 
ley." From Marcli, 1707, to March, 1727, ninety-five 
childien were baptized Many of the names enumerated 

*Terrier :— " a survey or register of lands." — Johnson, 



103 

are common to this day in the district about Towneley ; 
e.(i. — Eastwood, Dawson, Walker, Halsted, Simpson, 
"Whitehead, Hardgraves, Wittam or Whittam, Crabtree, 
Shackleton, Ormerod. Marshall, Pickopp, Seager. 

In two instances the baptismal register is incomplete, 
only the Christian name being given ; possibly the blank 
may be taken as analogous to the bend sinister on an 
escutcheon. 

2. Record of those " man-ied since I came to Towneley." 
In 22 years, 18 Marriages are registered. In no single 
instance is the wife's narae given. 

3. Statement of the Masses celebrated in the Towneley 
Chapel from 1 May, 1706, to 31 December, 1722. On 
Christmas-day in each year there were three distinct 
masses ; on all other days except on Good Friday, one 
mass was said. Occasionally the entry is celehratio jjro 
w!e)Ht?i, sometimes pro fratre and sorore, or f am ilia nostra. 

The families with whom the Towneleys were associated by 
friendship or connected by marriage were often remembered in 
the services of the Chapel. Some of the names of those for 
whom masses were celebrated are of families in the neighbour- 
hood, others are those of families whose names are familiar to 
any student of English history. The following are some of the 
names recorded : — Pudsey, Walmesley, Petre, Houghton, Sher- 
burn, Haydock, Tarleton, Gerard, Clifton, Molyneux, Farring- 
ton, Bhmdell, Vavasour, Hesketh, Talbot, Craven, Anderton, 
Scarisbrick, Gascoigne, Howard, Fairfax. 

But, as might be expected, no name occurs so frequently in 
the Priest's entries as that of Towneley. Domino Tou-mley infirmo, 
or egrotante is followed by Domino Towneley defuncto. 

On certain days in the Spring — probably Eogation days — 
mass is celebrated pro friuiibus terrce, on other days — probably 
Ember days — pro ordinandis. 

There are masses for rain, for fair weather, for my flock, for 
all missionaries, for the conversion of sinners, for the Benefactors 
of the Foundation, for souls in purgatory. 

The most interesting part of the Priest's records is that 
bearing on the Stuart family and their efforts to regain the 
Crown of England. The loyalty of the Towneleys to the Stuart 
dynasty is matter of history. The 10th of June, the birthday 
of Prince James, never passed unnoticed at Towneley. On that 
day in each year the mass was jjro Rege nostro Jacobo HI. 
Prayers for the Prince are often followed by masses pro siimmo 
pontifice, pro conversione Anrjlice, or pro exaltatione, sanctm ecclesim. 

The month of November, 1715, was a time of great anxiety 
to the fi-iends of the " Old Pretender.'' The Jacobite forces 
entered Preston on the 9th and 10th of that month ; on the 12th 



104 

they were attacked by King Geoige's army. On Sunday the 
18th the force under General Carpenter, which had marched 
down Ribhlesdale, joined in the attacli on James's followers, and 
on the 14th the army of the Pretender sm-rendered. This was 
the end of the rebellion known as the '15. Some of the entries 
in the Chaplain's book at this period are very pathetic and sug- 
gestive. Masses were celebrated as under: — 

November 3, 4, & 12, Ileije noatro Jacubo III. 

„ 13 & 14, Militibns. 

,, 17, Patirntia et resii/nationp. 

,, 18, Resvjnatione. 

,, 19, Rege nostra Jacoho III. 

,, 20, Redemptions Captivorum . 

,, 23, Conversione Anrjlue. 

,, 30, (S. Andrew's day) Scotia. 

Eichard Towneley was one of those taken prisoner at 
Preston. He was put on his trial, but by exceptional good 
fortime was acquitted. 

For his services as Chaplain, the Priest appears from this 
Memorandum book to have received a salary of £10 per annum. 
Out of this sum he had to pay for food for iiis horse. This was 
the usual salary of a chaplain in the seventeenth century. In 
addition the chaplain always had his board and a humble bed- 
room (Macaulay's History, "vol. I.) The stipend of the Towneley 
priest was not very regularly paid. The paymaster was Mr. 
Oram— probably the Steward- who, however, in Charles Towne- 
ley's time, never made the payment until directly ordered to 
do so by the head of the house. The stipend was due in April 
each year. That month was never allowed to pass without mass 
being said for Mr. Orum. 

On the 26th of May, 1709, this entry is made in the Mem- 
orandum Book :—" Received of Madme: Towneley four pound, 
due for the two years past upon account Mr. Charles stopped 40 
shillings per annum for 2 years." 

" How far that little candle throws his beams ! 
" So shines a good deed in a naughty world." 



CATALOGUE OF THE LIBRARY OF JOHN TOWNELEY, 

1807 ; Vv^lTH FRAGMENTS OF HIS DIARY. 

Bij ALFRED STRANGE. 



" 19 Towneley, (John) Diary 1807 with catalogue of his 
library, date 19th century." Such is the title of the work in the 
catalogue of the sale on 28th of June last : the book became the 



105 

property of the Club for the sum of 22/-. It is a post 8vo volume 
of hand-made paper, bound in brown leather, and contains 138 
leaves. Of the catalogue portion the greater j^art is devoted to the 
Books in the Library of Corney House, Chiswick, and tlie rest to 
some of those in Park Street, Westminster. Taking the first- 
named, we are at once struck with the number of County Histories 
it contains, and works on general and archteological topography. 
Next the large assemblage of Continental Works claims attention, 
many being of ancient date. One of the oldest Historico eccle- 
siastical works in manuscript goes back to 1251 : it purports to 
be an account of a junior brotherhood existing in the time of 
Pope Innocent IV : one MS. without title is of 1300, and among 
the early printed books are " The Cordyale Caxton " 1479. 
" The Dictes and sayings of the Philosophers " 1477 — 1491 and 
" Life of St. Katherine and St. Elizabeth" 1486. I may name 
among the works issued in the 16th century, " Scala Perfec- 
tionis" (Wynkyn de Worde), Hor« B.M.V. in usum Sarum " 
1502, " Marcus Aurehus " 1557. Of publications during the 
Cromwellian period, there is a great lack. 

In Bookcase C 7, chiefly occupied by Topographical Books, 
there is a j)leasing mingling of works of opposite characters; 
Boccaccio is a companion of Palafox's Devout Exercises ; a 
valuable MS. of Wycliffe's, written on vellum, rests not far 
from the work of a charlatan astrologer. Over the Little 
Parlour Library in Park Street, Westminster, we must not linger : 
the list of topographical works and tracts arranged alphabetically 
under the heads of their respective counties brings us to what 
was known as the " Street Parlour Library." The house in 
Park Street formed the town house of the family during John 
Towneley's lifetime and that of his son Peregrine, but in Charles 
Towneley's time it was given up, and the establishment removed 
to the fashionable quarter Charles Street, Berkeley Square. 

But the most interesting feature about the MS. to local 
enquirers will be the fragments of the diary it contains, recording 
Mr. John Towneley's journey from Loudon to Towneley. He 
set out on July 6th, 1807, and seems to have arranged his arrival 
so as to be in time for the all-important local event, Burnley Fan* ; 
thus for Jixly 8th we read "Left Halifax between 7 and 8 o'clock, 
morn, and arrived at Towneley between 10 and 11. Overtook 
John Barnes near Dr. Whitaker's at the Holme. The weather 
fine. The Hay crop very abundant, and half got in.". On the 
following day Mr. Hargreaves of Ormerod House calls at Towneley 
and Mr. Lovat is mentioned as forming one of the evening dinner 
party. Then comes " 10th July, Towneley — Weather the same : 
Burnley Fair ; viewed the improvements at the Hall Inn, and the 
new buildings — called on Mr. Greenwood, rode a Black galloway 
bought of Ed. Lee of Hapton, took a ride through the Horse 



106 

pasture to the New Hazles and the drains Mr. Lovat has made 
in the Horse pasture." The Hall Inn referred to will be recog- 
nised as the once Town House of the Towneleys. After viewing 
the hotel, he le-mouuts his sable steed and jogs on to Pallis 
House, so called from the palisading once surrounding it, to pay 
his respects to Mr. Greenwood, who it will be remembered, was 
the donor of a valuable Library to the Church of England Literary 
Institution. On July 14th a finish of auditing the accounts with 
Mr. Lovat was made. On the 21st a Mason came from Preston 
" to put up my nephew's monument in Burnley Church," and the 
following day he visited St. Peter's to see the progress made, on 
his way to "Carr" to call on Col. Clayton. Notwithstanding 
continued bad weather Mr. Starkie of Huntroyde does not delay 
to pay his complimentary visit to Towneley. Neither did Mr 
Towneley forget good Mr. Eawse whom he went to see on the 
28th of the month. The diary from this date to the 16th of 
August seems little more than a dull meteorological report, and 
that of the briefest kind. On the 27th of August he gives a 
dinner party at Towneley to the following guests, all of whose 
names will be familiar, Mr. and Mrs. Hargreaves, of Bank Top, 
Mrs. Ormerod and Captain Hargreaves, Mr. Eawse, Mr. and Mrs. 
Whitaker, junr., and Miss Thoresby. 

After this entry we have more barometer than memoir. 
There are from GO to 70 entries altogether, and out of the whole 
number there are but 5 in which there is no allusion to the state 
of the atmosphere. Eainy days of course predominate. 

Mr. Strange brought his paper to a close with the following 
remarks — 

I have only one more observation to make suggested by the 
Diary, in bringing my remarks to a close. It is this : — that with 
the sudden accession of John Towneley to the Estate there 
seemed some probability of a perpetuation of the family name. 
Through old John Towneley, his son Peregrine, and his grandson 
there was hope that the genealogical tree would flourish and 
expand. When Peregrine came to Towneley on August 16tli, 1807, 
there was every human probability that the ancient family would 
be still represented in coming years. The Towneleys' had 
entered on a new lease of life, and there was now a prospect 
that they would not be blotted out h'om the list of the great 
Commoners of England. Many long years had elapsed since an 
infant son and heir had played about the galleries of Towneley 
HaU, and the happy merriment of little Charles as he bestrode 
the rocking-horse in the ancestral nursery, all unconscious of the 
victories of future Kettledrums, must have been sweet music in 
the ears of his father and grandfather. In that light hearted lad 
was centred the present hopes of the family, and failing him the 
infant John would be relied on to preserve the pedigree. — But 



107 

man jyroposes, a biglier than man disposes. Though the law of 
probabilities were favourable, it was ordained that the Towneleys 
of Towneley were to pass away, and that after an existence of 
nearly 10 centuries a family of fame and importance, and loved 
and respected to the last were in representatives male at least, to 
vanish from among men. But though the name is lost and the 
later sons of the race sleep under cold slabs in the North Aisle 
of Burnley Chm-ch, and in the damp soil of the little Chapel 
Yard at the entrance of the Trough of Bolland, the memoiy of 
the Towneleys will ever be cherished in Burnley, not only be- 
cause they are associated with its earliest histoiy, but more 
especially because their venerable name casts an historical, 
literary, and dignified lustre on the annals of this thrifty and 
industrious town. 




108 



GENERAL EXCURSIONS. 

June 12th, 1884 : Thursday.-PEESTON AND PENWOETHAM. 
Septr. 3rd, 1881 : Wednesday.— YORK AND SELBY. 



PRESTON AND PENWOETHAM. Juue 12th, 1884. 
Leader, JAMES McKA Y, of Preston. 



The party reached Preston about half-past two. Here they 
\Yexe met by Mr. James McKay, who officiated as conductor for 
the day. The party immediately proceeded to the County 
Offices, where Mr. T. R. Jolly courteously showed the visitors 
through the beautiful range of buildings, pointing out the 
armorial bearings and mural decorations, by Messrs. Shrigley and 
Hunt, of London and Lancaster, from the designs of Mr. E. H. 
Jewett and Mr. J. Milner Allen, of London. The necessity for 
giving any detailed account of the historical portraits and 
pictorial subjects which adorn the walls of this splendid apart- 
ment was obviated by the presentation to the members of copies, 
of the exhaustive and able manual written by 0. R. Jacson, 
Esq., of Barton Hall, for the information of the Lancashire 
justices on the occasion of its opening. Having ascended to the 
highest point of the building, from which a magnificent view of 
Preston was obtained, the party left the County Offices, and 
proceeding along Fishergate, the associations of the thoroughfare 
and all the buildings along the route — the Baptist Chapel, built 
in the Byzantine style of architecture ; the Theatre Royal, in 
the Italian style— were all pointed out to the members ; then 
the church of St. Wilfrid was inspected by special permission of 
the Rector, the Rev. Father Dykes, S.J. The visitors were put 
in possession of the history of the church from the time of its 
opening, on the 4tli of Juue, 1793, to its rebuilding in 1879, 
from the designs and plans of Mr. Nicholl, of London, and 
Father Scholes, of St. Mary's, Preston, at a cost of upwards of 
£20,000. The beautiful altar, with its Italian marbles, the altar 
steps, the tabernacle of the high altar, the paintings of the 
Crucifixion and the Flight into Egypt, and the statue of Our 
Lady, were all inspected. Leaving this sacred edifice the party 
made their way through Wiuckley-square to Dr. Shepherd's 
Library and the Cross-street Museum. The charming beauty of 
the foliage and greensward within the enclosure Avas the subject 
of admiration. At Dr. Shepherd s Library, the Rev. J. Shortt, 
Vicar of Hogliton, and honorary curator of the Cross-street 
Museum, was awaiting the party, and, with the assistance of the 
obliging librarian, the eyes of the visitors were feasted with rare 



109 

copies of early typography. It would take too much space 
to enumerate these works, hut the books themselves, by theii- 
variety, and as examples both of the binders' and the printers' 
art, were intensely interesting. Adjourning to the Cross- street 
Museum, Mr. Sliortt described the clioice collections, the Cuer- 
dale find, and the fossil remains illustrative of the geological 
character of the neighbourhood, caUiug for special attention. It 
is interesting to know that on the strength of the Cuerdale find, 
Mr. Charles Hardwick, the able historian of Preston, claims for 
the immediate vicinity of tlie town of Bm-uley that it was the 
scene of that mighty battle of Brunanbuhr, which the late Mr. 
T. T. Wilkinson argued had taken place on the uplands between 
Worsthorue, Rogerham, Harle Syke, and Saxifield. Proceeding 
next to the Town Hall the party were gratified by the appoint- 
ments of the Free Library, and admired the extent of the 
library, its management, and happy and appropriate location. 
Mr. Gouldiug, the Town Hall keeper, then led the way round 
the building, and described the windows and various decorations, 
mm-al and otherwise, in the different rooms. The party were led 
into the Mayor's Parlour-, and by the courteous permission of the 
Right Worshipful the Mayor (J. Forshaw, Esq.) the Corporation 
regalia were set out for their inspection. It was explained that 
the building was erected from the designs of the late Sir Gilbert 
Scott, and ranks among the finest of that great architect's creations. 
The sculpture and carving were executed by Messrs. Yarmer and 
Brindley, of London ; and the decorators were Messrs. Clayton 
and Bell, of London. The building, which cost upwards of 
£90,000, and was erected by Messrs. Cooper and TuUis, of 
Preston, was opened in 1867 by H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge. 
The Corporation regalia includes the silver-headed Mayor's 
waud ; the halberts, which are by no means indifferent modern 
representatives of the fasces and secures of the Romans ; the 
exquisite gold mace, the gift of the 4th Duke of Hamilton, in 
1703 ; other two maces ; the grace cup, presented in 1615 ; the 
Queen Anne's " loving cup ;" the Longworth goblet (1716^ ; the 
Atherton tankard (1722) ; and the massive silver punch bowl, 
the gift of the Earl of Derby at the Gmld of 1742. The fine 
Guild Hall was visited, and the party then devoted the brief 
time at theu* disposal to the examination of the invaluable collec- 
tion of Paintings in the Newsham Art Gallery. The Town Clerk 
had given permission for the party to inspect the oldest charter 
of the borough and two beautiful charters of the time of Charles 
II. These historical documents were carefully examined with 
much interest. Mr. Goulding then accompanied the party to the 
New Pubhc Hall, a building of very large capacity, and possess- 
ing a fine organ, the gift of Mr. Dewhirst. After tea at the 
Station Dining Room, Mr. McKay conducted the party through 



110 

the private grounds of the Park Hotel, the party surveying 
the landscape with unmixed pleasure, for the day was 
gloriously fine. By way of Miller Park, Kibble Side, 
and Penwortham Bridge, the visitors were conducted to St. 
Mary's Well, and thence to the picturesque avenue lead- 
ing to the Priory and the church. The party were re- 
ceived at Penwortham Priory with gracious courtesy, and (iu 
the absence of Lawrence Eawstorne, Esq.,) were led by Mrs. 
Eawstorne through every apartment in the beautiful mansion 
which could possibly interest them. The hospitable character 
of the reception will never be forgotten by those who were 
privileged to enjoy it. It appears that soon after the Conquest 
a Benedictine priory or monastic cell was erected here by a 
fraternity of the monks from Evesham. The vicissitudes of the 
structure since were detailed, and then the visitors proceeded to 
the church situated on the summit of a high and woody bank 
overlooking the valley of the Eibble. The date of the first 
erection is not known, but a church existed in 1291. The present 
tower is probably of the 15th century, although the nave and 
aisles of the church were rebuilt in 1856. Castle Hill was 
mounted, and the prospect fi-om it would lead one to admit that 
Penwortham must have been worthy of being, as it was in the 
olden time, " a royal manor." This height was iu Roman times 
a camp of observation commanding the pass of the Eibble, and 
providing means of communication by signal with the other 
Eoman garrisons at Walton and Eibchester. The programme of 
the day was now brought to a conclusion, and the party made 
their way to the station and returned home. 

It must be recorded that Mr. McKay had very considerately 
prepared and printed a descriptive list of the chief objects of 
interest in the historic town. The possession of these notes and 
the book relating to the County Sessions Hall added greatly to 
the pleasure of the visit, and served as souvenirs of a pleasant 
day and the kindly reception accorded to the party. 



YORK AND SELBY. September 3rd, 1884. 
Leader, W. LEWIS GRANT. 



There had long been an earnest desire that York should be 
included in the Hst of summer day excursions ; and nmy that the 
improved train-service had come into operation, a visit to that 
ancient city could conveniently be made. York was reached 
about ten o'clock, and the first object which arrested attention 
was a portion of the City wall. The walls form one of the most 
striking features of the historic City, and some portions are 



Ill 

built upon the foundations of the Eomau Wall. They are in 
good preservation, and throughout a great length afford an 
agreeable promenade. On crossing the celebrated Leudal Bridge, 
a picturesque view of the river with the quaint structures includ- 
ing the Guildhall, rising from its waters, is obtained. The 
Bridge is of iron construction, and was designed by Mr. Page, 
the architect of Westminster Bridge. It was built at a cost of 
i'35,000, and is richly ornamented with shields and various 
devices. TJie celebrated grounds of the Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society were next entered, and the party proceeded to view the 
extremely valuable collections therein preserved. At the further 
end of tlie tastefully laid out gardens are the beautiful ruins of 
St. Maiy's Abbey, a Benedictine Monastery. The West fi'ont, 
judging from the portion which remains, must have been very 
fine. The Hospitium, which is partly of wooden construction, 
is utilized as an Antiquity Museum. It is a rich storehouse of 
fi'agments of the sculptured decorations of the Abbey, and of a 
singularly fine collection of Eoman and other antiquities. York 
is notably rich in Eoman relics ; and of these there are tesselated 
pavements of beautiful design, a unique collection of coffins, many 
altars, bricks and tiles, remains of baths and leaden pipes, 
and numerous specimens of j)ottery, cinerai-y urns, glass, 
ornaments of gold, ivory, jet, &c. An object of special interest 
is the hair of a Eoman lady which was takeia out of a stone 
coffin found in 1875. The hair retains its beautiful auburn 
colour, and contains two jet pins in their original position. The 
Museum of the Society is of Grecian architecture, and contains 
several valuable Eoman tablets, pieces of Egyptian sculptiu'e, 
the mortar of the Infirmary of the Abbey of St. Mary — a choice 
specimen of medioeval art — and a curious and rai-e collection of 
coins. In the Ethnological Eoom are deposited numerous bone, 
flint, and stone implements fi-om various countries, samples of 
British pottery, and bronze implements and weapons, &c. A 
special feature is the geological collection, and there are skeletons 
of birds, and the remains of extinct animals. The old Norman 
arch forming the principal gateway of the Abbey was noticed, 
as also the remains of the Hospital of St. Leonard, and the 
Multangular Tower, — an undoubted part of the fortifications of 
Eboracum. 

The party then proceeded to the Eailway Station, and after 
dinner went by train to Selby, 14 miles distant. Here they 
were met by the Eev. — Lister, Curate of the Parish, the Yicar, 
the Eev. Canon Harper, being unable to accompany the party ; 
and on reaching the glorious Abbey Church, two of the Chm-cli- 
wardeus joined Mr. Lister in order to give information and 
faciUtate the profitable inspection of the venerable edifice. Selby 
Abbey Church holds a unique position as the one great Bene- 



112 



dictine Monastery of the North of England surviving as a 
parochial Church. Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A., who restored the 
Abbey, said, in his report (1871) : " The Abbey Church of Selby 
in some respects stands alone among the magnificent monastic 
remains of Yorkshire. It may not perhaps be the most splendid 
of all those noble fabrics, though it ranks amongst the first 
of them, nor can it boast those accidental and picturesque 
charms with which nature has clothed the ruined Abbeys, as if 
to throw a veil over their desolation ; but it possesses the far 
higher, though less picturesque, advantage of not being a ruin, 
of retaining with one trifling exception, its entire dimensions, 
and of being still, as ever, dedicated to the honour and worship 
of God." The chief results of the work of restoration were 
pointed out, the reaUzation of these being assisted by viewing 
a series of photographs shewing the Church previous to the 
undertaking. The Norman, Transitional, Early English, and Geo- 
metrical styles of architecture, are all characteristically illustrated. 
The length of the entire Church is 298 feet, the width being 59 
feet. There are two richly ornamented doorways which present 
splendid specimens of the latest and richest Norman. The oldest 
portion of the Church is the North Transept. The external view 
of the choir is wonderfully fine ; the eastern facade being a noble 
and magnificent composition. The great east window is one of 
the grandest in the kingdom. Entering by the western door 
the fine nave and the extreme length of the Church present a 
view which is singularly striking. There is not space to notice 
the salient features of the building ; the interesting character 
of the Triforium and Clerestory ; the monuments and quaint 
inscriptions ; the elaborately decorated choir, &c. It was with 
regret that the party could not prolong their examination of a 
Church possessing such a combination of attractions to the 
antiquarian and archaeologist. 

On returning to York, the visitors passed through the finest 
of the gateways by which the ramparts are pierced — Micklegate 
Bar. It was on this gate that the heads of traitors were formerly 
exposed. 

The purpose of the party was now to visit the chief glory of 
the imperial city — the Minster. On the way thither were passed 
some of the many venerable churches which the city encloses, 
and many of which enshrine precious memorials of past ages. 
There was also noticed the quaint picturesqueness of some of the 
streets, with their half-timbered houses and projecting gables. 
On approaching the Minster from Buncombe Street the view is 
supremely impressive. The dignity and massive grandeiu- of the 
edifice at once arrest the attention of the visitor, and this special 
feature is ever present whether the Cathedral be viewed from the 
exterior or interior. The West Front which is the portion fii-st 



113 

presented, is in its composition and details an architectural 
masterpiece. Notice of the history of the Minster, its chief 
architectural characteristics, its unrivalled windows, and numer- 
ous monuments to the renowned in Church and State, cannot be 
given here. There is only space to record that the most note- 
worthy features and interesting objects appertaining to this stately 
and triumphant specimen of Gothic architecture were pointed 
out by one of the vergers. Amongst these objects was the wall 
in the Crypt which reveals the herring-bone work of the Saxon 
period, establishing unmistakeably the great age of this, the 
oldest part of the fabric. Several of the jaarty ascended the 
great Central Tower, which is 213 feet in height and 65 feet 
square. From the summit an extensive prospect of the beautiful 
vale of York was obtained. On departing from the Cathedral 
the quaint thoroughfare of Stonegate was traversed, and the 
Guild Hall, erected in 1446, was reached. In this building are 
several fine stained glass windows, representing historical sub- 
jects, and sundry curious relics. It was now the pleasure of the 
visitors to be hospitably entertained by Dr. Hill, at his residence 
in the suburbs. On the way the building known as Clifford's 
Tower was seen. This prominent object was the keep of the 
fortress erected here by William the Conqueror. The day's pro- 
ceedings were pleasantly brought to a close by the generous 
reception accorded to the party by Dr. Hill. Leaving York at 
half-past six, Burnley was reached about nine o'clock. 




114 

SECTIONAL EXCURSIONS. 

June 7th, 188i : Saturday.— ALKINCOATES HALL AND THE PAKISH 

CHUECH, COLNE. 
June 21st, 188i: Saturday.— CASTLE CLOUGH AND SITE OF HAPTON 

TOWER. 
Aug. 23rd, 188i: Saturday.— BLACKSTONE EDGE AND THE EOMAN 

EOAD. 



ALKINCOATES HALL, AND THE PAKISH CHUECH, 

COLNE. June 7th, 1884. 

Leader, ALFRED STRANGE. 



By the kindness of T. Mason, Esq., the present occupier of 
the Ancient Manor House of Alkincoates, the memhers of the 
Art and Antiquity Section were privileged to inspect the HalL 

The mansion is the property of Thomas Parker, Esq., of 
Browsholme, and is prominently situated in a park like enclosure 
to the west of Colne, overlooking Pendle Forest. It is one of 
the most interesting specimens of Elizabethan domestic archi- 
tecture in the neighbourhood, and seems to have been erected 
about 1560. Its handsome front of five picturesque gables are 
surmounted by finials of that date, and being of three storeys, 
the building has a more commanding appearance than the many 
smaller two-storied contemporary domestic mansions existing in 
the locality. Between the gables the original massive gurgoyles 
intervene, but the external h-ont as well as other portions of the 
Hall have undergone much change during later years. The 
mullioned and transomed windows in the lower storeys have 
been removed, and the old, flat, thick, wooden sashes of the 
Queen Anne epoch introduced. Those in the gables are however 
in situ. The principal entrance was originally differently placed 
than it is now, and in a field to the east may be seen the 
weather-worn stone posts of the old gateway which gave admis- 
sion to the grounds. These stones are like the house itself 
found of millstone grit, drawn probably fi-om the quan-ies to the 
rear of the Hall. On the lawn in front is a quaint octagonal 
sundial, which is shewn by a rude inscription on the shaft sup- 
porting it, to have been put up by one " Christopher Trueman," 
who is described as " generosus." The name of a John Dyson, 
(? Dixon) also appears on the pedestal, and as it has also been 
found on the sundial over the porch of Colne Church, it is con- 
jectured that he was frequently employed in this class of work 
at tJie period when the Alkincoates dial was erected. 

Scattered about the grounds of Alkincoates are relics of 
Ecclesiastical masonry, alleged to have been brought from Selby, 
and prominent among the h'agments may be seen Early English, 
later Gothic, and Norman dog tooth moulding. There are also 



115 

two fonts of massive character, one of an octagonal shape but 
without shafts. The interior of the mansion has been altered to 
suit the requirements of a modern residence. There is a good 
collection of Elizabethan oak furniture, including mantle-pieces, 
book-cases, sideboards, chairs, wainscotting, &c., all very elabor- 
ately carved, removed hither from Browsholme. 

Respecting the two families of Alkincoates and Browsholme 
it may be said that the antiquity of the former branch of the 
Parkers is involved at present in much mysteiy, no complete 
pedigree being in existence, and it is not until they become 
associated with the Parkers of Browsholme, that any regularity 
is found in then- genealogy. That they intermarried with the 
Blakeys of Blakey Hall, (their immediate neighbours), and the 
Mereclesdens of Great and Little Marsden — both families of im- 
portance — is evident. But it is certain that it was not until the 
seventeenth century, about the year 1608, that any jiost mortem 
inquisition was held in connection with the estate. A Bernard 
Parker died in that year, and it was found by inquiry before the 
king's escheator that the estate consisted of 150 acres of land 
in the township of Colne. Besides this, there was a messuage ; 
no doubt the present house. It wiU be noted that this estate 
was of modest proportions, and perhaps that may be a clue to 
the fact that although the neighbom-ing gentry whose names are 
famUiar to us, did in 1574, and at other periods have to con- 
tribute men and warhke implements for the mihtary service of 
the country, no trace of the Alkincoates Parkers appears amongst 
them. 

Subsequently the members visited Colne Parish Church, 
the Eector, the Rev. W. Clifford, M.A., kindly conducting the 
party and pointing out the objects of interest. 



CASTLE CLOUGH AND SITE OP HAPTON TOWER. 

June 21st, 1884. 
Leader, G. B. RAWCLIFFE. 



This excursion was for the purpose of investigating the 
neighbourhood of Castle Clough and Hapton Tower, in search 
of objects of antiquarian, entomological, and botanical interest. 
The President, Mr. H. Houlding, was one of the party. The 
party rambled through the exceedingly picturesque and romantic 
dell called Castle Clough, and noted the variety and luxuriance 
of the flora, the magnificent growth of the trees and ferns, and 
the interesting phenomena of insect hfe, of which every species 
of plant and tree is the home and " procreanfc cradle," as well as 
the storehouse of abundant food. Several beetles were bottled, 
amongst others a very splendid one which, through a pocket lens, 



116 

" far outshone the wealth of Ormus or of Ind," reminding one 
of the gorgeous heraldry of H. T. M. " with gems and golden 
lustre rich emhlazed," or of Sigismunda's casket, " rich with 
gems and rough with gold." The Clough is full of interest for 
the botanist, affording magnificent specimens of Felix mas, the 
Lady-fern, and the broad shield-fern. There was a profusion of 
Stellaria nemorum, rarely seen, save under sylvan shadows, and 
the Cardamine amara, or Bittercress, was found in flower. A 
]pool almost dry, in one part, presented a complete covering of 
the Callitriche aqnatica. Many of the trees are very tall, and the 
rocks, fern-clad and oak-crowned, as many of them were, were 
very grand and imposing. Ascending the eastern slope of the 
ravine, the party came upon the site of the ancient castle, and 
traced out the fosse, moat, vallum, or whatever it might be, but 
found no vestige of masonry. This castle, according to Dr. 
Whitaker, was the seat of the ancient lords of Hapton, and till 
the erection of Hapton Tower the occasional residence of the 
de la Leghs and Towneleys. It must have been a most 
picturesque object, being seated upon the brink of a massive 
perpendicular rock with the beautiful wooded glen beneath. 
After having thoroughly explored the upper part of the clough, 
the members then ascended the slopes in the direction of 
Hambledon, to the hill above Tower Brook, on the summit of 
which stands Hapton Tower, nearly half-a-mile south of the 
New Barn. This magnificently situated house or fortress was 
originally surrounded by an extensive park, called Hapton Park, 
of which Porter's Gate, above Micklehurst is said to have been 
one of the entrances or lodges. The first mention of a Manerium 
et Parens de Hapton occurs in 1331 ; but Piobert de Lacy, the 
second, granted to "William de Arches the venison caught in 
Hapton as early as 1095. The great park inclosed in 1515 
consisted of 1100 acres. Sir John Towneley, who was born in 
1473, is said to have builc Hapton Tower, and it was there he 
died in 1541. Our excursionists examined with great interest 
what little remains of Sir John's Tower, which now forms part 
of the wall which crosses the highest point of the ridge next to 
Hambledon. Little appears above ground, except an ancient 
loop-hole with some heavy masonry around it, but no doubt, 
remains of considerable interest, lie buried under the accumulated 
ruins, now overgrown with grass, in which outlines of the ancient 
building may be traced. Dr. Whitaker mentions a tradition that 
in 1725 the remains of the tower stood about 6 yards high, 
and, were described as a large square building with three round 
towers on one side. It seems to have been constructed after the 
pattern of the border fortresses, and may have been intended to 
serve for defence against the Scots, " who frequently came south 
of Clitheroe or Whalley." The Tower was the principal residence 



117 

of the Towneley family, and was not finally deserted till 1667. 
Eight in front lie the great ranges of Whalley, Longridge, and 
Bleasdale, with Parlick Pike to the left, and Pendle and Boiils- 
worth to the right, with the great valleys sweeping wide hetween. 
"What the scene must have been like when the " good greenwood" 
lay in sylvan magnificence around, and " the merl and mavis 
were singing," and memories of Eobiu Hood and his merry men 
still haunted the shadowy glades, we may imagine. But even 
to-day the site of the old Tower is well worth a visit for those 
who like to breathe pure air, and who love the grandeur of a wide 
prospect and the quiet that is " among the lonely hills." 



BLACKSTONE EDGE AND THE ROMAN EOAD. 

August 23rd, 1884. 
Leader, J. ARTHUR WADDIXGTON. 



Dr. Monckman and Mr. J. Arthur Waddington were 
appointed leaders, but owing to a delay in the railway service 
Dr. Monckman unfortunately did not join the party. However, 
Mr, R. H. Tiddeman, M.A., of Her Majesty's Geological Survey, 
accompanied the members, and contributed very much to the 
interest of the excursion by the information he afforded respecting 
the geology of the district. The party proceeded by way of the 
old turnpike road, past Lydgate and Blackstone Edge Fold to the 
summit. The Jiighest point of Blackstone Edge is 1551 feet 
above sea level, yielding in point of altitude to but three hills in 
our immediate district — Pendle (1831), Boulsworth (1700), and 
Black Hambledon (1572). Duiing the walk the sharp dip of the 
beds of Millstone Grit was noticed. The key to the geology of 
this neighbourhood is to be found, however, in the fault which 
runs along the western flanks of Blackstone Edge, known as the 
Great Anticlinal Fault. This displacement of strata, which runs 
in a direction nearly due north, has been traced fi-om Leek in 
Staffordshire, at its southern extremity, to a point north of Black 
Hambledon, a distance of about 50 miles. On its western side 
the upper beds of tlie Millstone Grit series are tilted at a high 
angle, whilst upon crossing the fault we find the Kinder Scout 
Grit. This, the lowest bed of the series to which it belongs, lies 
immediately above the Yordale beds, and has a very slight dip 
towards the east. Sometimes the outcrop of the Kinder Scout 
Grit forms a bold escarpment as is the case at Blackstone Edge 
and Black Hambledon. In the .former instance the outcrop is 
marked by ^picturesquely grouped blocks of gritstone. Some of 



118 

these are of immense size, being weathered into fantastic shapes, 
and often bearing upon their upper surfaces potholes or rock 
basins of considerable size. Tlie mode of the formation of tliese 
potholes has been the subject of much controversy, though the 
most probable hypothesis appears to be the one which attributes 
them to the action of the elements upon some slight depression 
in the surface of the rock. The wind and the rain cause the 
disintegration of the felspar and coarse-grained quartz of which 
the rock is composed, and so bring about a gradual enlargement 
of the hollow. One rock which is most curiously weathered is 
known as Robin Hood's Bed. The boundary between Lancashire 
and Yorkshire runs for some distance along the ridge of Black- 
stone Edge, which also forms the watershed between the streams 
that flow east into the German Ocean and west into the Irish Sea. 
After spending some little time upon the summit, the party turned 
towards the north, striking the Roman Road which has lately 
attracted so much attention from antiquaries, upon the eastern 
slope of the hill. Though now covered with vegetation, the line 
of the road can be distinctly traced. It is about 14 feet wide, 
with no special features beyond tlie central blocks of stone 
similar to those upon tlie Long Causeway and elsewhere. The 
irregularity of the road at this point led to the suggestion that it 
was of Post Roman date, one of the chief characteristics of 
Roman Roads being that they led in a direct line from station 
to station. On the western slopes, however, this directness is 
very apparent, as the roadway leads straight up the hillside. 
There are other arguments in favour of the great antiquity 
claimed for it, though in the space allotted to this notice there 
is no room for the discussion of them. Near the summit, upon 
each side of the road, are evidences of rude earthworks or 
intrenchments. The gradient upon the western slope is generally 
about 1 in 5, and for nearly half-a-mile the road, though now 
for the greater part covered with peat and other herbage, presents 
a most striking appearance. The road has at several points been 
bared by the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, and 
a careful examination of its construction may easily be made. 
Down the centre are laid massive trough stones, end to end, and 
about three feet six inches wide. Upon either side there are set 
stones, very regular, and similar in size to those used for modern 
pavements. These are protected at the outer edge by curbstones 
set on edge, the whole forming a compact roadway 16 feet wide. 
This is flanked by a foss, the earth from which has been thrown 
up forming banks on each side. The central stones are hollowed 
to the depth of 3^ inches, the sides thereof being somewhat above 
the general level of the road. Many are the theories brought 
forward to account for this remarkable feature of the roadway, 
some of which we enumerate here, no opinion being given as 



r 



119 

to the probable correctness or otherwise of the suggestions : — 
(1) That the channel has been worn by the feet of " lime gals" 
or packhorses. (2) That it was intended to act as a drain to 
carry the water from the road. (3) That it was a track for the 
guides of the Eoman Ai-my, the groove being worn by human 
feet. (4) That it was to receive the centre wheel of a three- 
wheeled waggon or trolly. (5) That it was to receive the skidded 
wheel of a vehicle, the ruts of the other wheel being apparent 
upon the paved portion of the road. TheKev. J. S. Doxey, who 
was one of the party, remarked that in some parts of Derbyshire 
it is the practise to tilt up a heavily-laden cart, liberating the 
forepart fi'om the shafts, and letting the tail di-ag on the ground. 
He suggested that possibly in this case an adaptation of this 
primitive kind of drag had fitted the already prepared groove. 
Here we leave this much dispiTted question, and whether or not 
at some future time a definite conclusion is arrived at as to the 
date of the road, its past history and the object of its central line 
of stones, it must always be regai'ded with the greatest interest 
as a monument of human skUl and industry. 




120 



LIBRARY. 

The Publications of the Lancashire and Cheshire Record 
Society, as follows : — 

Vol. I. — 1878. — " Lancashire and Cheshire Church Surveys," 
1649 to 1655. 
2. — 1879. -"An Lidex to the Wills and Inventories in the 
Court of Probate at Chester," 1515 to 1620. 
3. — 1880. — "Lancashire Inquisitions," now existing in the 
Public Eecord Office, Loudon, Stuart Period 
Part I, 1 to 11, James I. 
4. — 1881. — " An Index to the Wills and Inventories in the 
Court of Probate at Chester," 1621 to 1650. 
5.— 1881.— "Registers of the Parish of Prestbury," 1560 

to 1636. 
6. — 1882. — " Cheshire and Lancashire Funeral Certificates," 

1600 to 1678. 
7. — 1882. — "Lancashire and Cheshire Records," preserved 
in the Public Record Office, London, Part I. 
8. — 1882. — "Lancashire and Cheshire Records, preserved 
in the Public Record Office, London, Part II. 
9. — 1884. — " Rolls of Burgesses at the Guilds Merchant of 
the Borough of Preston," 1397 to 1682. 
10. — 1884. — " Lancashire Wills proved at Richmond," 1457 
to 1680. 
Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 
Vol. xxxiii., 1880-1 ; Vol.xxxiv., 1881-2. 
Reports and Proceedings of the following Societies : — 
Manchester Field Naturalists and Archaeologists' Society, 1860 

(the year of its formation), to 1879, (1871 excepted.) 
Manchester Scientific Students' Association, (Established 1861), 

1878, 1879, 1883. 
Chester Society of Natural Science, (EstabHshed 1872), 1878-9, 

1879-80, 1880-81, 1881-2, 1882-3, 1883-4. 
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society, (Established 1822), 

1878, 1879. 
Liverpool Geological Association, (Established 1880), 1880-81, 

1881-2, 1882-3. 
Liverpool Science Students' Association, (Established 1881), 

1883-4. 
Year Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great 

Britain and Ireland, 1884. 
A Synopsis of the British Mosses, by Chas. P. Hobldrk, F.L.S., 

Huddersfield. 
Catalogue of the Towneley Library, sold in London, June 18th 
to 26th, 1883. 



121 

Catalogue of the Towneley Manuscripts, sold in London, June 
27th and 28th, 1883, (containing prices realized.) 

Baptisms and Anniversaries, &c., 1705. Manuscript, evidently 
the Memorandum Book of a Priest who entered upon his 
duties as Chaplain of Towneley, on the Vigil of St. John 
the Baptist, 1705. 

John Towneley's Diary, 1807, with Catalogue of his Library. 
Manuscript. 

John Towneley's Account Book, 1601-8. 

The following papers have been read before the Club : — 

*" Geoffrey Chaucer," by Henry Houlding, read January 13th, 

1874. 
*" The Philosophy of Eecreation," by J. C. Brumwell, M.D., 

read January 27th, 1874. 
*" Edmund Spenser," by Henry Houlding, read October 26th, 
1875. 
"The Dietetic Value of Alcohol," by J. W. Anningson, 
L.E.C.P., read September 16th, 1879. 
*" The Burnley Grammar School Library," by J. Langfield 
Ward, M.A., read February 22nd, 1881. 
" Science Two Himdred Years Ago," by C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., 

Huddersfield, read March 9th, 1881. 
" The Efficiencies of Gas and Steam Motors," by Thomas 

Holgate, read October 17th, 1882. 
" Odours, Perfumes, and Flavours," by Alfred Henry Mason, 
F.C.S., Liverpool, read February 20th, 1883. 
Those marked • may be purchased, price 6d. each. 

Account of Excursion to L-lam Hall, near Manchester, June 
Ist, 1878, by the Urmston and Flixton Literary and 
Scientific Society. 

Account of Excmrsion to Knutsford and Nether Tabley, July 
17th, 1878, by the Urmston and Flixton Literary and 
Scientific Society. 

'* Technical Industrial Education in connection with 
Mechanics' Institutions and other kindred Associations," 
by Edward T. Bellhouse, a paper read before the Man- 
chester Statistical Society, April 13th, 1881. 

Photographs may be obtained of the Ancient Market Cross and 
Stocks, Chmrch Street, Bumley, removed May 24th, 1881. 
Old Houses in Church Street, Burnley, pulled down May, 1881. 
Price Is. and 2s., according to size. 

Transactions of the Burnley Literary and Scientific Club, Vol. I., 
1883, may be obtained. Price 2s. 6d. 



u 



122 



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124 

HONORARY MEMBERS, 

PAST AND PRESENT. 
Year of 
Election. 

1874 Eev. Edw. Boden, M.A., Clitheroe. 

1874 Col. Fishwick, F.S.A., Rochdale. 

1874 Jas. Kerr, L.S.A.L., Crawshawbooth. 

1874 Thos. Mackereth, F.R.A.S., Maucbester. 

1874 Eev. Geo. Rowe, M.A., York. 

1875 Eev. J. S Doxey, Whalley. 

1876 William Naylor, Whalley. 
1876 Philip Gilbert Hammerton. 

1876 W. B. Biyan, C.E., London. 

1877 F. J. Faraday, F.S.S., F.L.S., Manchester. 
1877 C. P. Hobkii-k. F.L.S., Huddersfield. 
1877 Edwin Waugh, Manchester. 

1877 J. H. Nodal, Manchester. 

1877 Samuel Laycock, Blackpool. 

1877 E. E. Bealey. 

1877 W. A. Abram, F.E.H.S., Blackbm-n. 

1877 D. Morris, B.A., F.G.S. 

1877 Joseph Hough, M.A., F.E.A.S. 

1878 Alf. H. Mason, F.C.S., Liverpool. 

1879 H. Stolterfoth, M.A., M.D., Chester. 

1879 Jno. Edw. Price, F.S.A., F.E.S.L., London. 

1880 Chas. Eowley, Jun., Manchester. 

1881 Jas. Croston, F.S.A., Prestbury. 
1884 Jas. Monckman, DSc, Bradford. 



MEMBERS. 

Those whose names are marked * have been elected during 1884. 
Transactions, Vol. I. gives the year of election of all the other members. 

Anningson, J. W., L.E.C.P., Yorkshire Street. 

Bailey, Charles, Manchester Eoad. 
Barlow, J. A., 2, Padiham Eoad. 
Baron, John, J. P., 107, Manchester Eoad. 
Baron, Arthur, 107, Manchester Eoad. 
Bell, Thomas, 14, Grimshaw Street. 
Ben-y, James, Palatine Square. 
Birnie, Joseph, Post Office. 
Blezard, Walton, Eosegrove. 
*Bolton, Edgar, Bank Hall Terrace. 
Booth, James, Manchester and County Bank. 
Bradley, John, St. James's Street. 



125 

♦Bradshaw, Henry, 88, St. James's Street, 
Briggs, Henry, M.D., 68, Bank Parade, 

♦Brown, John, M.A., M.D., 68, Bank Parade. 
Broxup, J. Greenwood, Gannow House. 
Broxup, John, Gannow House, 
Brumwell, J. C, M.D., J, P., Hargreaves Street, 
Bulcock, James, 105, Manchester Eoad. 
Bulcock, Henry, 105, Manchester Eoad. 
Burrows, Thomas, 37, Padiham Road, 
Butterworth, John, junr., Brooklands Eoad. 

*Caiger, Eev. W. S., B.A., Byerden Terrace, 

Calvert, A. E., Nelson. 

Clement, Leonard, Forest View, Nelson. 

Colbran, W. H., Bank Parade. 
*Colbran, John, Bank Parade. 

ColUnge, James, 51, St, James's Street. 

CoUinge, John, Spring Hill, 

ColUnge, John S., J.P., Park House. 

CoUinge, William, 110, St. James's Street. 

Cooke, Samuel, 5, Carlton Eoad. 

Corder, Edward, Manchester Eoad Station. 

CowgUl, Bryan H., Manchester Eoad. 

Crabtree, Eobert, Brooklands Eoad. 

Crook, Thomas, 2, Carlton Eoad. 

Crook, CampbeU, Eose Hill Eoad. 

Cunningham, J. M,, Manchester Eoad. 

DaU, T. Naylor, Nicholas Street. 
Dean, Thomas, M.D., Manchester Eoad. 
Dent, William, Local Board Office, Nelson. 
Dickinson, Alfred, Eose Cottage. 
Dickinson, W. E., 20, Manchester Eoad. 
*Drew, Alexander, Holme Lodge. 
Duckworth, Joshua, 6, Manchester Eoad. 
Dunkerley, Elias, 82, St, James's Street. 
Dunkerley, EUjah, 82, St, James's Street. 

Eastwood, Henry, 40, St. James's Street. 
Edmondson, Stephen, 18, Nicholas Street. 
Edmondson, Thomas, Eern HUl. 

Finn, Eev. A. H., 
Foden, C. M., 4, Sefton Terrace. 
Folds, James, junr , Fan- View Eoad. 
Fox, Charles, 12, Nicholas Street. 
Frankland, George, "Express" Office. 



Gill, George, Woodleigh. 
Granger, H. Beresford, Craven Bank. 
'^^Grant, J. Murray, Lancashire and Yorkshire Bank. 
Grant, Fredk. J., Bank Parade. 
Grant, W. Lewis, 22, St. Matthew's Street. 
Grant, James, 12, Manchester Koad. 
Grant, Arthur E., 14, Palatine Square. 
Gray, Nathan P., Manchester and County Bank. 
Greenwood, James, 138, Manchester Road, 
Greenhalgh, John, junr., 3, Rectory Road. 
Grey, Rev. R. D. H., M.A., Briercliffe Vicarage, 

Halstead, Edmund, 40, Junction Street. 

Hardman, Albert E., Osborne Terrace. 

Hargreaves, Andrew F., F.C.S., Standish Street. 

Hargreaves, Thomas, Church Street. 

Hargreaves, "W. Carey, Colne Road. 

Harrison, James, 24, Carlton Road. 

Harrison, J. Dilworth, Sunny Bank. 

Hartley, Job W., Thorn Hill. 

Harwood, Septimus, M.B.. Wilfield House. 

Haslam, Tom, Sunny Bank. 

Haslam, W. H., Lark Hill. 

Hedges, Alfred, Healey Villa. 

Hesketh, James, 139, St. James's Street. 

Higgin, Cain, 37, Rectory Road. 

Hill, Fred. H., 21, Fair View Road. 

Hirst, Fred, W., Promfret Street. 

Hitchin, Robert, 54, St. James's Street, 

Hoghton, Thomas, 1, Carlton Road. 
*Hoghton, WiUiam H., 1, Carlton Road. 
*Holden, John, Holme View. 

Holden, Ralph, Brooklauds Road, 
-Holden, Thomas, Chancery Street. 

Holgate, Albert, 97, St. James's Street. 

Holgate, Thomas, Gas Works. 

Holyoake, W., The Workhouse. 

Horn, J, S., 15, Palatine Square. 

Horner, Thomas, 58, Rectory Road. 

Horner, WiUiam C, Manchester Road, 
*Houlden, John Wm,, The Cemetery, 

Houlding, Henry, Oak Mount Terrace, 
*Howarth, Edmund, 70, Oak Mount Terrace. 

Howarth, John, J.P., Spring Bank. 

Hudson, Samuel, Sefton Terrace. 

Jobling, Arthur, Spring Wood. 



127 

Kay, James, J. P., Towneley Villa. 
Kay, "W. E., Brooklands Eoad. 
Keighley, George, "Wooclfield. 
King, Alfred S., Carltou Eoad. 

Lancaster, Alfred, Manchester Eoad. 

Lancaster, James, Palatine Square. 

Lancaster, "William, junr., Carltou Eoad. 

Lawsou, Samuel, L.F.P.G., Brierfield. 

Leather, Samuel P., Gas Works. 

Leather, John P., Gas Works. 

Lee, Eichard, Stoneyholme. 
*Lee, George, Stoneyholme. 
*Lee, J. L., Stoneyholme. 

Leyland, Eev. Thomas, Albion Street. 

Lloyd, Thomas, Grammar School. 
*Lord, Sylvanus, Colne Eoad. 

Luj)ton, J. T., 28, Manchester Eoad. 

Lupton, Arthur, 136, Manchester Eoad. 

Lupton, William, Manchester Eoad. 

Mackenzie, James, M.D., 68, Bank Parade. 
Marquis, J. T., Manchester and County Bank, Colue. 
Mellor, T., Hargreaves Street. 
Metcalfe, Christopher, Palatine Square. 
Midgley, Tom, 50, Eectory Eoad. 
Monckman, J., D.Sc, Bradford. 
Moore, Benjamin, "Gazette" Office. 
Mossop, Wilham, Bank Parade. 
*Mozley, H., Queen's Gate. 
Myers, Fred., 64, St. James's Street. 
Nelson, Eichard, St. James's Street. 
Nowell, Thomas, Healey Grange. 
Nutter, Henry, 96, Manchester Eoad. 

Ogden, Geo. C, Thorn Hotel. 

O'Sullivan, D.A., B.A., L.E.C.P., Westgate. 

♦Parkinson, Milton W., 74, Manchester Eoad. 
*Parkinson, A.W., 74, Manchester Eoad.. 

Parsons, John, L.E.C.S., Westgate. 

Parsons, Charles, 9, Grimshaw Street. 

Pickles, Joseph, 34, Allen Street. 

Pickup, Peter, Bridge End. 

Poldmg, James B., Nicholas Street. 

Popplewell, Alfred, Craven Bank. 

Preston, Henry, 104, Manchester Eoad. 

Preston, Thomas, 92, Manchester Eoad. 

Pritchard, Thomas, Worsthorne. 



128 

Procter, Richard, Oak Mount. 
*Prudom, William, 48, St. James's Street. 

Ratcliffe, Abraham, 142, Manchester Eoad. 
*Ratcliflfe, J. R., 142, Manchester Road. 

Ratcliflfe, David, 9, Carlton Road. 

Rawcliffe, Geo. B., 4, Forest Street. 

Rawcliflfe, James, Oak Mount. 

Rawcliflfe, James H., 65, Manchester Road. 

Rawhnson, Joshua, Oak Bank. 

Riley, Thomas, 52, Manchester Road. 

Roberts, P. E., St. James's Street. 
♦Roberts, T H., 179, Manchester Road. 

Roberts, Thomas, Bank Parade. 

Sagar, Benjamin, Lark Hill. 

Sagar, William, Westgate. 

Scowby, Francis, Craven Bank. 

Shaw, Smith, 11, St. James's Street. 

Shawcross, John T., Nicholas Street. 
*Shuttle\vorth, Sir Ughtred J. Kay, Gawthorpe. 

Slater, Christopher, Manchester Road. 

Smith, Cicero, Cornholme. 

Smith, Denis, 91, St. James's Street. 

Stonehouse, Charles, 17, Manchester Road. 

Stonehouse, William, 17, Manchester Road. 

Storey, Geo., Brunshawe. 

Strange, Alfred, Craven Lodge. 

Sutcliflfe, Alfred, L.R.C.P., Trinity House. 

Sutcliflfe, Edward, Holme View. 

SutcHffe, George, J.P., Oak Hill. 

Sutcliffe, James, Bull Hotel. 

Sutcliflfe, John, Hargreaves Street. 
*Sutcliflfe, John Stansfield, Fir Grove. 

Sutcliflfe, R.T., Nicholas Street. 

Taylor, Thomas, 110, Colne Road. 
Thompson, James, 26, Cuerden Street. 
Thompson, James, St. James's Street. 
Thompson, James W., Oak Bank. 
Thompson, William, Oak Bank. 
Thornber, Thomas, St. Matthew's Street. 
Thornton, John, The Poplars. 
Thorp, Thomas, Manchester Road. 
*Tovey, A.E., D.Sc, Stoneyholme Villas. 
Tunstill, Henry, Oak Mount. 
Waddington, Geo. C, Albert Terrace. 
Waddington, William, Thorn Hill. 



129 



Waddington, W. Angelo, Thorn HiJl. 

Waddington, J. Arthur, Thorn Hill. 

Waddington, John C, Thorn HiU. 
*Waddington, James C, 3, Ormerod Street. 

Walmsley, George, Highfield Terrace. 

Walmsley, Thomas, Coke Street. 
-Waring, Joseph, Ashfield Road. 

Ward, H. T., Palatine Square. 

Ward, J. Laugfield, M.A., Grammar School. 

Watson, A. A., L.R.C.S., Colne Eoad. 

Watson, Eichard, Hargreaves Street. 

Whitaker, James H., Wilfield Terrace. 

Whittaker, John, junr.. Can- Eoad, Nelson. 

Whitehead, W. Eennie, Carr Eoad, Nelson. 

Whitney, Thomas, Healey Villa. 
*Wilkinson, Tattersall, Swinden. 

Wilks, Maurice, 24, St. Matthew's Street. 

Witham, William, Todmorden Eoad. 

Wood, Martin, Westgate. 

*Yeadon, John, Stoneyh olme. 

'" ^ 1 f i S HS 



5 DEC 21 

N .MURAL 
HISTORY. 



180 



APPENDIX. 



In the course of a discussion arising out of the paper read by 
Mr. Nutter, on Evohition, (see page 45), in which Mr. Darwin's 
name was necessarily introduced ; Mr. F. H Hill said, — that 
Carlyle considered Prof. Darwin " a good sort of man and well 
meaning, but with very little intellect," and that "it was a sad 
and terrible thing to find nigh a whole generation of men and 
women professing to be cultivated, looking round in a purblind 
fashion and finding no God in the Universe, but all things from 
frogs' spawn the Gospel of dirt the order of the day." The 
authenticity of this statement having been called in question, 
Mr. Hill wrote to J. A. Froude, Esq.. M.A. The reply, which 
is given below, was read at the meeting of the Club on the ■1th 
of November, (see page 77), when an anonymous paper on 
Carlyle was contributed. 

5, Onslow Gardens, S.W., 

October 30th, 1884. 

Dear Sir, 

The passage about which you ask my opinion I believe to be 
strictly authentic, the substance of it certainly, for I have heard the same 
opinion from him very often— the language as nearly accurate as can be 
expected when one man writes down at leisure what another person has said 
to him. 

Your faithful Servant, 

J. A. FEOUDE. 
To Mr. F. H. Hill. 



131 



NAMES OF READERS OF PAPERS AND 
DIRECTORS OF SOIREES, &c. 

Page 
Brown, John. M.A., M.D Canada, and the Montreal Meeting of 

the British Association 91 

Caiger, Bev. W. S Art Museums, considered as a Means 

of Education 72 

Doxey, Eev. J. S Kashmir, the Highway of Central Asia. 22 

Finn, Eev. J. H A Modern Epic (" lesterday. To-day, 

and for Ever.") 43 

Grant, Frederick J A Towneley MS 102 

Grant, W. Lewis Headings by Members 43 

The Development of Africa in its Ee- 

lation to British Commerce. . . 86 

Grant, James Lithographic Soiree 41 

Kay, W. E Notes on Southern California 21 

Lawson, S., L.F.P.G The Method of Teaching the Deaf and 

Dumb to Speak 73 

Midgley, T Dramatic Soiree 49 

Milner, George The Eelation of Literature to Painting. 50 

Monckman, J., D. Sc State of England in Past Geological 

Ages 37 

Myers, Fred Musical Soiree— Paper on Wagner. . . 95 

Nicholson, F The Wild Animals of the British Isles. 41 

Nutter, Henry Evolution 45 

Preston, Thomas Soiree— House Decoration. Paper on 

Mural Decoration in connection 

with Domestic Architecture. . . 89 

Shortt, Eev. J., M. A Hoghton Tower 80 

Shuttleworth, Sir U. J. Kay, Bart. A Few Tests of National Progress 15 

Slingsby, W. Cecil Mountaineering in Norway 23 

Strange, Alfred A Towneley MS 104 

Sutcliffe, E. T The Dramatic Works of Bulwer Lytton. 84 

Tovey, A. E. D.Sc Corals 63 

Ward, J. L., M.A ' The Frogs' of Aristophanes 33 

A Towneley MS 98 

Wilkinson, Tattersall Stray Notes on the Ancient and Modern 

History of East Lancashire. . . 64 
For Full List of Meetincjs held during 1884, see Page 11. 



EXCURSIONS. 

Pbeston and Penwortham 108 

YOEK AND SeLBY UQ 

Alkincoates Hall and Parish Church, Colne 114 

Castle Clough and Site of Hapton Tower 115 

Blackstone Edge and Eoman Eoad 117 



132 



INDEX. 



Page. 
List of Officers 3 

Rules 5 

Annual Eepoet 7 

List of Meetings 11 

Dinner to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the Formation of 

THE Club 12 

Summaeies of Papers 15 

The Towneley Manuscripts purchased by the Club 98 

General Excursions 108 

Sectional Excursions 114 

Library 120 

Statement of Accounts 122 

List of Members — Honorary and Ordinary 124 

Appendix 130 

Alphabetical List of Eeaders of Papers, &c 131 



BKITISH 
MUSEUM 

5 DEC 2] 

NATUPvAL 
STORY. 



BURGHOPE & STRANGE, PUBLISHERS, &C., BURNLEY. 



'* . ■■" © 



BURNLEY 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC CLUB. 



TRANSACTION'S. 



VOL. Ill 
1885, 



PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 



BURGHOPE & STRANGE, 
ST. JAMES'S STREET, BURNLEY. 



MDCCCLXXXVI. 



BURNLEY 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC CLUB. 



TKAN^SACTIONS. 



VOL. III. 

1885. 

PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 



BURGHOPE & STRANGE, 
ST. JAMES'S STREET, BURNLEY. 

MDCCCLXXXVI. 



3Burnle^ Xiterari? anb Scientific Club. 



ESTABLISHED 1873. 



President : 

HENRY HOULDING 



Vice-Presidents : 
J. C. Brumwell, M.D., J.P. 
J. W. Anningson, L.R.C.P. 
J. Langfield Ward, M.A. 
F. J. Grant. 
W. A. Waddington. 
Alfred Strange. 



Treasurer:— JAS. KAY, J.P. 



Committee: 

James Lancaster. 
B. Sagar. 

F. H. Hill. 

J. Arthur Waddington. 

H. BULCOCK. 

G. B. Eawcliffe. 



Secretary : 

W. LEWIS GRANT, 

12, Grimshmve Street, Burnley. 



RULES. 



Eule 1. That the Society he named the " Burnley Literary 
AND Scientific Club." 

Eule 2. That the objects of the Chib shall be the instruction 
and mental recreation of its members by means of 
original papers, discussions, and conversation of a 
Literary and Scientific character. Party Politics and 
Eeligious controversies to be excluded. That arrange- 
ments be made during the Summer for Excursions to 
places of Historic and Natural interest. 

Eule 3. That the Club consist of Ordinary and Honorary 
members. That the Committee shall have power to 
accept the services of others than members. 

Eule 4. That the Club meet on Tuesday evenings at 7-45, the 
meetings being weekly from September to April. Any 
meetings held in the Summer months to be prepara- 
tory to the Excursions. 

Eule 5. That the Secretary shall commence the proceedings 
of each meeting by reading the minutes of the last 
meeting. 

Eule 6. Candidates for membership to be proposed and 
seconded at one meeting, and balloted for at the next ; 
a majority of three-fourths of the members present 
being required to secure the election. Candidates for 
Honorary Membership shall be proposed only after a 
recommendation from the Committee. 

Rule 7. That the officers consist of a President, six Vice- 
Presidents, Treasurer, Secretary, and a Committee of 
six members, who shall manage the affairs of the Club ; 
four to form a quorum. Such officers to be chosen 
by Ballot at the Annual Meeting, which shall be held 
on the first Tuesday in April. Nominations to be 
received only at the three meetings next preceding 
the Annual Meeting. 



Rule 8. That the reading of any paper shall not occupy more 
than one hour, the remaining portion of the time, up 
to ten o'clock, to be spent in conversation and discus- 
sion. No speaker to occupy more than five minutes, 
or to speak more than once, except by permission of 
the Chairman. 

Rule 9. That a Sessional Programme shall be prepared by the 
Secretary, and printed, in which the business of each 
evening shall be stated. All subjects proposed to 
be brought before the Club to be approved by the 
Committee of management. 

Rule 10. Each member shall have tlie privilege of introducing 
a friend,* but no person so introduced, shall be allowed 
to take part in the proceedings, unless invited by the 
Chairman, to whom the said person's name shall be 
communicated on his entrance into the room. The 
Committee shall have power to declare any meeting 
" Special " and to make such arrangements as to 
admission of friends at such meeting as they shall 
think proper. 

Rule 11. That an annual Subscription of 10s. be paid by 
ordiuaiy members, and any person whose subscription 
is in arrear for three months shall cease to be a mem- 
ber of the Club. 

Rule 12. The Accounts of the Club shall be made up by the 
Treasurer to the end of December in each year ; and 
a Balance Sheet shall, after having been audited, and 
passed by the Committee, be printed and sent to the 
members before the Annual Meeting. 

Rule 13. That the Rules be altered only at the Annual Meeting 
in April, or at a Special Meeting ; in both cases a 
fortnight's Notice shall be given to the members, 
stating the nature of the ^jroposed alteration. The 
Secretary shall be empowered to call a Special Meeting 
on receiving a requisition signed by six members. 

* No gentleman residing within the parliamentary borough, 
not being a member, will be eligible for admission. 



INTRODUCTORY REPORT. 



The Third Volume of Transactions is now pre- 
sented to the members. Besides the record of the 
papers read and excursions made during the year, 
there will be found notices at considerable length of 
three papers of special interest to members of this 
Society, which were given at times antecedent to the 
publishing of the Society's proceedings. These are 
"Art in the Manufacturing Districts," by Philip 
Gilbert Hamerton ; " Life in Lancashire in the Tudor 
Eeigns," by James Croston, F.S.A. ; " The Old Halls 
on the Western Slopes of Pendle : their History, 
Associations, and Present Condition," ^ by Alfred 
Strange. It is the purpose of the Committee to con- 
tinue in subsequent issues the introduction of reports 
of other papers which were read in the earlier years of 
the Club's history, and of which no detailed account 
has hitherto been furnished. 

At the termination of the year 1884, the members 
numbered 210. During the year 1885 the Club has 
lost 22 members, one of these being by death, and 14 
new members have been elected ; so that the number 
of members stands now at 202, shewing a decrease of 8. 
During the year 25 Meetings have been held. 
The average attendance at the ordinary meetings has 
been 31 members, 11 friends, or a total of 42. This 
shews a falling off when compared with the figures of 
the previous year, which were 84 members, 13 friends ; 
total 47. Tour Committee cannot regard a record of 
attendance as wholly satisfactory which shews thatthe 
average number of members present at the meetings 
is less than one-sixth of the total number of members 
enrolled. 



8 

The programme sketched out for the year included 
four Summer Excursions ; but of these the principal 
one, that to Cambridge, had to be abandoned on 
account of the few names sent in. This failure, 
following on the previous year's experience in respect 
of the projected Excursion to Wensleydale and Eich- 
mond, is a matter for regret. The visit to Stonyhurst 
Observatory and College was an unqualified success, 
and the Excursions to Alum Scar and the Heckenhurst 
and Cant Clough Eeservoir Works were also profitable 
and enjoyable. The parties on these three occasions 
numbered respectively 49, 11, and 13. 

'No Sectional Excursions have been held, the 
evidence afforded by the unfavourable results of 
efforts in this direction in the preceding year, leading 
your Committee to resolve upon their discontinuance. 

Eeference should be made to several items in the 
varied programme of the year's proceedings. Depart- 
ing from the practice adopted for several years of 
holding an Amateur Dramatic Soiree in the spring of 
the year, your Committee arranged for a Eecital by 
S. Brandram, Esq., M.A., of one of Shakespeare's 
Plays. The " Merchant of Venice " was the piece 
chosen, and the brilliant rendering of that dramatic 
poem displayed in a remarkable manner the genius 
and power of the eminent reciter. The occasion was 
an intellectual treat of the highest order. 

An extended notice of the paper read by the 
President, Mr. Henry Houlding, on the opening of 
the Autumnal Session, and entitled " Local Glimpses : 
Nature and the Ideal," is contained in this volume. 

The Soiree designed to illustrate "Burnley, Old 
and New," deserves allusion here. The subject 
exemplified was naturally one which had particular 
attraction for the members, and it was not therefore 
surprising, that the gathering was unusually large 
The collection of objects was valuable and unique 



9 

and in every feature the occasion -was a conspicuous 
success. 

The Committee have given a subscription to the 
newly-formed Manchester Geographical Society. By 
the donation of Two Guineas, our Club receives copies 
of the "Journal," or other publications issued by that 
excellent society ; tickets are also supplied securing 
admission to its meetings, and our members have also 
accorded to them the free use of the Society's Library, 
44, Brown Street, Manchester. 

Your Committee are happy to state that the 
financial condition of the Society has improved. The 
Treasurer's Yearly Statement of Accounts will be 
found herein. 

The best thanks of the Club are due to those 
ladies, and gentlemen not connected with the Club, 
who have generously rendered assistance during the 
year by the contributing of papers, the conduct of 
excursions, or in connection with soirees. 

In conclusion, your Committee ask for the active 
and sympathetic help of members in furthering the 
interests of the Club, so that the high purposes of its 
foundation may in the future be more effectually 
accomplished. 




10 

SYLLABUS. 

JANUARY TO APEIL, 1885. 



Jan. 13 — Lecture, " Snn-Spot Pbeuomena, observed at Stony- 
hurst College Observatory," illustrated by the 
Lantern — Rev. A. L. Cortie. 
„ 20— Paper, "Notes ou Eainfall "— Eev. E. D. H. Gray, M.A. 
,, 27^Paper, "Epigrams" — T. J. Syckelmoore, B.A. 
Feb. 3 — Paper, " Holland in the Spring Time," illustrated by 
the Lantern— J. C. Brumwell, M.D., J.P, 
,, 10 — Eecitals — Director, G. B. Eawcliffe. 
,, 11 — Dance, Mechanics' Institution. 
„ 17 — Paper, "Who wrote ' Shakespeare' ?" — Geo. Gill. 
,, 24 — Paper, " A Chat about the House-Fly" — J. Ehodes. 
Mar. 3 — Paper, "Some Aspects of Destructive Distillation" — 
Thos. Holgate. 
,, 10 — Paper, "Sanitary Matters: Past and Present" — T. 

N. Dall. 
,, 17 — Paper; " On Browning's Poems" — B. Sagar. 
,, 2-4 — Eecital, "The Merchant of Venice " — S. Brandraiu, 

M.A. (Mechanics' Institution.) 
,, 31 — Eeviews of Books. 
April 7 — Annual Meeting. 
,, 14 — Paper, " Christian Names" — W. Lewis Grant. 

SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER 1885. 
Sep. 29 — Paper, " Local Glimpses : Nature and the Ideal — The 

President, Henry Houlding. 
Oct. 6 — Paper, " The Later Geological Vicissitudes of the 
North-West of England "— E. H. Tiddeman, M.A., 
F.G.S., of H.M. Geological Survey. 
,, 13 — Paper, " A Trip to the Yellowstone Park " — J. 

Mackenzie, M.D. 
,, 20 — Paper, " A Short History of Banking " — J. T. Marquis. 
,, 27 — Short Anonymous Contributions. 
Nov. 3— Paper, "The Eebels of 1715, and their Lancashire 
Friends — Albert Nicholson. 
,, 10 — Soiree, "Burnley, Old and New," illustrated by Photo- 
graphs, Prints, Books, Maps, &c. 
,, 17— Paper, " The Advent of the Franciscans in England " 
—Eev. W. S. Caiger. 
Dec. 8 — Paper, " Celtic, Eoman, and Saxon Footprints in the 
Pennine Eange " — Tattersall Wilkinson. 
,, 11 — Dinner. 
,, 15 — Sou-ee, Elocutionary and Musical — Director, C. Parsons. 



11 



SUN-SPOT PHENOMENA, OBSERVED AT 
STONYHURST COLLEGE OBSERVATORY 

By REV. A. L. CORTIE, January 13th, 1885. 



The Eev. S. J. Perry, F.E.S., F.R.A.S., had been announced 
to open the Session by a Lecture on " The Government Expedi- 
tion to the South- West Coast of Madagascar to Observe the 
Transit of Venus." Unfortunately, however, iUness prevented 
the eminent astronomer from being j)resent, and his place v/as 
taken by his assistant at Stouyhurst, the Eev. A. L. Cortie, the 
resume of whose admirable address is here given. 

That there might be spots on the Sun was an idea that was 
never entertained before the days of Galileo. For in the eyes 
of an ancient astronomer the sun was typical of all that was 
most immaculate. Large spots were undoubtedly seen from 
time to time by the naked eye, but their appearance was attri- 
buted to small planets in transit across the solar disc. The 
discovery of sun-spots, however, was almost the first triumph of 
the newly-invented telescope, about the year A.D. 1610, the 
honom* of the discovery being shared by Fabricius, Galileo, and 
Scheiner. Since theii' days, and more especially in recent times 
after the introduction of the spectroscope, the study of the solar 
surface has occupied the attention of distingiiished men of all 
lands, and we now see several observatories equipped with all 
modern appliances, devoted solely to this branch of astronomical 
physics. The Observatory at Stonyhurst has added its quota of 
results to recent researches upon the sun, and in order the more 
to fix our ideas, our future remarks will have special reference to 
the work carried out there. 

The method of observing the sun, as practised at Stonyhurst, 
is that of projecting the image formed by the 8-inch equatorial 
telescope on to a screen attached to the eye-end of the instru- 
ment. By this method the details of the solar surface can be 
studied or sketched at leisure ; and moreover, by proper adjust- 
ment of the screen, the actual positions of the spots can be 
readily calculated. The phenomena observed upon the solar 
disc are of three kinds — spots, faculae, and the network of dark 
and bright spaces which gives to the image its mottled 
appearance. 

The spots are of all shapes and sizes, some of them attaining 
enormous proportions. In a sun-spot three distinct parts may 
be distinguished — a less dark outer portion, which is bounded by 



12 

the bright surface of the sun, and is called the penumbra ; a 
darker interior portion called the umbra ; and, finally, in the 
umbra itself some still darker parts, to which is attached the 
name of the nucleus. These nuclei were first detected by the 
keen sight of that eminent observer, the late Eev. Mr. Dawes. 
The penumbra is traversed by bright streams of matter, which 
are supposed to indicate the gradual rushing in of the photosphere 
or visible surface of the sun into the spot, ultimately causing its 
absorption, and consequent disappearance. Spots are not found 
all over the sun, but confined to fixed zones extending to about 
30° N. and S. of the Equator. The first deduction from the 
discovery of sun-spots was that of the rotation of the sun upon an 
axis, the mean rotation being accomplished in 25;^ days, although 
the rate varies somewhat with the latitude. A spot apparently 
advances upon the solar disc from E. to W., and it not unfre- 
queutly happens that the same spot, being carried round by the 
sun, will reappear for several successive rotations. 

That most spots are hollows or cavities, and not merely of 
the nature of scoriae floating on the surface, is demonstrated by 
the manner in which a spot appears and disappears on the E. and 
W. limb of the sun respectively. Were tlie spot a surface 
phenomenon, we should expect to detect first the right or W. 
side of the penumbra, then the umbra, and finally the most 
easterly side of the penumbra. The reverse order would be 
expected at the W. limb, where the spot disappears. The facts 
observed are for the most part in contradiction to any such 
hypothesis. We first see a slight portion, reduced to a mere line 
by perspective, of the E. edge of the penumbra, then the umbra, 
and finally the W. edge of the penumbra, demonstrating that we 
are looking into a cavity in a spherical surface. Nevertheless, 
there are exceptions to this rule, and tlie law of foreshortening, 
as stated by Wilson and others, appears to be neither so general 
nor so decided as was by them supposed. 

Among various phenomena connected with sun-spots may 
be mentioned the double penumbra which some spots exhibit, 
the repulsion which others appear to exert on one another, the 
bright ring which is invariably seen between the umbra and 
penumbra of spots, the red veils sometimes detected over them, 
especially when they are large, as also the extremely rapid growth 
with which some spots develope. 

Finally, in this hurried enumeration of the aspects of sun- 
siJots, we cannot afford to omit what is perhaps the cardinal 
point in all sun-spot phenomena, connecting them undoubtedly 
with terrestrial magnetism, and probably also with changes of 
weather — namely, the secular variation of the spotted area of the 
sun, the period from maximum to maximum being about eleven 
years. Such a discovery was the reward of the patient toil of 



13 

Baron Scbwabe, who for forty years never allowed a possible day 
to pass without a record of the uumber of spots visible on the 
sun. 

The dark spots of the solar surface are invariably accom- 
panied by faculfe, which generally present the appearance of long 
white streaks of matter of a brightness exceeding that of the 
surrounding photosphere. So far as our observations have been 
studied, the distribution of faculfe is identical with that of the 
spots, though extending to much wider limits N. and S., owing 
to their peculiar tendency to spread. Faculae have occasionally 
been seen even in the region of the poles, appearing by them- 
selves without any accompanying spot of the ordinary type, but 
the nature of these isolated jets differs fi-om that of faculfe of the 
ordinary kind. In general, faculfe are more easily observed at 
the limbs of the sun, owing to the contrast which they offer 
to tlaese apparently darker jjortions of the disc. They are not, 
however, confined to the limbs, as under favourable circumstances 
they can be traced far into the central regions, and a ring of 
bright faculse always surrounds the penumbra of a spot, even at 
the centre of the sun. 

The subject of the connection between spots and faculaa 
remains up to the present time still itndecided. Nevertheless, 
the observations made at Stonyhurst do not seem to bear out 
the hitherto generally accepted opinion that faculfe precede the 
birth of a solar spot. The order of their appearance is as 
follows. Around a nascent spot they are very closely packed ; 
they spread out as the umbra and penumbra increase in size, 
and still more so when the spot begins to diminish and decay, 
and oftentimes remain visible for more than a month after the 
spot has wholly vanished. Frequently a new outburst of spots 
will take place in the region of this faculae, giving rise to the 
notion that faculfe precede the birth of spots, while in reality 
it is only the remains of old spots wliicli have disappeared. 
Faculfe are the glowing embers of an old storm, and not the first 
flickerings of a new one. Examples of tliis replacing of spots by 
faculfe are universal among the Stonyhurst drawings. 

Before passing on to the discussion of the mottled surface 
of the sun, we may call attention to some of the more rema,rkable 
solar outbursts of spots and faculfe during the period 1882-4. 
The great spot of April, 1882, was observed from April 12th to 
the 25th, and in May from the 10th to the 22nd. Its area on 
April 20th was 2,030 millionths of the svm's visible hemisphere, 
or about 2,319i millions of square miles. The November spot 
of the same year, the greatest recorded since 1870, was followed 
from its birth as a few black dots in October, through its 
maximum in November, and finally in December. The whole 
progress of this spot was marked by magnetic storms and dis- 



14 

plays of Aurora Borealis, which culminated in the great magnetic 
storm of Novemher 17th, the most intense recorded, and its 
accompanying magnificent aurora. The area of the spot on this 
day was a maximum, being 2,417, or nearly 2,761^ millions of 
square miles. The June spot of 1883 was first seen on the 2nd 
near the centre of the disc, its length being about one-tenth of 
the sun's diameter, or 85,000 miles, and yet not tlie slightest 
vestige of it was discernible on May 30th. Another spot was 
followed during the successive rotations of the sun from October, 
1883, to January, 1881. 

Should the definition be very good, it is observed that the 
mottled surface of the solar disc is in a state of constant change 
and commotion. These changes are very minute and rapid, and 
require a most constant and patient watch to detect them. The 
magnificent photographs of M. Jaussen, of Mendon, had shewn 
that in parts the mottled surface puts on an appearance of 
blurring, and Trouvelot, in 1876, called attention to minute 
evanescent spots which he termed " veiled spots." These veiled 
spots have been the subject of constant study at Stonyhurst 
during the last three years, and they have been classified and 
the manner of their appearance indicated. They are found in 
every portion of the disc, and are seldom absent for any con- 
siderable time. A few minutes suffice for their appearance and 
disappearance, and they are fi'equeutly accompanied by faculae. 
In colour, they are of a cold grey tint, and are never well defined. 
Some are seen as a slight cloud, which rapidly changes its out- 
lines, becomes fainter, and disappears. A second class are 
observed first of the form of a round black dot, which becomes 
diffused into a cloud-like mass, and very soon vanishes. To a 
third class the name of " sub-permanent" spots has been given, 
as they seem to be intermediate between spots of the ordinary 
permanent type and veiled spots. They last sometimes for 
several days, but are always ill- defined and unlike the ordinary 
dark pores of tlie solar surface. Their comparative permanence 
distinguishes them from the other classes of veiled spots, and 
their ill defined or misty appearance is the only difi'erence between 
them and ordinary spots. Moreover, their shape is irregular, 
and their proportions never equal those assumed at times by 
other veiled spots. Perhaps they are the last traces of a spot as 
it sinks into the photosphere, and sometimes the first signs of 
those tliat never become perfectly developed. 

And now, before closing our view of solar phenomena, we 
may glance at the main outlines of a theory propounded by the 
late Padre Secchi, which explains the chief facts observed. 
According to this distinguished physicist, the solar spots are the 
effects of an uprush of matter fi-om the interior of the sun. This 
matter, consisting of heavy metallic vapours, among which iron, 



15 

magnesium, sodium, and calcium play a prominent part, is pro- 
jected into the relatively cooler atmosphere of incandescent 
hydrogen which envelopes the sun. These masses of vapour 
absorb the light which comes from the photosphere, and, carried 
round by the rotation of the sun, appear to the eye of the 
observer as dense black spots. Again, these vapours are both 
heavier and hotter than the surrounding hydrogen into which 
they have been projected. They will accordingly condense and 
fall by their own weight, and, sinking into the photosphere, will 
produce in it a cavity filled with a light-absorbing mass. Hence 
we have the appearance of a hollow recognised in sun-spots. 
Spots therefore, are but a secondary phenomenon, serving to 
inform us of the violent crises and upheavals taking place m the 
interior of the sun. Facute, according to Secchi, are caused by 
those eruptions which consist of hydrogen alone. 

Other theories have been proposed by several eminent 
observers, as, for example, the " Cyclonic theory," of M. Faye. 
However, as observation, not merely with the telescope, but more 
especially with the spectroscope, opens out our knowledge of solar 
phenomena, these theories will, no doubt, have to be modified, 
and possibly the true explanation of what is observed will be 
found in a judicious combination of them all. 

Forty-two photographs were thrown upon the screen, which 
served fully to illustrate the various points treated of in the 
lecture. 

The discussion which followed turned mainly upon the 
connection between sun-spots and terrestrial phenomena, and 
the lecturer's replies to the questions asked may be thus 
summarised : 

(1) Sun-spots and terrestrial magnetism. The eleven- 
year period of sun-spots corresponds to a similar period of 
magnetic disturbances. Maximum and minimum ranges of 
the declination magnet (or mariner's compass), correspond 
to years of maximum and minimum spots. Great spots are 
accompanied by magnetic storms ; witness the example of 
November, 1882. The latter remark is probably true also of 
auroral displays. 

(2) Sun-spots and rainfall. That rainfall is greater m 
maximum than in minimum years of spots has been established 
for Mauritius, Adelaide, and Brisbane by Dr. Meldrum, and for 
the Cape and Madras by Mr. Lockyer. 

(3) Sun-spots and trade. Dr. Hunter, Director-General of 
Statistics in India, has stated that the years of minimum rainfall 
and of consequent famines, approach to years of minimum sun- 
spots. Likewise the curve showing the variation in the price of 
wheat follows somewhat that of sun-spots. This is, perhaps, 



16 

all the evidence in favour of Sir W. Herschel's theory that the 
influence of sun-spots on rainfall would extend to crops and the 
fruits of the earth, and hence influence trade. But so many 
other factors, hotli political and social, would have to he reckoned 
with, that to connect the fluctuations of trade with sun-spots 
seems more fanciful than true. 



NOTES ON RAINFALL. 

By the Rev. E. D. H. GRAY, M.A., Januanj 20th, 1885. 



The Paper hegan, after a few observations on the general 
interest of the subject to all Englislimen, by dealing with the 
Art and Science of Weather Forecasts. It alluded to the follies 
of so-called Prophetic Almanacs, and to the mistaken ideas, still 
so strangely prevalent, as to tJie influences of the changes of the 
Moon upon the Weather ; and went on to consider the value of 
the results of certain local observations, for which, however, it 
could suggest no scientific explanation. The Forecasts of the 
Meteorological Office were next considered, and some account 
given of the arrangements just made by it for fuller reports fi-om 
America as to the weather of the Atlantic. 

Proceeding to speak of Rainfall and its measm'ements, the 
fact was noticed that at Towneley Hall, Burnley, was commenced 
the first regular and systematic record of the Fall of Rain, in 1677. 
That date reminded us of the interest in all kinds of scientific in- 
vestigation which was then spreading rapidly through the country. 
The Royal Society had just been started with Dr. Wilkins, 
Bishop of this Diocese (we were then of course in Chester) as 
one of its Founders ; and among those who were ready to give 
Lancashire its due place in the new world of science was the 
Squire of Towneley, who has the honour of heading the long 
and increasing lists of observers and observations from 1677 to 
the present time. The growth of these observations was pointed 
out, and some description given of the zealous and most success- 
ful work of Mr. G. T. Symons, F.R.S., who was Chief Assistant 
to the late Admiral Fitzroy, in furthering this branch of Meteor- 
ological investigation. A full account was given of the Gauges 
specially recommended by Mr. Symons, and of the rules set forth 
by him for their due use. Mr. Gray stated that Mr. Symoias had 
visited him at Briercliffe Vicarage, and had set his seal of approval 
on his (Mr. Gray's) Meteorological array. The number of stations 
at which Rainfall was measured, reached 2,000 : and in the 
Burnley district there were 8 gauges. 



17 

The usefulness of Eainfall observations was next considered, 
with special reference to their effect upon the calciilations of those 
concerned in the Water Supply of our towns ; and the possible 
dangers of relying upon Averages were pointed out, both in the 
case of Waterworks and of Bridges and Embankments, though 
the striking uniformity of Eainfall through many years was fully 
acknowledged. Still the deficiency of our Eainfall last year 
(1884) — [at Brierclifte the Fall was 16 per cent below the average 
of the writer's five years of observation] — was enough to cause 
grave anxiety as to our Water- Supply, — and considering that 
the deficiency at London was more than 30 per cent below the 
average there, it pointed out the possible results of a proportion- 
ate deficiency here as indeed serious. After some statistics as to 
the Rainfall "here and in London (the only other place of which 
the returns had then reached the writer) during 1884, the paper 
proceeded to give some results of five years' observations at 
Briercliffe. The years 1880 and 1881 showed totals the same 
within half an inch of each other, 46-92 and 46-37. The highest 
total was in 1882, 56-63 in., which fell on 248 days (!), and the 
lowest that of 1884, 38-37, — showing a difference between the 
extremes of 15-27 in., not much less than the whole of last year's 
Fall at London. 

Statistics were then given to show the average Rainfall over 
all the districts of England, and with these were compared such 
records as came to us from the various countries of the world. 
The average of Eainfall for all England was 31iiu., which varied 
from 20 in. at Lincoln, to 165 in. at the Sty Head Pass, in the 
Lake District. Some of these averages were London and Edin- 
burgh 24, Manchester 36, Briercliffe 45, Keswick 59, Ambleside 
78, Conistou 85, Ben Lomond 91, Seathwaite 140. In the year 
1882, the Rainfall at the Sty Head Pass reached the enormous 
quantity of 202-5 in. In this connection was observed the vast 
resources of the Manchester Water Scheme in drawing the sup- 
ply from the Lake District of Cumberland and Westmoreland : 
for 1 in. of rain was equal to 101 tons of water over each acre. 
In Europe the Eastern portions had the smallest rainfall, 
Astrakhan giving 6, Archangel 14, St. Petersburg 16 : against 
Paris 22, Berlin 23, and Eome 30. Of other places it was said 
that the registered average at Bombay was 84, at Poonah 23 ; 
while in one place in Hindostan as high as 610 had been re- 
gistered in one year. 

After noticing that the year 1884 was probably so far as 
London was concerned the dryest on record — the rainfall register- 
ing only 17 inches — there was an examination of the Registrar 
General's Death Eate Eeturns for 1884, and a comparison of 
them with the weather of its various months. In conclusion a 
short notice of the local Barometrical results of the terrible 



18 

storm of Jan. 26, 1884, when at Aberdeen the mercury fell to 
the lowest measurement on record in the British Islands, 27 '38, 
was given. At Briercliffe, which is 700 feet above sea-level, the 
index shewed 27'55 ; the rushes of the hurricane being accom- 
panied by quick oscillations of the barometer. The barometrical 
phenomena on that memorable day were the most remarkable he 
had ever experienced. 

Of the members who joined in the debate which followed 
the reading of the paper was Mr. Alfred Lancaster. He gave the 
figures obtained by the " eminent virHioso " Eichard Towneley, 
who measured the rainfall of this district. The average rainfall 
for the years 1694 to 1704 was 42-|- inches ; a record which bears 
a remarkable similarity to the average obtained at the Corporation 
Rain Gauge at Swinden, for the 16 years, 1868 to 1884, which 
is 42-7 inches. This closeness of results attests the accuracy of 
Pdchard Towneley' s observations. Mr. Lancaster also produced 
the reports on the rainfall of this district prepared by Professor 
G. J. Symons, F.R.S., at the request of the Burnley Corporation. 
These reports which are dated Dec. 1882 and February 1883, 
were obtained in order to ascertain the rainfall of the Cant 
Clougli Watershed, previous to the construction of the Water 
Works in that valley. The final conclusion at which Mr. Symons 
arrived after noting all available returns, testing the various 
gauges, and examining the localities, was that the " true mean 
of rainfall lies between 46 and 48 inches." Mr. Symons was 
also of opinion that the *' mean rainfall for the years 1870 — 9 
was very nearly identical with that of the previous fifty years, 
certainly within two per cent." 

The reports contain many interesting and useful statistics, 
and Mr. Lancaster quoted some of them. P»eferriug to Swinden, 
the yearly rainfall shews extreme variations, the year 1879 giving 
but 31-11 in, whilst 1877 shews 58*05 in. The rain-gauge at Clow 
Bridge reservoir gives an average of as high as 52-35 in. for 13 
years, the new station of Eobiu Hood surpassing this with 53-9 
in., and Extwistle Moor registering 52-6 in. 



EPIGRAMS. 

Bu T. J. 8YCKELM00RE, B.A.. January 27th, 1885. 

The Lecturer commenced by quoting several Epigrammatists' 
definitions of an Epigram, adopting for the purpose of his lecture 
Ben Jonson's description, that an Epigram is : — 

" Any short poem, chiefly restricted to one idea, and 
equally adapted to the delineation and expression of every 
passion incident to human life." 



19 

After lamentiug the neglect of Epigram writing as a special 
branch of literature, the Lecturer proceeded to review the history 
of this form of poetry, dealing iu tm-n with the ancient Greeks 
and Romans, the Mediaeval Latinists, and the Elizabethan Poets 
of England. Among the Greeks the Epigram had its origin in 
the inscriptions placed upon votive offerings which were dedicated 
to various gods and suspended in the temples. As such inscrip- 
tions were engraved either on bronze or marble tablets they were 
necessarily short ; soon they were imitated for various purposes 
of society, e.g. the exchange of presents. The transition from 
this use of Epigrams to a more general use was both natural and 
easy, until eventually the Epigram was in use for every purpose, 
both grave and gay, for which we can conceive it applicable. 

After reviewing the history of its origin and the early stages 
of its transition the Lectm'er quoted many specimens of the 
Greek Epigram of severfii classes, viz : votive, historical, funereal, 
literarij, ivittij and satirical. He dwelt at some length on two 
historical Epigrams of great renown, which celebrate the victory 
at Marathon and the defeat of Leonidas at Thermopyloe. The 
latter is well known from the following translation of W. L. 
Bowles. 

" Go tell the Spartans, thou that passest by. 
That here obedient to their laws we lie." 

In dealing y^iih. funereal Epigrams, or Epitaphs, the Lecturer 
dwelt with great emphasis upon the qualities necessary to con- 
stitute a good Epigram ; he also illustrated the ancient Greek 
Epigrams by parallel instances from English poets. In this 
class of Epigrams several were qiioted, written by great poets to 
celebrate the fame of such men as Sophokles, Plato, Aristophanes ; 
and as parallels to these, Herrick's hnes on "Ben Jonson,'' and 
Dryden's famous Epigram on " John Milton," which was very 
severely criticised by the Lecturer. 

The Eoman and Mediaeval Latin Epigrams were described 
and illustrations given showing that they were merely imitations 
of the Greek and little more than literary exercises. 

The next portion of the lecture dealt with Enghsh Epigrams 
and numerous poems were quoted fi'ou the various collections of 
Epigrams published during the Elizabethan period ; the works 
of Sir John Davies, Sir James Harrington and Ben Jonson in 
particular being laid under contribution. 

The following Epigram by Ben Jonson deserves quotation. 

OF LIPE AND DEATH. 



The ports of death are sins ; of life, good deeds 
Through which our merit leads us to our needs ; 

How wilful blind is he then, that should stray 
And hath it in his powers, to make his way ! 



20 



This world death's region is, the other life's : 

And here it should be one of our first strifes, 

So to front death, as men might judge us past it ; _ 
For good men but see death, the wicked taste it. 

The Lecturer concluded with a short collection of miscella- 
neous Epigrams, chiefly of modern authorship. 



HOLLAND IN THE SPRING TIME. 

By J. C. BRUMWELL, M.D., J.P., Febnumj 3rd, 1885. 



In the absence through indisposition of Dr. Brumwell, the 
paper was read by the Secretary. 

Describing the advantages of visiting Holland before the 
heat of summer the author referred to the absence of unhealthy 
emanations from the canals, the richness of the verdure and the 
quietness of being out of the ordinary tourist season. The pass- 
age from Harwich to Rotterdam is also at that time pleasant on 
account of the smoothness of the sea in the month of May ; and if 
in addition, the journey be undertaken when the moon is full, the 
seascapes are most lovely. The points of interest in Rotterdam, 
Delft, The Hague, and Leyden were referred to, and special men- 
tion was made of the advantage of making Haarlem the head 
quarters of a trip to Holland. It is near Amsterdam and has 
railways and tramways running to Zandvoort and other places of 
interest in the neighbourhood. It is one of the best preserved 
cities of old Holland and has a famous cathedral and a still more 
famous organ. It is worth a special visit in the month of May 
as then its fields of tuHps and hyacinths are in full bloom. The 
doctor described the picture galleries of the different towns m 
Holland and its advantages as a place where brain rest may be 
obtained in the most pleasant manner. The paper was enriched 
by descriptions of the scenery, Avhich evidenced the doctor's keen 
perception of the beautiful in nature ; and humorously told stories 
of sundry incidents in his travels added to the entertaining char- 
acter of the Lecture. 

The paper was effectively illustrated by J. Butterworth, 
Esq., J.P., by means of instantaneous photographs thrown 
upon a screen. 



21 

RECITALS. 

Director, G. B. RAWCLIFFE. February 10th. 1885. 



A lithographed copy of the Programme, with pictorial i lus- 
trationfmSt a^'tistically and skilfully executed, by Mr. Eawchffe, 
was furnished to the members. 

Programme. 

"A Race for Life" Will Carlton.... G- B- Rawcliffe. 

"Eugene Arams Dream" T. Hood J. Plant. 

" Bay Billy, or How a Horse | ^^^nymmos G. B. Eawchffe. 

won a Battle" ) __ ^ p^^^^^^_ 

"Parrhasius Z r, o- r R ■Rpwrliffp 

<■ The Life- Boat" ?• .^' fr B. Eawciifle. 

.< Dot leedle Poodle Dog" ^- J" ^^2,"^\- . p.^^. 

" Shamus O'Brien" ^ S LeFanu .. J. P^^^*^ 

.'In the Signal Box" • G. R. Suns ^- -^, ^,^^"^^^'' 

" The Indian Warrior's Defence -■;■-■■■■ t; -^T:^„iiffe 

«. Gone with a Handsomer Man" Wdl Carleton... G. B. Eawchiie. 
" Scott of Harden " Henry Lloyd... clo. 

WHO WROTE 'SHAKESPEARE'? 

By GEORGE GILL. February 17th, 1885. 

The title of this paper suggests a doubt as to the author of 
" Slmkespeare s" Works, and while offering arguments m favor 
of he heory that such Works were the productions of a wiser 
and far mo^-e cultivated genius than W^ilham Shakspere of 
Stoat ford-upon-Avon, the writer of the paper did not wish to 
troTthTn^me, nor to discount his wonderful powers and 
genu's as an acToi for it was really m that capacity, and not as 
an author or writer of plays that he first attracted attention 

The paper dealt with the subject in two parts-first the 
historical evidence against the Shakesperean theoiy of author- 
S compared with the Baconian theory; and secondly he 
iniemannd other corroborative evidences m support of the 
Baconian theory. 

I. HiSTOBiCAL Evidences. 
The early life and character of Francis Bacon and WiUiam 
Shaklpe^rXe found to differ very widely m a W every 
respect: the one— Bacon, was born m 1561 and enjoyea many 



22 

early educational advantages — the other, Shakspere, born in 
1564 received a comparatively scanty education. Bacon com- 
pleted his studies at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
distinguished himself at the early age of 16— Shakspere finished 
his educational career at the free school of his native town. 
Bacon's early life was spent in France, and he was afforded an 
opportunity of travelling in the very provinces in which are laid 
the scenes of tlie first part of Henry VI, and this play is the 
first in chronological order, according to the best authorities. 
The second part of Henry VI introduces scenes at St. Albans ; 
and the Battle of St. Albans, referred to in that play, was fought 
within a mile and a lialf of Bacon's home. 

Shakspere, after leaving school is generally supposed to have 
joined his father in carrying on business as woolstapler, and was 
married at the age of eighteen, the first authenticated fact after 
his baptism. Shortly after his marriage a company of Players 
visited Stratford-upon-Avon, and Shakspere is supposed to have 
followed them to Loudon, where he is found to have been em- 
ployed in a minor capacity about the Theatre. He afterwards 
became attached to the Lord Chamberlain's Company of Players 
and appeared twice before Queen Elizabeth. 

Francis Bacon meanwhile removed to London to study law, 
and in 1^87 he helped in the representation of an anonymous 
play entitled " The Tragedy of Arthur," at Gray's Inn, and also 
in some Masques before the Queen. Francis Bacon had a brother 
Anthony, who returning from Italy in 1592 found Francis in 
embarrassed circumstances through borrowing money from a 
"hard Jew," who cast him into a " sponging house " for a bond 
which still had two months to run. Anthony soon found means 
to release his brother ; and soon after this " The Merchant of 
Venice" appears with "Antonio" as the good brother, and 
" Shylock" as the " hard Jew." The name " Antonio " also occurs 
in other plays — and in "Much-ado about Nothing" we have 
" Brother Antony." 

The Earl of Southampton, to whom the Poem "Venus and 
Adonis " is dedicated, was a personal friend of Lord Bacon : the 
dedication is signed "Shakespeare." Bacon a.fterwards quarrelled 
with the Earl, and in the subsequent edition of the poem the 
dedication was omitted. There is no evidence of the Earl's 
fi'iendship with William Shakspere, and it is scarcely probable 
that he would have mis-spelt his name in the dedication of the 
poem. 

The paper went on to deal at considerable length on various 
historical facts in tlie life of Francis Bacon, tracing their con- 
nections with many of the plays of " Shakespeare," as these 
were published from time to time. Special note was taken of 
the fact that in the " Folio of 1623," which was published eight 



28 

years after William Sbakspere's death, and contained 36 plays, 
18 of these were then printed for the first time, of which number, 
six at the least had iiever before been heard of. This " Folio " has 
a remarkable title page, with a wood-cut representing Folly 
laughing and Shakinij his spear at Ignorance ; and on the opposite 
page is a stolid common-place portrait of William Shakspere. 
Here it may be remarked that the Sonnets which were published 
in 1609 are issued as being by Shake- Speare (printed in large 
capitals), and the dedication is to " Mr. W. H.," otherwise 
William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, Lord Bacon's staunch 
friend. 

Shakspere died in 1616 — his will gave particular directions 
as to the disposal of his personal property and household goods, 
but there is no mention whatever of any books, papers or writings 
of any kind ; nor is there any word or hne during his life or in 
his will to show his connection with any printer or publisher. 

Lord Bacon died in 1626, and his will makes special refer- 
ence to his " manuscript compositions," and to all his " papers 
whatsoever which are either in cabinets, boxes or presses." 

II. Internal and Corroborative Evidences. 

a. Numerous hints contained in the plays and sonnets are more 

applicable to Bacon's hfe than to Sbakspere's. 

b. Bacon is known to have been a poet of no mean order. He 

referred to himself as a "concealed ijoet," — and he wrote 
sonnets to the Queen and other distinguished persons. 

c. The author of the plays displays very considerable knowledge of 

special subjects, which happen to have been those of Lord 
Bacon's special study, and these are used by the Play writer 
as the basis of many metaphors and similes. For example 
Bacon was par excellence a law student — the plays abound 
in legal references and law scenes. Bacon was a botanist, 
and in his Essay on Gardens he names 30 of the 33 Shake- 
spearean flowers. Bacon studied the laws of sound and 
other scientific subjects — which are constantly referred to 
in the Plays. 

d. There are several alterations in the different editions of the 

same play arising out of chcumstances which had come 
under Bacon's notice during the interim. 

e. The striking omission in the plays, of rural and country scenes 

such as might have been expected from a man of Sbak- 
spere's experience. There are no scenes of the village green 
or May-pole ; no harvest-home ; no scenes of children, or 
childhood ; no market or fair ; no home scenes or occupation : 
yet Shakspere was the father of a family, while Bacon mar- 
ried late in life and was childless. 



24 

/. Eeference was made to Bacon's private coiTespondence, and 
more particularly to his " Promus of Formularies," which 
has been found to contain many hundreds, if not thousands 
of references to special phrases and subjects in the plays and 
sonnets, all of which point to one conclusion, that Bacon 
wrote " Shakespeare." 

" Why write I still all one, ever the same. 
And keep invention in a noted weed, 
That every word doth almost tell my name, 
Showing their birth and whence they did proceed." 
(Sonnet 76.) 

A CHAT ABOUT THE HOUSEFLY. 

Bu J. RHODES. Febnianj 24th, 18S5. 



The female Housefly (Musea domestica) like all other insects, 
is careful to deposit her eggs upon some substance which will be 
suitable food for the issuing offspring. Having discovered some 
putrefying material, she hovers round it and deposits about 80 
beautiful little eggs in the space of about a quarter of an hour. 
In two or three days the maggot or larva hatches out. It is a 
small worm like creature ha'ving a body divided into thirteen 
segments or rings, the front one or head, being furnished with a 
pair of hooked jaws and curious globular palpi. The second 
segment bears two rudimentaiy feet, and on each side of all the 
segments breathing pores are to be found. 

The larva is almost constantly eating, and grows at a very 
rapid rate. In the course of a few days it however assumes the 
pupa form. This change is effected by the hardening of the 
outer skin, which becomes so brown and tough as to make the 
maggot look like a little bright barrel. In this barrel a wonderful 
transformation takes place, so that in a few days the pretty, 
graceful well-known housefly bursts forth and spreads her wings 
in the sunshine. 

The Housefly has a body divided into three parts ; the head, 
thorax, and abdomen. 

The Head bears externally the organs of sense and nutrition, 
viz : the antennae or feelers : the eyes, and the mouth. 

Internally, it contains the cerebral ganglion and sensory 
nerves. 

The Thorax or chest, bears the organs of locomotion, viz : 
six legs, two wings, and two halteres or poisers. 

The Abdomen, which bears no external members, is com- 
posed of several rings, and contains the intestines, respiratory 
apparatus, the many- chambered heart, and the reproductive 
organs. 



The Winfis are each composed of an upper and lower trans- 
parent membrane, and between these, the blood vessels and 
respiratory tubes spread out so as to form a comparatively strong 
network for the support of the extended membranes. The wmgs 
are attached to the thorax by very strong muscles and they are 
capable of making as many as four thousand strokes per second. 

The Halteres are little" stalks immediately behind the wings, 
having a globular expansion at the ends, and are probably 
rudimentary wings. 

The Respirator}/ apparatus, consists of spiracles and tracheae. 

The spiracles are on the underside of the body, and are 
really small h(«les or pores, filled with a spongy fibre which 
allows the air to filter in, while at the same time cleansmg it 
fi-om all impurities. The tracheae are small tubes strengthened 
with spiral fibre coiled round the inside: they are connected 
with the spiracles, and ramify to all parts of the body. 

The Le<i consists of five distinct jomts, giving the hmb free 
movement in any direction. The legs of insects are possessed 
of great power, for instance, while a man can drag about his 
own -weight, the fly can drag thirty times hers. 

The Foot consists of two movable claws which are used to 
clean out moats, dh-t, &c., which have become entangled in the 
spiracles ; also of two membraneous expansions or pads which 
probably sei-ve to protect the claws and keep them from being 
roughened or broken. Around the margin, and on the surface of 
the pads are innumerable glandular hairs fi-om which a fliud is 
exuded. These probably act as " suckers " and enable the fly to 
walk up perpendicular and smooth surfaces. 

The Tonijue is a very beautiful and complicated stvuctm-e, 
and consists of three lancets to puncture substances and cause 
the juices to flow. Then comes the tongue proper, which is an 
expansion of membrane containing many cross channels or half 
tubes. These all empty themselves into two larger grooves 
which join together and run into the gullet. 

The Antenna are like two little horns protruding from the 
front part of the head. They consist of apparently three, but 
really six joints, of which the thu-d is dilated, and much larger 
than the rest. At its base are three or foiu' cavities closed from 
the outer air by a delicate skin, while from their lower surface a 
nerve proceeds" to the brain. These are probably organs of hear- 
ing or smell, for by their means insects communicate with each 
other, and receive most of their impressions of the outer world. 

The Exjes are five in number, three having a simple undivided 
surface or cornea ; two larger ones havmg a cornea divided into 
hexagonal facets, four thousand in number. The more minute 
structure of the eyes is vei7 interesting but cannot be described 
in detail in this short abstract. 

The lecture was illustrated by a number of large drawings 
which had been prepared by Mr. Rhodes, 



26 



SOME ASPECTS OF DESTRUCTIVE 
DISTILLATION. 

By THOMAS HOLGATE. March 3rd, 1885. 



Distillation is the term applied to tlie processes by which 
substances are separated, or produced and separated, by heat, 
and collected after condensation. Solid or liquid substances 
which are readily converted into vapour on the application of 
heat are described by chemists as volatile ; those which cannot 
thus be made to assume the gaseous form are said to be non- 
volatile. The quantity and degree of heat required is dependent 
upon the degree of volatility of the substance used, and of the 
products sought to be obtained. 

The apparatus employed in distillation consists essentially 
of a retort or still, followed by a cooler or condenser, and by a 
receiver. The form and aiTangement of these three are subject 
to modification, to meet the special requirements of each case. 
The substance to be operated upon is placed inside the still or 
retort, to which heat is applied. The volatile products and 
educts pass over, and are cooled in long tubes kept cool generally 
by water or air. The uncondensable bodies (i.e., at tlie tempera- 
ture and pressm'e in the condenser") are collected as gases ; and 
the condensable bodies are received in the liquid state into closed 
tanks or other suitable vessels. 

Distillation is, for convenience, divided under two heads — 
Destructive and Fractional. The special characteristic of the 
former is the alteration in composition of the body acted upon, 
with the production of bodies or compounds in the distillate 
which were not originally present as such. The bodies, or dis- 
tillates, so evolved are termed pi-oducts, because they have not 
only been separated, but formed by the distillation. 

The special characteristic of fractional distillation is that the 
bodies which are evolved are merely separated by heat from the 
less volatile bodies which are left behind. The bodies so obtained 
in the distillate are therefore termed educts. As an example on 
a large scale we may instance the fractionation of the natural 
oils (or petroleum) of America and of Soutiiern Russia. The 
crude oil, which is of a greenish colour as taken from the earth, 
is separated into more or less volatile oils by heating in stills, 
and collecting the distillates separately at various temperatures. 

Of the two, destructive distillation is the first for considera- 
tion, because it is by this process that the substances which are 
afterwards subjected to fractional distillation are usually obtained. 
This former is the one chosen for consideration in this paper. 



27 

It is essentially the decomposition of substances, solid or 
liquid, by heat, in vessels from which the air is excluded, so as 
to obtain gaseous, liquid, or solid products. 

Generally the substances used are of organic origin, and 
the bodies evolved are dependent —(1) upon the nature of the 
material ; (2) upon the degree of heat apphed ; and (3) upon the 
nature of the atmosphere within the still and condenser, and 
upon the extent of the coohng. 

In regard to the first of the foregoing principles — viz., the 
nature of the material subjected to heat — it is necessary to point 
out that the working is affected primarily by the chemical com- 
position ; and, secondarily, by the mechanical condition. The 
chemical composition of most of the organic substances used 
in these industries is a modification of woody fibre in which 
(CsHiqOs)^ — cellulose — is the essential component. 

Percentage Compositions of 















Cellulose. 


Organic Portion 

of Bituminous 

Shale. 


Wigan Cannel 
[Ash deducted.) 


Anthi-acite 
(.ish deducted.) 


Carbon . . 


.. 44M4 


. . 73-05 


. . 85-81 


. . 94-05 


Hydrogen 


.. 6173 


. . 10-62 


5-85 


3-38 


Oxygen . . 


.. 49 383 


. . 16-33 


8-34 


2-57 



100-000 , 100-00 .. 100-00 .. 100-00 

The results obtained in actual woridng are, however, modified 
(as before mentioned) by the mechanical condition. Sometimes 
the organic matter is associated with argillaceous or aluminic 
constituents, which render it necessary to very much increase the 
temperature applied to the retorts. The shale used by the oil 
manufacturers of Scotland is a good example ; the infusible or 
non-volatile matter absorbing a very large proportion of the heat 
which is applied. This leads us to consider our second general 
principle — viz., the effect of temperature. 

All chemical action has an equivalent or measure in quantity 
and degree of heat. (Quantity of heat is represented by " units 
of heat ; " degree, or intensity of heat, is represented by " tem- 
perature.") Chemical combinations of matter give out heat in 
definite proportions ; and the inverse action, or decomposition, 
requires at least an equal expenditure of heat-energy. So much 
is this the case, that it is necessary for the chemist, in every 
instance, to know the condition of temperature before he can say 
whether a combination or decomposition will take place in bodies 
under consideration. 

At a very high temperature the products fi'om coal or shale 
are carbon, and much carbonized gas of low illuminating power, 
with but Little hquid distillate. At a low temperature there is 
much liquid product and Uttle gas, but of high illuminating 



28 

power. Gesner gives the following results from a ton of New- 
castle coal : — 

Distilled at 1200" Fahr. for Gas. 

Gas 7450 cub. ft. 

Tar 18^ gals. 

Coke 1200 lbs. 

Distilled at 800" Fahr. for Oil. 

Gas 1400 Cub. t. 

Crude Oil 68 gals. 

Coke 1280 lbs. 

We must now consider the influence of the atmosphere 
within the still. The atmosphere is usually one possessing very- 
little or no power of comhining with the hody undergoing distilla- 
tion. Generally the operation is conducted so that the atmos- 
pheric air is excluded, and so that the heated hody is in contact 
only with the products of its own decomposition. 

It is important that the pressure within the retort should be 
favourable. This is usually maintained as low as practicable, in 
order to reduce the time of contact of the valuable products with 
the hot vessel, by removing them as quickly as possible, and so 
preserving them from decomposition. Eeferring to the condensa- 
tion of the distillates, I may remark tliat this is to be determined 
by the temperatures at which these bodies assume the liquid state. 
The cooling must be sutBcieut to condense the products required, 
and still to leave them sufficiently fluid as not to impede the flow 
through the worm or other part of the cooling apparatus. 

Having very briefly touched upon the general principles, let 
us now take more in detail a few of the most representative ex- 
amples ; and, first, as an example of low-temperature distillation, 
an account of tlie process of distilling bituminous shale, for 
lighting and lubricating oils. 

To Dr. James Young, of Kelly, Eenfrewshire, belongs the 
credit of founding this industry, which (especially in Scotland) 
has assumed very large dimensions. About the year 1848, Dr. 
(now Sir) Lyon Playfair directed the attention of Mr. Young to 
an oozing of petroleum through the top of a coal-working at 
Alfreton, in Derbyshire. There being a prospect of success, he 
commenced to refine and prepare for sale the petroleum here dis- 
covered. From it he succeeded in extracting a notable quantity 
of wax (which proved to be mainly parafliu) ; and he also separated 
a light oil for burning, and a heavier one for grease-making and 
lubricating purposes. The quantity of petroleum at command 
was very limited ; and, after two years' successful working, the 
supply was exhausted. Mr. Young then sought other sources of 
these oils (which are mainly hydrocarbons) ; and in his experi- 
ments he was guided by the ideas he had conceived relative to 



29 

the foi-mation of the natural oil. He thought that in the Derby- 
shii-e mine the oil had been formed by the coal havmg been 
subjected to a gentle heat from beneath, and by the vapom-s thus 
formed being cooled by the layer of sandstone above. Folio wmg 
up this idea, he apphed a gentle heat to various classes of coal 
m au--tight vessels ; and the result was that he obtamed hquid 
products more or less resemblmg the natural oil, together^ with 
a quantity of permanent gas. During these trials Mr. Young 
found that lie could obtain fi-om each ton of Boghead coal 120 to 
130 gallons of crude oil. In 1862 this material was exhausted ; 
and since then paraffin oil has been almost exclusively obtained 
fi-om the bituminous shales existing in the coal measures, which 
yield, on an average, 82 gallons of crude oil per ton. With the 
Boghead coal, rich in organic matter, 600° to 700° Fahr. was the 
most advantageous temperature ; but with the shales now used 
in the most improved retorts, about 800° Fahr. is beheved to be 
the best temperature. 

The improved Henderson retort, which was shown m a 
diagram, is oblong in cross section and 15 feet long, containing 
about 18 cwt. of shale. A set of four is placed verticaUy m 
each chamber. Below the retorts there is a fmnace ; and by 
opening a door at the bottom of each retort, the spent shale 
di-ops into it. At Inst this mass, which contains carbon to the 
extent of 12 to 14 per cent., appears quite black. The products 
of combustion are conducted by a flue to the upper part of the 
oven ; and are led off fi-om near the bottom of the retorts, being 
the part exposed to the least heat. In order to remove these 
vapours from the regions of higher temperatiue as they form, 
and so prevent their decomposition into gaseous products, a large 
volume of superheated steam is delivered into the upper part of 
the retort, i'urther, by prolonging the action of the steam after 
all the oily matter is extracted, from 20 to 30 per cent, more 
ammonia is obtained. The hydi-ogen of the water takes hold of 
the nitrogen of the shale, forming ammonia ; while the oxygen 
of the steam unites with carbon, causing partial combustion, 
and producing carbonic oxide and carbonic acid. The vapours 
generated are passed through a coil of pipes surrounded by water. 
Those whicli are condensed to the liquid state by this means are 
the oils, together with water, which is charged with ammonia. 
The vapours remaining uncondeused (amounting to about 2000 
cubic feet per ton) are sometimes purified and sold in the neigh- 
bourhood for iUummating pm-poses ; yielding a hght equal to 25 
candles. In other cases, these gases are passed up through a 
tower filled with porous material (such as coke), down which a 
quantity of heavy paraffin oil is allowed to trickle. This heavy 
oil absorbs the light hydi'ocarbons in the gas, thereby reducing the 
luminosity to approximately ^-candle power. In this way about 



30 

tbree-fourtlis of a gallon of a licjuid having a specific gravity of 
700 to 715 (water being taken as 1000) is obtained; and tbis, 
on further treatment in rectification, is divided into gasoline and 
light naphtha. The non-luminons gases are then passed under 
the retorts, and consumed in the furnaces as fuel. The sub- 
stances thus produced by the destructive distillation of shale 
are afterwards submitted to fractional distillation, and to other 
chemical treatment. To describe these processes would occupy 
more time than I have at couimand; and I shall, therefore, 
merely summarize the products, giving their special features of 
commercial or scientific interest. 

From figures given by Mr. R. H. Branton, M. Inst. C.E = 
(to whom the writer is indebted for much information on this 
subject), it appears that, in the year 1881, the total shale used 
in Scotland was 1,036,000 tons, yielding — 

Gasoline 85,000 gals., being 0-25 per cent. 

Naphtha 1,955,000 „ „ 5-75 

Burning oils 11,900,000 „ „ 35-00 

Lubricating oil 4,760,000 „ „ 14-00 

Green oil 85,000 „ „ 0-25 

Solid Paraffin 3,060,000 ., „ 9-00 

Loss on fractionation i i.iirrnnn qc vc 

, 1 ., > 1.^,155,000 ,, ,, .35 75 ,, 

of crude oil ) ' ' " " " 

Total 34,000,000 gals. 100 00 

Gasoline, the most volatile of the products, can be made of 
gravities from 640 to 680 ; but it is only produced in small quanti- 
ties, as already explained. It is used for adding luminosity to 
air or other gases, for use where coal gas is not readily obtainable. 

Naphtha has a gravity ranging from 700 to 760. Its abstrac- 
tion from the burning oils renders them less inflammable. Some 
quantity is disposed of as a solvent for caoutchouc and gutta- 
percha, and as benzoline for sponge lamps ; but a large proportion 
of the production is consumed in the ordinary open-air naphtha 
lamps. 

Burning oils are usually separated into four qualities, de- 
pending on tlieir specific gravities and flashing points, as well as 
on their colours and odours. 

Lubricating oils are of gravities ranging from 875 to 890. 
They have the great defects, as lubricants, of being deficient in 
body or viscosity. The viscosity of the best qualities of paraftin 
lubricating oils does not exceed two-fifths that of rape ; while 
many of the heavier oils are as low as one-fourth. 

Green oil is obtained from the tarry refuse. It is rich in 
carbolic acid ; and is not yet much used. 

Paraffin wax, as made, is separated iuto portions of varied 
fusibility. That of low melting point is used in the manufacture 
of match-tips ; while that of higher melting point is chiefly used 



81 

for candles. Paraffin is a mixture of neutral bodies containing 
no oxygen, but about 85 per cent, of carbon, and 15 per cent, of 
hydrogen. Its consituents, as also of the other products of this 
distillation, are fatty hydrides, with an almost entire absence 
of " aromatic hydrides." This fatty series of hydrocarbons 
(CnH 2n + 2) lias for its first member marsh gas (CHJ ; and con- 
tains a large number of homologous bodies, some of which are 
gaseous, some liquid, and some solid, at the ordinary tempera- 
ture. These bodies form the starting point of a large number of 
derivatives, which are very different in character from those derived 
fi-om the " aromatic hydrides." The latter can, however, be 
obtained from the former by suitable actions. The composition 
of American natural oil, or petroleum, is essentially the same 
as the artificial or paraffin oUs. Eussian petroleum contains, in 
addition to the paraffin series, a considerable portion of "aromatic 
hydi-ocarbons." 

Having seen somewhat the working of a low-tem^Derature 
industry, let us turn to the most important examjjle of high- 
temperature distillation — viz., the manufacture of illuminating 
gas from coal. The process is conducted very much as follows: — 
Coal is heated in fire-clay retorts set in a horizontal position, 
usually in a group of five or seven. The heat is supplied from a 
furnace, placed in the base of the setting, fed by coke. 

The temperatiu'e maintained in the retorts is usually a 
bright or orange red, and is 2000° to 2200° Fahr. A compara- 
tively low heat means a small yield of gas, which is, however, 
generally of a good quality ; and the production of a large 
quantity of tar, which is of inferior quality, being ricli in 
paraffins but poor in the valuable " aromatic compounds." 

The following tables show the eflect of temperature on the 
quantity and quality of the gas produced,* as observed by Mr. 
Lewis T. Wright, F.C.S., Assoc. M. Inst. C,E. :— 

■pr„j,x Cubic Feet lUnminating 

^^'''- Per Ton of Coal. Power. 

(1) Dull red 8,250 . . 20-50 

(2) Bright red 9,693 . . 17-80 

(3) Dull orange 10,821 . . 16-75 

(4) Bright orange 12,006 . . 15-60 

Analyses of Gases produced. 

By Volume. No. 1. No. 2. No. 4. 

Hydrogen 38-09 . . 43-77 . . 48-02 

Carbonic oxide 8-72 . . 12-50 . . 13-96 

Marsh gas . . . ; 42-72 . . 34-50 . . 30-70 

Olefines 7-65 . . 5-83 . . 4-51 

Nitrogen 2-92 . . 3-40 . . 2-81 

100-00 100-00 10000 

Carbon density of olefines 2-73 . . 2-91 . . 2-62 
Hydrogen „ 3 -84 .. 4-12 .. 5-76 

* These are taken from a paper, on "The Influence of the Temperature of Dis- 
tillation ou the Composition of Coal Gas," published in the Journal of Gas Lighting 
for March 25, 1884 (p. 535). 



82 

By a consideration of these tables, together with the one 
showing the composition of coal (previously given), we may 
reasonably suppose the following to be the way in which temjjer- 
ature affects this distillation : — The effect of the first application 
of heat to coal is, no doubt, to cause, primarily, the production 
of carbon di-oxide and water, through the union of the oxygen 
with a portion of the carbon and hydrogen. The next increase 
of temperature will, most probably, produce hydrocarbons of the 
fatty series, especially marsh gas (CH4), hydrides (C„H2„ + 2 ), 
and the olefines (€„ Hj,, ). 8ome of these latter are liquid, and 
would appear in the tar ; while others are gaseous, and possessed 
of moderate luminosity. At a still higher temperature these 
compounds of the " fatty or paraffin series " are partly decom- 
posed into others of the "aromatic series," with tlie separation 
of free hydrogen. Some of these are gaseous at ordinary tem- 
l^eratures, and add great luminosity to the gas; others are liquid, 
and considerably enhance the value of the tar. These are 
especially benzene and its homologues. If the temperature be 
still further increased, these last-named valuable compounds are 
decomposed, with the formation of free hydrogen, free carbon, 
naphthalene, anthracene, &c. 

The temperature of the gas, as taken from the retorts, is 
usually about 130" Fahr. It is cooled by passing through appar- 
atus termed condensers, where it is freed from the portions 
which are liquid at the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere. 
From this the gas is passed through a series of vessels, termed 
washers and scrubbers, where tlie impurities of sulphm-etted 
hydrogen, ammonia, and carbonic acid are largely abstracted. 
From these the gas is passed through purifiers, suitably charged, 
and worked with lime or oxide of iron, which further eliminate 
the carbonic acid and sulphur compounds contained in it. The 
gas is now ready for use. 

The following may be taken as an average specimen of gas 
made in England : — 

Chartered Gas Company s Gas, 1876 fDr. Humpidge). 

Nitrogen 3'48 — Inert constituent. 

Hydrogen 50'59 — Heat-giving constituent. 

Carbon monoxide 3-13 — ,, ,, ,, 

Marsh gas (C H«) 38-39— Light-giving. 

Heavy hydrocarbons (C„ Hui) . . 4-41— „ „ „= 7-85 of 

ethylene (C^H*). 

Carbon density, 3-56 100-00 

The liquid distillate in gas manufacture consists — (1) of 
water, charged with ammonia audits compounds ; and (2) of tar. 
The first is now the principal source of the ammonia used in 
the arts and in agriculture. It is usual to first convert it into 
sulphate of ammonia by treatment with sulphuric acid. This 



33 

sulphate is either used as such, for the purpose of manure, or 
it is used for the production of other forms of ammonia in the 
pure state. Of the second, tar is a substance of great theoretical 
interest and practical importance. 

The composition of gas tar has not yet been completely in- 
vestigated ; but it is certain that 80 different bodies are contained 
in it, and probable that 20 others are present in more or less 
minute quantities, Of this large number the most important 
are as follows : — 

1. Benzene (0^ Hg), toluene (Cg H^ [C Hg]), and xylenes 

(Oe H* [C H3] ,). 

2. Commercial phenol, carbolic (Cg H5 [0 H] ) and cresylic 

acids (Cs H4 [C H3] O H). 

3. Napthalene (Cn, Hg). 

4. Creosote oils. 

5. Anthracene C14 Hk,). 

These are given in the order of their boiling points, or order of 
separation by the tar distiller. 

1. Benzene is one of the most volatile of the hydrocarbons 
(liquid at ordinary temperatures) which is contained in gas tar. 
It was first discovered by the renowned Faraday ; and it is per- 
haps one of the best examples of what is known as a condensed 
hydrocarbon, being regarded as the type of this series, known as 
"aromatic compounds." It contains a large proportion (by 
weight) of carbon to hydrogen ; and being a liquid, it is con- 
sequently highly inflammable, and when supplied with air in a 
proper manner is highly luminous. It is of great commercial 
importance as the starting point of a vast number of compounds 
which act as colouring matters. By the action upon it of nitric 
acid, nitro-benzol is prepared ; and from this (by reduction) the 
famous substance — aniline — is formed. Further, by acting upon 
this, a large number of highly important dyes— popularly called 
aniline dyes — are obtained. 

2. Phenol is the scientific name for what is often termed car- 
bolic acid. The latter is almost always commercially accompanied 
by its homologue, cresylic acid — more con-ectly designated cresol. 
Taking these two together, we may regard them as the most 
valuable portions of the carbolic oil produced by the tar distiller. 
By acting on phenol by nitric acid, picric acid is obtained ; and 
from this a number of beautiful dyes are made. Salicyhc acid — 
a valuable acquisition to modern medicine — is also prepared 
from phenol. 

3. Naphthalene (CjoHg) is one of the most stable of the sub- 
stances produced by the distillation of coal. Until the last few 
years it was difficult to sell ; but by treating it with nitric acid in 
the same way that benzene was developed, a number of products 
are formed which bid fair to largely influence the dye trade. 



84 

4. Creosote oil is a mixture of bodies which have not yet been 
thoroughly investigated. It is at present used mainly for pickling 
timber ; but as its composition and properties are more fully in- 
vestigated, it is expected to increase in commercial importance. 

5. Anthracene (C14H10) was discovered by Dumas and Laurent 
in 1832. It was not, however, of much commercial value until 
1868, when Graebe and Liebermann found that it could be con- 
verted into alizarine (CiiHgOi), which is the colouring matter of 
the madder root. Alizarine was until very recently made fi*om 
the root of the madder plant, of which the yearly crop was 
70,000 tons, at jE-iS per ton ; representing an annual value of 
£3,150,000. Of this crop, the United Kingdom consumed 23,000 
tons, having a value of £1,000,000 sterling. Madder is now only 
grown in very small quantity indeed ; having been superseded by 
the more reliable and superior artificial substance, which in 1883 
was sold at about 2s. 6d. per pound. 

Having referred to two industries which have very largely 
developed, I will now mention two comparatively new ones, 
which are at present receiving great attention. The first is the 
recovery of the nitrogen remaining in bituminous shales, after 
the extraction of the oily matter ; and also that from the coke 
produced in gas manufacture. It is now well known that only a 
small fraction of the nitrogen contained in these shales and coals 
used in destructive distillation is, under the ordinary conditions 
of working, obtained as ammonia. It has, therefore, been the 
object of several chemists to extract from the solid residues, as 
far as possible, the nitrogen in combination with hydrogen. 
Messrs. Young and Beilby have treated spent shale with highly 
superheated steam ; the result being that the yield of ammonia 
has increased 130 per cent. They find that with highly carbon- 
aceous spent shales or other bodies containing a large percentage 
of carbon, the process is accelerated by the admission of a small 
proportion of air. In this manner they propose to convert coke 
into heating gas and ammonia ; the heating gas consisting of 
carbonic oxide and hydrogen, which are the active constituents, 
and diluted with the nitrogen of the air used in the process. 
For gas manufacture the present practice obtains about 15 per 
cent, of the total nitrogen of the coal as ammonia ; while about 
50 per cent, remains in the coke, and the remaining 35 per cent, 
is probably liberated as free nitrogen in the gas. 

Secondly, there are the improved methods of making metal- 
lurgical coke. Among the many forms of coke-oven recently 
put forward, I may select the Jameson and Simon-Carves as 
perhaps the best. In the former of these two, the principal 
novelty consists in the altered form of floor given to the ordinary 
beehive oven ; Mr. Jameson inserting a floor which is perforated. 
The perforations lead into a flue laid from the centre of the floor 



35 

to a large gas-main running alongside the battery of ovens. The 
gas ijroduced is exhausted by machinery ; and the tar and ani- 
monia are abstracted in the same way as in gas-works. As in 
ordinary coke-ovens, so in this process — a small proportion of air 
is drawn into the oven ; and thus a partial combustion takes 
place. The coke produced by this method is veiy hard and 
compact, but the tar is of inferior quahty ; consisting largely of 
paraffins, with only a slight trace of toluene and xylene — no ben- 
zene, naphthalene, or anthracene. The yield of ammonia is 
comparatively small, being equal to about 9 lbs. of sulphate per 
ton of coal used. The Simon-Carves process is a destructive 
distillation ; no air being admitted to the oven. In the early 
forms of this system the temperature was about 2200° Fahr. ; 
but in the more improved form, with recuperator, a temperature 
of about 3000" Fahr. Each oven is charged with about 4^ tons 
of coal ; forming a mass about 6 feet high by 18 inches thick. 
The oven is surrounded, sides and bottom, by flues, in which the 
gas produced by the process is burnt (after purification). By this 
arrangement the mass of coal is kept for 60 hours at such a 
temperature that it partially fuses — at any rate in its lower 
portion ; and the weight of the column causes it to consoUdate. 
The products being drawn off at the top, they have in great 
measure to pass through the incandescent mass, and thus become 
partly reduced to carbon. This helps to fill up the pores of the 
coke more than is the case in gas making. This coking process 
differs from gas manufacture mainly in the employment of a large 
compact mass. The working results of 25 ovens, used at Messrs. 
Pease's works. Crook, near Darlington, are 6-12 gallons of tar, 
and 27-7 gallons of ammoniacal Hquor (6" to 7° good Twaddel) 
per ton of coal. About 15 per cent, more coke is obtained by 
this method than by the ordinaiy beehive oven ; and further, the 
tar produced is of good quality. Mr. Watson Smith, F.I.C., 
F.C.S., states that its gravity is 1200 ; it is thus somewhat denser 
than ordinary gas tar. It is rich in anthracene and naphthalene ; 
but less rich in benzol and phenols. The adoption of these 
ovens is extending, and it is hoped they will continue to do so ; 
because by their use the smoke and dnt (which are the usual 
accompaniments of coke-ovens) are utilized, instead of polluting 
the air and damaging vegetation. 

A consideration of these samples of industrial appUcations 
will enforce the importance of the three influences enunciated 
at the beginning of the paper, by showing the differences in the 
products of destructive distillation under various conditions. 

The subject of the paper was illustrated by specimen products 
of the manufactures referred to For those relating to shale dis- 
tilling the lecturer was indebted to the kindness of Mr. J. Fyfe, 
of Young's Paraffin Light Company ; and for the use of those 



86 

relating to the distillations of coal and coal tar, he was under 
obhgatiou to Mr. S. P. Leather, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., of Burnley. 
[This Lecture, of which an abridgment is here given, was 
inserted in the Journal vf Gas Lvjlitimj, Sc, and from that has 
been re-printed in pamphlet form.] 



SANITARY MATTERS : PAST AND PRESENT. 

By T. N. BALL. March 10th, 1885. 



That the question of the protection of the health of the masses 
of the people crowded into our large towns and thickly populated 
districts, by the thorough removal and disposal of refuse wastes 
and sewerage, is a question of the first magnitude, none can 
deny. More especially is this so in this country where large 
towns lie so closely together, and the intervening space is so 
largely peopled, thus rendering the spread of infectious diseases 
so easy a matter. 

If upon no other than economical grounds, it is true economy 
to spend some little of our earnings in the prosecution of sanitary 
research. Health is the capital of the labouring man. It is 
better to give health than alms, for an unsanitary state brings 
sickness, disease, and mortality, which are followed by pauper- 
ism, demoralisation and crime. Dr. Johnson says, " To preserve 
health is a moral and religious duty. For health is the basis of 
all social virtues. We can be useful no longer than we are well." 
Dr. Dean, the Medical Ofticer of Health for this town, has the 
following in his report to the Council of last Wednesday, which 
illustrates the general carelessness in neglecting to take such 
measures as will tend to prevent the spread of infectious dis- 
eases : — " In the latter end of January a young man took typhoid 
fever in Milner street. His sister, a young woman, nursed him 
and attended to the household duties as manager of the house. 
When he (Dr. Dean) visited the house, the young woman was 
cutting bread and butter for the family meal. He prophesied 
that she would give the fever to the rest of the family, unless 
she ceased to act both as nurse and cook. The young man died 
and four others of the family were now reported to be suffering 
from the fever. The young woman was dealing germs with her 
bread and butter, and did not know it. Where the first principles 
of fever nursing were so utterly ignored, the sanitary authority 
can do nothing but wonder why such ignorance continued to exist. 
There seemed to be no precautions taken to prevent the disease 
s^jreading to the rest of the family, and it had spread."' 



87 

The Past. 

My remarks under this head must of necessity he short, as the 
amount of authentic information is so meagi-e. 

The measure of attention given to the suhject of the public 
health throughout the world has been various at different periods, 
and n]) to a certain point, may be taken as a true indication of 
the degree of civilisation attained by any nation in the past. 

Remains of sewage and water works have been discovered in 
almost every place where explorative excavations have been 
made, especially in the great cities of Nineveh, Jerusalem, Car- 
thage and Eome, and in a lesser degree in Herculauteum and 
Pompeii and other places. 

Of these cities Eome stands pre-eminent for the magnitude of 
its works of water supply and drainage. For more than 400 
years after the building of the city, the Eomans were content 
with the water supplied by the Tiber, and from wells and springs 
in and about the city. It was about 300 years B.C. that the first 
conduit for general water supply of the city was constructed. It 
was called the " Aqua A2:)pia," and was built by Appius Claudius, 
and was about ten miles in length. In A.D. 52, in the time of 
the Emperor Claudius Cfesar, Eome was drawing its water sup- 
ply from nine great aqueducts, the two largest being the Aqua 
Claudia 58 miles long, and the Anio Nova 62 miles long, the 
construction of these aqueducts being extremely massive and 
elaborate. The channels were chiefly of stone and supported 
upon arches for the greater portion of the distance, some of 
which were more than 100 feet in height, and were adorned with 
columns and other ornamentations. 

Beside having plenty of pure water, we are told that there was 
also in ancient Eome a sewage system as far back as 600 years 
B.C., though of its efficacy not much can be said, and its use has 
now passed into obhvion. The most notable example of ancient 
sewers was the " Cloaca Maxima," or main outfall sewer of Rome, 
built by Tarquinius Priscus, about 600 years B.C. It w^as 
constructed on the arch principle, formed wdthout cement, and 
measured 14 feet wide and 32 feet high, the arch being semi- 
circular. It is still used and has defied the vicissitudes of over 
2,000 years. There were several other large sewers in Eome, 
but where they lead to is not known. 

During the many wars and political troubles that followed on 
the fall of the Eoman Empu-e, pubUc works of all kinds were 
neglected and allowed to pass into decay, and with renewed 
poverty and ignorance, sanitary precautions were disregarded and 
filthy habits prevailed, a state of things which lasted about 1300 
years. 

A ten-ible retribution followed this disregard of aU natm-al and 
sanitary laws ; history records the repeated devastation of Europe 



88 

by epidemics at this time. The great mortahty or Black Death 
which prevailed from A.D. 1347 to 1350, originating in the far 
east, approached through Asia Minor and Egypt, and ravaged in 
succession the various countries of Europe, and it may be assumed 
without any exaggeration, that Europe lost during the Black 
Death 25,000,000 people or one quarter of its entire population. 

The construction of impervious, self-cleansing sewers may be 
dated from the year 1847, those previously built having been most 
defective in character, being simply underground channels of 
masonry, through which water was expected to flow, but built 
without much regard to the laws of hydraulics and with little 
attempt at making them water-tight. 

Most remarkable results followed the construction of these 
modern systems of drainage, as was shewn by reduced death-rates. 
The following extract from an address of Captain Douglas Galton, 
at the 5th Congress of the Sanitary Institute of Great Britain 
contains some most important facts. — -" It may be accepted as 
certain that in every case where the sewerage of towns has been 
devised on sound principles, and where the works have been car- 
ried on under legitimate supervision, a largely reduced death-rate 
has invariably followed. The records at Newcastle afford evidence 
ot this fact. Munich is the residence of one of the ablest sani- 
tarians of Europe, Dr. Pettenkofer. His admirable illustrations 
of the impurities which were accumulated in porous cesspools 
upon the air of the town, and the death rate of the population 
form a text-book of sanitary knowledge." 

"At Munich, the enteric fever mortality per 1,000,000 of 
inhabitants for quinquennial periods was as under : — 

1854-1859 when there were absolutely no regulations for ] pj_„ 
keeping the soil clear ) 

1860-1805 when reforms were begun by cementing the] .„^q 
sides and bottoms of porous cesspits ...j 

1866-1873 when there was partial sewerage 18-3 

1870-1880 when the sewerage was complete 8"7 



Reduction of death rate in twenty years 15*5 

" In Hamburg the deaths from enteric fever per 1,000 of total 
deaths were : 

From 1838 to 1844 before the commencement of the 1 -g.- 
construction of any sewage works (6 years) ...) 

From 1871 to 1880 after the completion of the sewage) ,q.q 
works (10 years) ) 



89 

During the time that the works were in progress, viz., from 1872 
to 1874, the mortaUty fr-om enteric fever per 10,000 hving was : — 

In the unsewered districts 40*0 

In tlie most part sewered 32-0 

In the fully sewered 26-8 

These results illustrate the effect of purifying the air of towns 
by the rapid abstraction of refuse matter, so as to prevent it re- 
maining in and upon the ground. 

The causes which have wrought to effect these most remark- 
able results are chiefly the construction of more perfect systems 
of sewage and house-drainage, the gradual and still growing 
disuse of cesspools and wells, the introduction of more copious 
water supplies, the more efl&cient scavenging of towns, and 
thorough destruction of refuse wastes, and the sanitary inspection 
of dwellings, coupled with the compulsory reporting of all cases 
of infectious diseases, and the fumigation (also compulsoiy] of 
houses in whicli infectious diseases have occured, and last, but 
not least, the purification and utilisation of sewerage, by which 
means streams are also pmified, and all bad vapours and smells 
prevented from arising and spreading over the towns through 
which they flow. 

Such is a brief sketch of sanitary matters up to very recently. 
Of course while attending to sewerage, much care, thought and 
money was expended on improvements to water supply, the 
ventilation of sewers and buildings, &c. 

I now pass on to notice more particularly the details of the 
sanitary appliances and systems in use in the present day. 

The Present. 

I purpose noticing several different systems, first for the 
removal of sewage ; second, for disposal and utilisation of sewage, 
and thhdly, the systems for disposal of other refuse wastes not 
conveyed from the precincts of the town by the sewers, such as 
garbage, ashes, offal, &g. 

It may be well to lay down a few general principles upon 
which the sanitation of towns should be based. 

1st. The water supply should be both plentiful and good. 

2nd. All excreta! filth and domestic refuse, together with all 
dangerous matter such as is liable to putrefy, should be removed 
to some distance from the limits of the large inhabited districts, 
and there treated in some manner as to render the same harmless 
before putrefaction can have commenced. 

3rd. Whatever system is adopted great care should be taken 
to construct its drains or channels to prevent foul and noxious 
gases percolating through the soil around, or communicating 
with any house or building which they are intended to seiwe ; no 
sewage system is complete until all nuisance fr-om sewer gas has 
been prevented. 



40 

4tli. The scavenging of the town should he thorongh, a code 
of good sanitary laws should he enacted and enforced, and an 
effective sanitary inspection should be maintained. 

"What is sewage ? It is commonly understood to mean the 
foul fluids that are conveyed by sewers, and Avhich vary in their 
offensive character. For the purposes of this paper I shall take 
it to mean any substance, liquid or solid, which may be passed 
into and conveyed away by any of the various systems described. 
Eemoval of Sewage. 

The methods in use for the removal of sewage may be divided 
under three general heads : — 

1st. — Sewage interception systems, or dry-sewage processes. 

2nd. — Pneumatic systems. 

3rd. — Water carriage system. 

Sewage Interception Systems. 

Interception as applied to drainage, &c., means the exclusion 
of all faecal matters from the sewers, they being used only for 
the removal of surface water and slops, with or without the 
admixture of urine. All interception systems partake of the 
nature of scavenging, as they all contemplate the removal of 
sewage by manual and team labour. 

The oldest of these systems is the open privy vault and cess- 
pool. Although dying out, this system cannot be too strongly 
condemned, as its avowed intention is the retaining of all solid 
matters on the premises as long as possible, until they become 
centres of pollution and infection. The liquid parts escape 
through the walls and pollute the soil and neighbouring wells, 
while the foul gases arising from the contents of the cesspool con- 
taminate the air. I think all will agree with me when I condemn 
as totally unfit for use the old system of the open cesspool and 
privy vault. The sooner these are all removed from our towns 
the better. 

Of the improvements on the methods of interception, I shall 
notice two, viz., 

The Pail System and The Earth Closet. 

The Pail System consists of the use of small movable tubs 
placed beneath the privy seat, and which act as receivers instead 
of the permanent vault. At its commencement the method with 
this system was to empty the contents of the pail or tub into a 
cart sent round for the purpose and replace the tub, but latterly 
the method is to have two tubs, and when the full one is removed 
a clean tub is left in its place. The full tub is put into a closed 
van or cart and conveyed to the sewage works, emptied and 
cleaned, and is again ready for use. No dry ash or rubbish is 
allowed to be placed in this tub, but must be put into some other 
receptacle. 



41 

At its best the pail system is an offensive method of collecting 
excreta, &c. The very fact of the foul matter being carted 
through the streets of any town is in itself a condemnation of 
the system. 

The Earth Closet system may be divided under three heads. 

1st. The Earth Closet Proper. 
2nd. The Ash Closet. 
3rd. The Charcoal Closet. 

I purpose mentioning the first-named only, as they are all more 
or less on the same model, the system being the mixture of some 
deodorizer with the excreta during its storage on the premises. 
This system may or may not include a movable receptacle or paU. 

The earth closet was designed and perfected by the Eev. Henry 
Moule, M.A., vicar of Fordiugtou, Dorset. Dr. Buchanan (in 
his 12th report as Medical Officer of the Privy Council, in 1869 
thus describes the system : — " It consists in the application, with 
the greatest procurable detail, of dry earth to fresh human excre- 
ment, and in the subsequent removal and use of the mixture for 
agricultm-al purposes. In so far as detailed application is not 
made, or the excrement not fresh, or the mixture otherwise dealt 
with, the dry earth system is departed from. As regards the 
principle of the earth closet, the evidence as to the powers of dry 
earth is unequivocal. If about a pound and a half of suitable 
earth, carefully dried, be thrown over a dejection, all smell from 
it is forthwith removed ; and if the same quantity be mixed with 
half a pint of unne, the latter is absorbed. The mixture of earth 
with stool and mine is not only inoffensive when fresh, but 
remains so after keeping for two or three months or longer." 

To attain the required result, the quality of earth must be 
considered. Sand and gravel are almost useless in this respect. 
Chalk is little better. Clay is among the best ; well dried it 
falls to a powder most suited to the requirements of the closet, 
and contains also great powers of absorption and of preventing 
offensive change. Loamy surface earth is also good, as is also 
brick drift earth. Earths which already contain some quantity 
of organic matter are very suitable. 

I have endeavoured to explain the three main systems of sew- 
age interception, viz. : The privy vault, pail system, and earth 
closet. From a sanitary standpoint I do not consider any of 
them good, as they all require the excreta to be stored on the 
premises for longer or shorter periods, as will depend on the 
scavenger removing it, and the method of such removal employ- 
ed. Now as sewage begins to putrefy in two or at the most three 
days, it must be clear to all that an immediate removal is far 
preferable to any system of storage. Still, as is well-known, 
there are many houses and even districts where a (/ood sewage 



42 

interception system would be very beneficial ; by (lodd I mean the 
best, and that in my opinion is the eartli closet. 

From an engineering point of view, sewage interception sys- 
tems are imperfect, as they do not provide for the removal of 
slop water, and urine to a limited extent only ; surface water is 
also unprovided for, and tlius it will be seen that a complete 
complement of pipe sewers is required to remove these waters 
and liquid wastes, so that the expense to the community is not 
at all lowered by these systems, and where sewers have been 
laid down, the use or introduction of any interception system is 
an extra burden upon the rates of a town, as it entails a yearly 
outlay in the removal of the contents of the privy vault or pail, 
whichever may be used. 

Pneumatic Systems, 

Those before the public are 
The Liernur System, 
The Berlier System, and 
The Shone System. 

I have never seen any of these systems at work, and can only 
give a short sketch of each, from knowledge derived from reading 
on the subjects. My opinion is that any or all of these systems 
will yet play a conspicuous part in the sanitary dispositions of 
many districts in both this and other countries, as they are 
invaluable in such districts wJiere gravitation cannot be made 
use of as a means of removing both dry and liquid wastes. 

The most widely known pneumatic system is that of Captain 
C. T. Liernur, largely used in Holland, in Amsterdam, Leyden, 
Dordrecht, also in a limited degree in Prague and Hanau. It 
consists of 1st, the removal through cast iron air tight pipes of all 
fseces, urine, and chamber slops from dwellings, hospitals, &c., 
by pneumatic suction. 2nd, the removal by gravity of all slop 
waters, rain waters and subsoil drainage by means of entirely 
distinct service of sewers ; although this second service of pipes 
forms an integral part of the general scheme, I can hear of no 
place where this Liernur's system is used, having adopted the 
second service of pipes. 

By the Liernur system the town is divided into small districts, 
all the dwellings, &c., in each district being connected by means 
of a 5in. cast iron air tight jointed pipe, with a small air tight 
cast iron reservoir ; all the street pipes connected with this 
reservoir are fitted with a stop cock to control the vacuum. At 
some convenient place a general collecting station is established, 
provided with large air tight reservoirs, and connected with the 
smaller street reservoirs by means of an upper and lower tier of 
iron pipes ; a steam engine, working an air pump, produces a 
partial vacuum in the large reservoirs and mains connected with 



43 

them. The two rows of pipes (before uamed) have each a sep- 
arate stop cock. The upper of these passes through the upper 
part of the street reservoir, and serves to exhaust the air, the 
lower passing iuto the interior of the street reservoir and nearly 
to the bottom and is used to extract the sewage. The operation 
is as follows : — Tlie air pump maintains a vacuum in the large 
reservoirs and mains during the whole of the day. Two men 
patrol the district ; coming to a small street reservoir or tank 
(air tight), they open the lids whereby access is given to the stop 
cocks which shut off each pipe fi-om the tank. (For distinction 
call the men A and B). A fixes his key on the stop connecting 
the central or vacuum pipe with the tank. B has his key on the 
stop belonging to one of the street mains leading to the houses. 
The moment A turns his key, he opens a connection between the 
central pumping station and the tank, the air in the tank is at 
once exhausted and a vacuum established, the extent of which 
is indicated by a small meter. He (A) then shuts the stop, 
while B opens the stop on the main leading to the buildings, 
and lets loose the force on this main. The consequence is that 
the vacuum in the tank is at once reduced by the inrush of the 
air contained in the house main. This action repeated two or 
three times brings all ffecal matters into the tank, thus clearing 
the wliole district which this tank serves. The f«cal matter is 
at once sucked by the aiv pump to the central or large reservoir 
and there dealt with. 

The Berlier system is still in its experimental stage only, so I 
do not purpose venturing any remark upon its efficacy. 

Although placed among the pneumatic systems, the " Shone " 
is in reahty more of a mixed system, being part water carriage 
(by gravity) and part pumping by compressed air. It was invented 
by Mr. Isaac Shone, a mining and civil engineer of Wrexham, 
Wales. It differs from the two other pneumatic systems before 
named in that a plenum is used instead of a vacuum. In this 
system the town is divided into districts as before named, but the 
drainage (which by the way includes all domestic wastes, but not 
rain water or any surface drainage) falls to the lowest part of such 
district by gravity. At these points is fixed a pneumatic ejector 
into which the sewage flows, and from which it is raised by the 
pressure of compressed air into a system of iron sealed pipes, and 
by them conveyed to tJie point of discharge, the compressed aii* 
acting in these pipes to the very end of the service. Another 
method is to raise the sew^age into an upper tier of pipes, and 
through them convey it by gravity to the point of discharge. 
This, of course, depends on the natm-e of the topography of the 
district. The air required to work the ejectors is compressed at 
a convenient central station by a compressor worked by steam or 
water power, and supplied to the ejectors through small iron pipes 



44 

laid through the streets. These ejectors are most unique in their 
mechanism. 

I consider this system the best of all the pneumatic systems, 
as it may be applied to the whole or (>nly a part of the drainage 
of a town, however large or small ; to the whole where the 
topography is such as precludes drainage by gravity, or to the 
PART where partial gravity can be obtained. 

Water Carriage. 

On this head not much need be said, as all are familiar with 
the system. All know the action of the ordinary water closet, 
flushed at will by the person using it. Connected directly with 
the main sewers, the contents are at once removed by gravity and 
immediately conveyed to the discharge point, and there dealt 
with. Generally the flow of the sewage is quick, as although 
some sewers may be flat and sluggish, still the majority will be 
laid on good gradients which will ensure a quick flow throughout 
the whole of tlie sewers, thus reducing the amount of gas to a 
minimum. To guard against the gases arising from the sewers, 
is a question which occupies the mind of the engineer, and often 
puts him in great difficulties. It is one of the hardest things to 
thoroughly ventilate sewers, and to steer clear of all public censure. 

Now the ventilation of sewers is necessary for two great reasons. 
1st, from a general sanitary point of view, and 2ud, to prevent 
the gases in the sewers being suddenly compressed. This may 
be caused by any increase in the volume of sewage (as may occur 
during sudden storms), or by the efl'ect of any rapid rise of 
temperature in tJie sewer, as may be caused by the admission of 
hot water or steam. A very slight degree of pressure is enough 
to overcome the resistance offered by water-seal traps, which are 
the usual and best defence against the entrance of sewer gases 
into our dwellings. For this reason it is wise to be very guarded 
in allowing hot water or steam to be turned into the sewers of any 
town. Many plans have been suggested for ventilating sewers, 
such as the use of furnaces and high chimneys, found quite 
impracticable, and thus reported on by Mr. W. Haywood, engin- 
eer to the London City Commissioners of sewers : — "My im- 
pression is, that there will be exceeding diffiiculty in doing it at 
all ; but if done, it will be at an enormous yearly expense. The 
difficulties to be overcome are gigantic. . . . As there are 
thousands of openings to a sewer, all these openings are continu- 
ally varying in their condition, and you must bear in mind that 
supposing the whole district had been so arranged as to give the 
furnace and flue a sufticient exhaustive power, the mere opening 
of a water closet, or the enlarging or putting in of a new drain 
into a sewer, or the making of a hole a foot square, Avould very 
much destroy the power of the furnaces, and unless you had a 



I 



45 

gigantic i)ower, sufficient to guard against all these casualities, 
the system could only he a failure." 

I may just name some of the systems tried, such as " The 
Archimedean Screw," steam jets; fans; pipes conveying the 
sewer gas to the street lamps, it being there consumed ; pipes up 
the centre or cavity of the walls of buildings carried up to the 
roof ; house drains left uutrapped and extended above the roof ; 
charcoal ventilation in the streets ; and last and most commonly 
used, open grids on the top of manholes in the streets. All the 
systems named have been and are now in use with of course 
partial success. 

Disposal and Utilisation of Sewage. 
The commonest practice under this head is to turn all the sew- 
age into the nearest stream in its crude state, thus killing or 
stupifying all fish, and so fouHng the water as to render it totally 
unfit for any domestic use. This practice is being rapidly stopped 
by law, and not before it is needed. Now it may be thought a 
strange thing, but all this vile and objectionable matter is most 
valuable. It may be used to irrigate land. For this purpose the 
sewage is gathered to one main outfall sewer, and so carried do-^vn 
to the sewage farm. Here it is turned on the land through small 
channels, the fluid, soaking through the ground and entering the 
subsoil drains, is conveyed by them in a pure state to any stream, 
where it does no harm. The other great method of utilising 
sewage is Precipitation. There are upwards of 20 diflerent pro- 
cesses of precipitating sewage. I will glance at three, viz : — 

The Coventry, 

The A.B.C, and 

The Lime Process. 
The Rivers' Pollution Association, Limited, which was formed 
in 1877, " does not couhue its operation to any particular system 
for treating sewage, but employs whatever is found to^be most 
suitable and best adapted to the local cu'cumstances and require- 
ments of each place." So says the prospectus ; but the j)rocess 
employed at the works of the company at present, is'what is 
known as the " Coventry " process. It is a chemical precipitation, 
the chemicals used being crude sulphate of alumina, salts of iron 
and lime, of course in such proportions as the managers may 
think fit, the quantity being the company's secret. The effluent, 
which is clear, is turned into any handy stream, the sludge made 
into cakes and sold for manure. These cakes contain about 50 
per cent, of moisture, the manure being sold at 2s. 6d. per ton. 
The demand is not large. 

The A.B.C. process is the property of the Native Guano Com-_ 
pauy, and takes its name from the initials of some of the chief 



46 

iugredients used iii precipitation — alum, blood, clay. The whole 
precipitant is made up about as follows, viz : — 

Alum 600 parts. 

Blood 1 „ 

Clay 1900 ,, 

Maiigauate of Potash . 10 ,, 

Burnt Clay 25 ,, 

Chloride of Sodium ... 10 ,, 

Animal Charcoal 15 ,, 

Vegetable Charcoal ... 20 ,, 

Magnesian Limestone .. 2 ,, 

The animal and vegetable charcoal do not need to be used 
together, one only Avill answer all purposes. The animal charcoal, 
blood, and clay are dissolved together in sufficient liquid (gener- 
ally sewage) and flow through a small channel which discharges 
into the sewer a little above the tanks, which are three in number. 
The alum is dissolved in a separate vat in sufficient liquid (sewage) 
and discharges (by another channel) into tlie sewer a few feet 
below the point of discharge of the first channel. The whole 
ingredients flow with the sewage through a mixing channel, and 
discharge into the first of the three tanks, in which the greatest 
precipitation takes place, on the next or middle and so on into 
the tliird tank. The effluent is not filtered, but flows directly 
into a stream. It is almost colourless, having only a faint yellow 
tinge, in great contrast to the dark sewage seen on approaching 
the works. There is no bad smell arising from these works. 
The sludge is dried, ground, packed in bags, and sold as " Native 
guano," at 70s. per ton at the works. It is said to possess a high 
value as a fertiliser. 

The lime process is the oldest method of purifying sewage by 
precipitation before the public. It is in use in our own town in 
its best known form, viz : — General Scott's process, which is as 
follows: — "A small proportion of lime is mixed with sufficient 
liquid (water or sewage), and is pumped through a small pipe to 
a point above the tanks, where it enters the sewer and flows 
with the sewage down what is known as a " salmon ladder; " in 
this the lime and sewage are mixed and through it are conveyed 
to the tanks which are in two sets of three. In these tanks 
precipitation takes place, the effluent, which is fairly clear, being 
turned nito (in Buruley) the Peudle water. The sludge is pumped 
into small settling tanks, in which it stands for about seven days 
(longer in wet weather), it is afterwards passed through a pug- 
mill, then spread on a large drying floor in cakes. These, when 
quite dry are placed in a kiln along with about an equal quantity 
of coke, and are burnt to a clinker, which is ground into cement, 
and which will bear a tensile strain of from 250 to 350 lbs. to 



47 

tlie square inch after seven days' immersion in water. The 
cement is sold for about 35s. per ton at the works. 

Now of these systems I prefer General Scott's up to a certain 
point I would stop the process at the chnker, and use it for 
formin<^ the under bed of roads, for which it is well adapted. 
The cement is not worth the trouble of making, as so many 
superior and as cheap cements are in the market. I prefer this 
system as tiie raw material is so thoroughly depdorised and 
rendered harmless by burning (I should say it is in the kiln 
about 36 hours), and as a consequence no alter results are to be 
feared from the material produced, 

Disposal of other Rkfuse Wastes. 
The refuse wastes not removed by the sewers include street 
sweepings, ashpit contents, garbage, &c. Now the oldest and 
commonest way of dealing with this mass of material is to 
tip it in some "hollow, such as a disused sand pit or quarry to 
restore the surface of the land, and render it tit for building on ; 
Fit only as regards the surface, but far from fit as regards the 
health of all parties dwelling in houses built on such a founda- 
tion Althou<^h tliis practice must be condemned by all, it is 
still 'the practfce most in use at the present day. Surely we 
cannot wonder at the many outbreaks of fever and sickness 
when we think of the kind of material many of our houses 
(whole streets of tliem) are built on. 

Now it may be asked " What are we to do with all this mass? 
and the question is a most natural one ; something must be done 
with it Sir Robert Rawlinson, the Chief Engineer of the Local 
Government Board, and tlie great authority on all these matters, 
says concerning this refuse—" The only way to remove it is to 
burn it in as rapid and inoffensive way as possible,' and such is 
the growint^ opinion of all engineers and sanitary authorities. 
Now to render this matter of burning the solid refuse a possibil- 
ity and indeed an easy thing, special furnaces have been invented 
for the purpose. They are two m number, viz., Healey s Refuse 
Destructor, improved by Fryer, and now known as Healey and 
Fryer's Patent and the Bee-Hive Destructor, invented by Mr. 
Stafford, the present Borough Surveyor of Burnley. 

Healey and Fryer" s Refuse Destructor, as erected at Burman- 
tofts Leeds, is thus described by Mr. Hewson, the Borough 
Surveyor • " It consists of ten compartments or cells (five back 
to back-^ formed of brick work, lined with fire bricks, and tied 
with iron rods ; it occupies a space of 36 ft. by 34 fc, and 12 ft 
in height, and is so arranged that there is one inclined road 
leadin<^ from the adjoining road up to a platform, against and 
highei°than the top of the destructor, on to which the refuse is 
carted. Each of the cells is capable of destroying six tons of 



48 

refuse in 24 hours, and consists of a sloping furnace with hearth 
and fire grate covered in hy a reverberatory arch of fire brick, 
with one opening at the top for the gases to escape into the flue, 
and a furnace frame and door for the withdrawal of the clinkers. 
The refuse which is tipped from the platform (before named) on 
to the top of the colls is pushed down the incline or throat with 
a long iron prong, and slides forward on to the sloping hearth, 
whence, when sufficiently dry, it is helped forward on to the fii"e 
bars, where it burns somewhat fiercely, the fire brick arch above 
named concentrating the radiant heat upon it. Tlie clinker is 
drawn about every three hours, but this is done without stopping 
the burning. This clinker is about 25 per cent, of the weight of 
refuse burnt. The heated gases pass through a multitubular 
boiler, and form steam which drives a small horizontal engine, 
which works a couple of mortar mills, in which are ground up 
the clinkers drawn from the destructor. The mortar thus made 
sells at 5s. per ton. 

The Bee Hive Eefuse Destructor is built in the form of a dome 
or hive of fire brick, with an opening on one side through which 
the gases pass into the flue ; at a quarter of the circle right and 
left of this opening are other two openings, one for the admission 
of refuse, the other for withdrawing the clinker. The bottom of 
the feed door is raised about 12 inches above the bottom of the 
clinker door, so as to allow of the bars sloping down from the one 
to the other The feed door is on the level of the platform where 
the refuse is tipped. Under the bars just named is another 
chamber, also with slopnig bars, fixed about 15 inches from the 
upper bars. On these bars a fire is laid, the heat from which 
dries the refuse placed on the upper bars, and renders it inflam- 
mable and open to immediate combustion, which takes place 
partly on the fire, and partly on the upper or refuse bars. Below 
the fire chamber is still another chamber, with hollowed floor, in 
which water is constantly standing, the steam from which prevents 
the bars being warped by the fierce heat generated in the des- 
tructor. One of these destructors will burn about 15 tons per 
24 hours, or more than twice the quantity that one cell of Healey 
and Fryer's will burn with a residue in the form of clinker of only 
12^ per cent, of weight of refuse burnt. I need scarcely point 
out that such a saving is a great item in the accounts of any Cor- 
poration or Sanitary Aiithority. 

Now with these two appliances at Avork, there is no need for 
any town to complain of being unable to dispose of the contents 
of ashpits, market refuse, offal, &c. The way is open to every 
town, and all the trouble and disease arising from the storage oi 
these waste matters can be obviated. 

Such are some of the appliances now in use for cleansing and 
rendering healthy the towns and villages of this and other lands, 



49 

and I think after reviewing them, we may safely come to the 
conchision, that tlie state of our country to-day as regards san- 
itary matters, will bear favom-ahle comparison with any period 
of the past. 

I have endeavoured to give briefly an account of these appli- 
ances, and if I have succeeded in arousing a feeling of the great 
impoi-tance of each person being his own sanitarian, I shall, I 
think, have answered the end for which I started this paper. 

I am indebted to Mr. Samuel Gray, City Engineer, Providence, 
U.S.A., for much valuable information. 

After the reading of the paper an interesting discussion ensued. 
Dr. Mackenzie said that sanitary matters in Burnley were in a 
deplorable condition. The carrying out of the pail system was 
very seriously neglected, and he was informed that complaints 
made to the authorities failed to receive prompt attention. He 
condemned the tipping of refuse at the foundations of houses 
and controverted Mr. Dall's statement as to the inefliciency and 
danger of the irrigation process. This plan, he considered, was 
both beneficial and remunerative and it was adopted with great 
success in connection with the city of Edinburgh. Dr. Briggs, 
J. P., endorsed the previous speaker's reasons for the complaints 
he had made, and spoke against the emptying of ashpits during 
the day. Mr. B. Sagar observed that the careful construction of 
drains was of the fii-st importance and requhed vigilant watching. 
He feared that h-equently defective drains were made. He also 
insisted strongly upon tlae extension of the water-closet system. 
In connection with this matter, Mr. Councillor Eoberts observed 
that there was great ignorance amongst the masses of the people 
as to the proper use of the water-closet. He also stated that the 
Health Department each year witnessed an improvement in its 
workmg. Complaints made to the Nuisance Inspector received 
daily attention. He thought the pail system was the best, and 
referred to its adoption in Manchester. The proper carrying out 
of the system, however, depended partly on the construction of 
the conveniences. He could not agree with the eulogistic re- 
marks of Mr. Dall respecting the value of the refuse destructor 
to which he alluded. After remarks from Mr. James Kay, J.P., 
who spoke in favom- of the trough arrangement in Mills, &c., and 
Mr. James Lancaster, who referred to the success of sewage farms, 
Mr. W. H. Colbran said he considered the h-rigation process for 
the disposal of sewage as the best. Cesspools should be abolished 
at once and water-closets become universal. This, however, 
would requu-e an immense addition to our water supply, and 
Mr. Colbran asked if the waste water from slopstones could not 
be utilised for the purpose. The ash-pits were in most cases 
constructed too large, and he was of opinion that a small tub, 
to be emptied weekly, would be sweeter and better. Some 



50 

observations on the sanitary arrangements in connection with 
bathrooms, water closets, and slopstones, were made by Mr. G. 
B. Rawcliffe, who also recommended that the division walls 
between water-closets and ashpits should be nine inches thick. 
Mr. Dall then rephed to the various comments which had been 
made, in the course of which he advocated, as being extremely 
desirable, the printing in separate form of a code of good bye- 
laws for the use of builders. 



ON BROWNING'S POEMS. 

Bij BENJAMIN SAGAR, March 17th, 1885. 



If Browning as a poet has not invented for himself new sub- 
jects on which to write, he has at least treated the old ones ready 
to his hand in a manner very different from all his predecessors. 
He has stepped out of the ranks of "poet" as ordinarily 
conceived, and has written works to which the title of " poetry " 
is denied by his detractors, but which in the opinion of his 
admirers contain true poetry of the highest kind. 

Man is the sole study of Browning : — man, and man's soul, 
and all that go to make up " man " in the abstract, or any given 
concrete man of whom he may be writing. In an essay on 
Shelley published about 1850, Browning explains his views on 
objective and subjective poetry. He speaks of the subjective 
poet as having to do " not with the combination of humanity in 
action, but with the primal elements of humanity. He digs 
where he stands, preferring to seek them in his own soul as the 
nearest reflex of that absolute Mind according to the intuitions of 
which he desires to perceive and speak." And in issuing, thirteen 
years later, a revised edition of his " Bordello " he says "my 
stress lay on the incidents in the development of a soul ; little 
else is worth study ; I, at least, always thought so." Still later 
— in 1876 — he writes "mine be man's thoughts, loves, hates." 

"With these distinct declarations before us we can understand 
how it is that in most of his works Browning has called before 
him souls for judgment or for investigation. 

" Take the least man of all mankind, as I ; 

" Look at his head and heart, find how and why 

" He differs from his fellows utterly." 

And we can perceive how persons and things objectionable and 
repulsive to some of us have an attraction for Browning. Noth- 
ing human is alien to him, and if critics bring against him the 



51 

charge that he has touched on subjects outside the pale of art, 
or has stretched his art beyond artistic limits, I can only protest 
against the accusation, and remark that the same charge has 
been laid against Beethoven and Wagner, against Goethe and 
Carlyle, and will probably always be made against those who 
persist in thinking for themselves, or who in spite of themselves 
are ahead of their time. For a large portion of his life Browning 
has been in advance of the age. The increasing number of 
readers and lovers of Browning's works is due to the scientific 
spirit which now prevails. He is eminently the psychologic poet 
of the century. He treats souls quite as analytically with his 
mental scalpel as the demonstrator in the dissecting room does 
the body with his ; but, with this difference : — that the dissection 
of the scientist is one of analysis only, while that of Browning 
is but the initial stage to a most elaborate synthetical estimate 
of man. The primary difficulty that confronts any one on first 
taking up one of his works is that it is so entirely different from 
any other style of poetry with which the reader is acquainted. 
He is puzzled with it, then he is amazed that such writing 
should be called poetry. Diligent study is needed before Brown- 
ing can be fiiUy understood. Let the reader go to Browning 
with a desire to know him, let his attention be directed to his 
Lyrics (which are as musical as those of Herrick or of Burns), 
to his simpler narrative poems, and to his love songs ; the 
student will then no longer repeat the common remark that the 
poet is unmusical, harsh, uugrammatical, obscm-e. In Browning 
may be foimd intellectual enjoyment of the highest kind, 
guidance in the most serious questions of life, and consolation 
in the troubles and difficulties which beset every one. 

It is hard to realise that we have still with us a poet who in 
1832 wrote the poem " Pauline, a fragment of a confession," 
and who fifty-two years afterwards issued the poem " Ferishtah's 
Fancies." In "Pauline" may be discerned the keenness of 
vision and acuteness of perception which have developed during 
the long interval into the double-distilled concentration of 
" Fenshtah." At the time the earlier poem was written Brown- 
ing was deeply under the influence of Shelley ; and to-day there 
is no greater student or more appreciative worshipper of that 
transcendent genius. In the preface to the edition of Browning 
published in 1868, the author has this remark " * * my first 
attempt at poetry always dramatic in principle, and so many 
utterances of so many imaginary persons not mine." Although 
this might be accepted as the shortest possible description of 
the whole of his poems, the real man — Browning himself — often 
lurks near the " imaginary person," so near in fact that we 
fancy it is the poet himself who speaks. The digression at the 
end of the third book of " Sordello " is a notable instance of 



52 

this. This poem is a miue of wealth for the student of human 
nature. If the charge of obscurity made against the poem be 
examined, it will be fouud that profundity rather than obscurity 
is its characteristic. 

Some of Browning's dramas are " closet plays," others were 
wx'itten for the stage, and have been successfully placed on the 
boards by such actors as Macready, Phelps, and Helen Faucit. 
More recently his " Blot on the Scutcheon " has been given in 
New York with great success. 

Browning is the most prolific poet since Shakespeare. The 
variety and extent of his knowledge are remarkable. What 
Swinburne has aptly named " the inexhaustible stores of his 
perception " are still more marvellous. He drinks in the living 
world at every pore. With him, as with all great poets, the 
matter of tlie song is the primary object, its music only second- 
ary. Harshness, if there be any in his works, is to be attributed 
to that affectation which in the case of a great artist like 
Browning simply means naturalness. His passion is as intense, 
noble, and manly as his intellect is profound and subtle ; it is of 
utter self-sacrifice, self-annihilation, self- vindicated by its irresist- 
ible intensity, as it is found in " Time's Revenges," the " Statue 
and the BuSt," " In a Balcony," " One Way of Love," and in 
many other of his works. Never surely was nobler love through 
life and death than that which inspired in the man the lines to 
his Wife in " Men and Women," or the fervent invocation to her 
when dead which open and close the " Ring and the Book," and 
in the Woman the " Sonnets from the Portuguese." Browning 
is one of the few men who with most cordial energy and in- 
vincible resolution have lived thoroughly throughout the whole 
of their being to the uttermost verge of all their capacities— in 
his case truly colossal. He has lived and wrought thoroughly 
in sense and soul and intellect. He lives at home in all realms 
of Nature and human natiire, of art and literature. 

Selections illustrating the ^Doints in the paper were read from 
" Pauline," " Sordello," " Rabbi ben Ezra," " Xmas Eve," 
" One Word More," " Evelyn Hope," " Ferishtah,'' and several 
other poems. 



58 

REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 

March 31st, 1885. 



" THE GREAT REPUBLIC," by Sir Lepel H. Griffin, K.C.S L 
By JAMES LANCASTER. 



" Tlie Great Republic" is tbe title of a new book from the pen of 
Sir Lepel Griffin. It is mainly a criticism of tbe American people, 
American cities and American institutions. Tbe Author im- 
presses upon us the importance of the study of America, by 
prophesying that before childi'en now born shall have grown grey 
there will be but three Great Powers in the civilized world : — 
the Greater Britain, Russia and the United States. Mr. Griffin 
makes us aware at the outset what kind of criticism we are to 
expect fi-om him, and justifies his opinion by telling us that he 
thoroughly disapproves of the idea that some people have, namely, 
" that it is necessary and desirable that our criticism should be 
uniformly favourable even though the praise be undeserved," and 
adds, " it becomes of the greatest importance that when failures 
and blots appear they should be exposed." " The importance of 
this becomes more manifest " he continues, " when we consider 
that American ideas and American remedies are being recom- 
mended for almost all our national disorders." 

Mr. Griffin has a great fear of our becoming Americanized, and 
the evident scope and design of the book is to guard us against 
being deluded by the apparent success of the Great Republic. 
There is a humorous chapter on the " Big Things " of America, 
the love of which, Mr. Griffin thinks will guide her into fair 
pastures if kindly assisted by Mr. Matthew Arnold with his 
" Sweetness and Light." The lack of the sense of beauty pos- 
sessed by the Americans is deplored. Proof is instanced that the 
loveliest scenery is allowed to be spoiled by vulgar advertisers, 
notifying then- respective swindles, together with the statement 
that the beauty spots of the country are seldom visited by 
Americans. 

The Author does not agree with Lord Coleridge's opinion of 
female beauty in the States, and says it is extremely rare, the 
average of ordinary good looks being unusually low, and as to 
the important question of physical health and hardihood, he 
considers the English man and woman better developed and 
stronger in every sense. 

The interesting subjects of Culture, Literature, and Art, and 
the Administration of Justice are next discussed, and the Author 
concludes with an interesting chapter on the question of Races, 
and the Foreign Element in the States. 



54 

"GEOEGE ELIOT'S LIFE," as related in her Letters 

aud Journals : arranged and edited by her Husband, 

J. W. Cross. 

By B. 8 AGAR. 

In reviewing Mr. Cross's Work, Mr. B. Sagar spoke of the 
accuracy of the descriptions of Warwickshire scenery given in 
George Eliot's novels. The claim of Liggins to the authorship 
of the earlier works of the Authoress was investigated and 
exposed. Interesting accounts of G. H. Lewes and others were 
given by Mr. Sagar, who spoke in the highest terms of the 
genius and character of George Eliot. Personal reminiscences 
of some of the scenes and characters named in the Life were 
also given by the Reviewer. 



Essays and Leaves from a Note book by GEORGE ELIOT. 
Bij FRET) J. GRANT. 

All were aware that George Eliot possessed in rare degree the 
creative faculty. The book under review proved that she had 
also the critical faculty. As Editor of the Westminster Review 
in 1851 and subsequent years, she had published anonymously 
several trenchant essays ; this was before she was known as a 
novelist. (" Scenes of Clerical Life appeared in 1856, "Adam 
Bede," three years later.) Of the seven Essays in the book, 
four were published in the Westminster, one in the Fortnightly, 
one in Fraser, and one in Blackwood. While engaged on the 
Westminster Review, George Eliot became acquainted with many 
of the leading writers of the time : — Carlyle, Dickens, Grote, W. 
R. Grey, and Herbert Spencer. The last named author was one 
of the educating influences in the novelist's life, and it was 
through him that G. H. Lewes learned to know Marian Evans, 

The Essays in this book were not reviews of any particular 
work, they were the expression of George Eliot's views and 
feelings on subjects suggested by some Author whose works 
she had been reading. Thus, she takes the nine volumes of Dr. 
Cumming's Sermons, and finding "nowhere, a spark of rare 
thought, of lofty sentiment, or pathetic tenderness, nothing but 
commonplace cleverness," she glides off into a criticism of evan- 
gelical teaching as expounded by the Apostle of Crown Court. 
She reads the "History of the Rise of Rationalism" by W. E. 
H. Lecky, and the same year writes an Essay on the " Influence " 
of Rationalism. A perusal of the works of Heine leads her to 
write an Essay on German Wit ; the books of Riehl furnish a 



55 

text for an Essay on the Natural History of German Life. The 
Authoress had travelled in Germany, and had been quick to 
perceive and note the habits and peculiarities of the people : "as 
bu-ds nidify in the Spring, so Germans wash themselves in the 
Summer; their Wasclmngstrieb acts strongly at a particular 
time of the year ; during all the rest, apparently, a decanter and 
a sugar-basin or pie-dish are an ample toilette sei-vice for them. 
Sometimes a little touch of history is incidentally introduced : — 
♦' Peasants who had given their voices sfcormily for a German 
Parhament asked afterwards, with a doubtful look, whether it 
were to consist of infantry or cavalry." 

The Essays abound in subtle analogies and striking contrasts. 
The most carefully elaborated contrast is that which closes the 
Essay on the poet Young, where the wearisome monotony and 
disconnected verses of the Author of the " Night Thoughts " are 
contrasted with the easy and graceful melody of the blank verse 
of Cowper. 

Occasionally, the Authoress gives her opinion of the great men 
of this or former ages. Take e.fi., her remarks on " the charming 
chatty Montaigne,whose sceptical acuteness could arrive at nega- 
tives without any apparatus of method." At the close of a clever 
comparison of Heine with Wordsworth, Tennyson and Goethe, 
she has this beautiful image : — " His songs are all music and 
feeling, they are like birds that not only enchant us with their 
delicious notes, but nestle against us with their soft breasts, and 
make us feel the agitated beating of their hearts." 

George Ehot complains that Lecky while writing a treatise on 
Eationalism had failed to define it. Here was a grand opportun- 
ity for om- Authoress, a description ft'om her pen of that somewhat 
equivocal term would have proved interesting and suggestive. 
But she fails to give the anticipated explanation, and the reader 
is left to enjoy " the liberty of private haziness." 

In the Essay on German Life the reader will see a reflection of 
the dehghtful Enghsh sketches in Adam Bede, and in the Essay 
on Rationalism there is a forecast of one of the chapters in " The 
Mill on the Floss." 

The Essays are well worth reading and stufly. They give us 
literature and science, poetry and philosophy, history and travel, 
doubt and devotion. 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 

By. W LEWIS GRANT. April 14th, 1885. 



Having observed that names are not arbitrary sounds, but have 
a parentage, and that many words which seem to the naked eye 



56 

common aud ignoble are found, when tlieir origin is adequately 
investigated, to be of high antiquity and unsuspected dignity, 
the reader proceeded to note the distinction between the Christian 
name and Surname. The Christian name denotes the baptismal 
or individual name, and in comparatively modern times, the 
fSuruame came into existence, being the name added to the 
Christian name, and expressing the person's relation to a human 
society. The consideration of the two classes of names could 
not be rigidly separated, for the meaning of the Christian name 
accounts also for a multitude of our Surnames, chiefly of course, 
those which are patronymic. Referring to the origin of many 
of our individual names, it was observed that they were given 
from some circumstances of the birth or from the complexion ; 
from numbers ; fi-om some weapon or jewel : from flowers or 
animals ; from the qualities desired for the child ; or they were 
religious names, dedicating the child, or denoting a time of family 
or national sorrow. Examples of each were given. Religion 
has ever been the most potent influence in name-giving. The 
Church's Bible and the Church's Calendar furnished names 
which became a bond of brotherhood from land to land. Sacred 
legends were a prolific source ; and the family feeling is a power- 
ful gi;ide in our nomenclature. The favourite heroes and giant 
minds of the day have liad their influence on the Parish register, 
and the difl'erent periods of our country's history, as they have 
been successively marked by chivalry, romance, puritanical 
fanaticism and eccentricities, the passion for the Latin form, 
and the taste for fancy, ornamental names : — have each left a 
distinct impress on our nomenclature. 

The causes of the changes which names experience, and the 
practice prior to the Reformation of ci;rtailing the name, and 
giving pet or diminutive appellations, were next touched upon. 
The subjugation of England by the Normans resulted in a revolu- 
tion of our system of names, just as at a later time, a second 
crisis occurred under the Puritan epoch. The paper then pro- 
ceeded to classify the origin of names according to their different 
sources. 

The following six classes were taken : — Names derived from the 
Persian, Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, and Hebrew. The names 
from the Persian are few, but to the classical Greeks we are 
indebted for some of our most beautiful names. The Romans 
who had a complete system of nomenclature have furnished a 
large number of names ; whilst the wild and impulsive Celts have 
left but faint indications. To the Teutonic source is attributed 
the origin of the great mass of European names. Under this 
head reference was made to the name William. In the age 
following the Conquest this name decidedly held the supremacy 
amongst baptismal names ; and since that time to the present, 



57 

the race for popiilarity has heen between AVilHam aud the Hebrew 
John. Names of deities and animals, the mythology, romance, 
and poetry of the Teutons furnished the elements of names. 
The sacred language — the Hebrew — suj^plies by far the 
first names known to us. Detailed notices of the most 
prevalent of these were given. Certain phases of the remarkable 
revolution during Puritan times were explained. Names appear- 
ing in the calendar of saints, or savouring of Pagan 
ideas were discarded, and the genealogical chapters of Holy 
Scripture were drawn upon ; so that names hitherto seldom or 
never heard of, became extremely popular. The baptismal names 
of to-day bear vividly the impress of what has been styled the 
Hebrew invasion. Allusion was also made to the Puritan custom 
of giving grace names, and names embodying pious ejaculations, 
&c. The reader then glanced at a number of other aspects of the 
subject, such as, the rise and progress of the double Christian 
name. The adoption of the patronymic as a Christian name : 
names indicating private predilections : curious combinations of 
Christian and Surname. The paper spoke of the suggestiveness 
of the names we possess : and what expressive symbols many of 
them are. Our stock of baptismal names was ever receiving 
additions. National dislikes and prejudices can often be guaged 
by an examination of the registers of the time, and popular sym- 
pathies seek for an outlet in baptism. The paper concluded by 
observing that Christian names were not mere records of dry and 
unmeaning facts : they were priceless treasure-houses of things 
new and old. 

It may be added that the derivation and meaning of the 
Christian name of every member of the Club were stated in the 
course of the paper. 



LOCAL GLIMPSES. 

NATURE AND THE IDEAL. 

By the President, HENRY HOULDING. September 29th, 1885. 



Nature we know — and the Ideal we know, for every man has 
his ideal, such as it is. But what do we mean by this word — 
nature ? Man is a part of nature, but the word is commonly 
used as a name for the home, the environment of man. I use it 
in this sense, but not in this sense alone : I mean by nature 
what the poet means. We know what nature is to the geologist, 
to the botanist, to the astronomer, to the man of science — it is 
the universe. But when we speak of a lover of nature we mean 



58 

something di£ferent. A lover of nature may have very little 
science and be very little the worse for it. If we go botanising 
or geologising we are busy and interested in observing certain 
things we find in nature. The occupation is absorbing, but 
suddenly, at a moment of pause or rest, there flashes upon the 
mind a sense of something beyond tlie immediate subjects of 
interest, some sudden revelation of beauty, or calm, or grandeur, 
and we feel as if we had been defrauded by the pursuit of the day 
of something of quite infinite value and loveliness. A quiet nook 
in a wood, a mountain set in sunshine and azure, like a gem, the 
bend of a river, a little wilderness of wild-flowers and waving 
grass, or far-off a great amphitheatre of white clouds, piled and 
terraced as for a congregation of seraphim. These are some of 
the aspects of that nature which is so precious to the poet — and 
by that name I do not mean the writer of poetry, but the soul 
sensitive to the spiritual loveliness of the world. I say spiritual, 
because it may well be a question that this exceeding loveliness 
in which we seem to live, and which seems to be ever waiting 
upon the footsteps of those who are worthy of it, is not a light 
thrown from without upon the soul, but rather a light of our 
own, reflected back from what are called material objects upon 
its source within ourselves. The truth of this we may all know, 
although we may not understand the mystery. We need not go far to 
seek this cosmic beauty, which seems to have brooded on the world 
for millenniums ere it was fully recognised, or if recognised 
uncertainly and dimly and at rare intervals, and till recent times 
finding little direct expression in art or literature. For the sense 
of this beauty seems to have grown with man ; so that it is a 
question with idealists whether it exists without man, Carlyle 
says there are still a good many men whose eyes are only 
adapted for catching mice. But if any have eyes to find this 
serene charm they need not go far. It is not far to Heasand- 
Ford, and there at any hour of the day we may see it. It is not 
far to Healey Height, or Marsden Height, or Ightenhill, or Black 
Hambleton, or Boulsworth, or Pendle, or any of the high moor- 
lands, and from all of these we may see visions, such as that 
which made Shelley exclaim, 

" How glorious art thou Earth ! and if thou be 
The shadow of some spirit lovelier still, 
Like its creation weak yet beautiful, 
I could fall down and worship that and thee ! " 

Nay, from the dusky highway, from the windows of the railway 
carriage, from streets that open out upon the country, or those 
which have a glimpse of morning or of evening skies, we see it, 
as well as fi'om the Alps or the sea shore, and there is not so 
much difference as travellers would have us believe. I have seen 
from a neighbouring hill at sunrise a sea of white mist from 



59 

which the highest hills stood out like islands, a mighty ocean, 
tranquil as the primeval silence, and beautiful as that described 
by Asia, in "Prometheus Unbound," 

" Behold it rolling on 
Under the curdling winds, and islanding 
The peak whereon we stand, midway, around, 
Enciuctured by the dark and blooming forests. 
Dim twilight lawns, and stream-illumined caves. 
And wind-enchanted shapes of wandering mist ; 
And far on high the keen sky-cleaving mountains ! " 

Not, perhaps, quite so transceudeutly beautiful as that, but 
considering that the scene of wliich I speak was only just above 
the tops of the factory chimneys, it was surely not much amiss, 
and perhaps the difference was not worth while going all tlie 
way to the Himalayas or the " Eealm of Demogorgon " to see. 
The difference between one scene and another is not near so 
great as we may observe in the same scene beheld under differ- 
ent lights and atmosphere. s Towueley Park and the Cliviger 
hills and woods, seen at different times and seasons for forty 
years, afford as wonderful variety of charm as any the tourist 
finds in his often foolish enough ramblings. 

" If dewy morn, and odourous noon, and even, 
With sunset and its gorgeous ministers. 
And solemn midnight's tingling silentness ; 
If Autumn's hollow sighs in the sere wood. 
And Winter robing with pure snow and crowns 
Of starry ice the grey grass and bare boughs — 
If springs voluptuous pantings when she breathes 
Her first sweet kisses," 

if these have at any time made beautiful the Trossachs, or 
the islands of "Wiuander, or the craggs of Snowdon, or gently 
flowing Avon, or sylvan Wye, it is almost certain that at or about 
the same time they have been weaving the same spell over 
Thieveley and the woods of Holme, over Hurstwood, and Thurs- 
den, and Cockden, and Walverden, over Eoughlee, and Fence, 
and Blackhill, and Whalley, and the time-worn slopes of Pendle. 
Emerson said he was wearied of people who praised this scene over 
tbat, and that scene over evei-y other, when he could not open 
his eyes anywhere without seeing beauty and grace. There is, 
however, this benefit in travelling, tlaat it makes us better to see 
and appreciate the things we have at home. Every country and 
district has something peculiar, some strongly marked feature, 
which you cannot fully feel and understand till you have seen it 
in contrast with some other different, or like but not quite like. 
After seeing the hills of Derbyshire and the Sussex downs I better 
realise the beauty of our own moorlands. The streams of the 
south are not like ours. South country people hardly realise as 
we do the music of the babbling brook, tiU they come north, and 



60 

then a new delight hreaks suddenly npon them ; they hear with 
fresh luiaccustomed sense, perhaps hetter than we do, the gentle 
sound of waters, that "make sweet music on the enamelled stones." 
I rememher one of these whose first surprise at the murmur of 
the Brun was a pleasure to see. But we, have we ever heard that 
" sweet inland murmur," since we heard it as children, and as 
this child of nature heard it, for the first time ? So are we helped 
by novelty, unfamiliarity, contrast. I have not been a great 
traveller, but I have seen the Trossachs, and Loch Katrine, and 
Loch Lomond, and the grand hills above Oban that, in their awful 
silence and loneliness, seem waiting for some wizard Merlin to 
break, with Orphic unfathomable song, the spell of their enchant- 
ment. I have seen the mist-crowned summit of Snowdon, and 
weird Plinlimmou, the English Lakes, Skiddaw, and Helvelyn, 
the soft green Downs of Sussex, the white cliffs of the south, the 
rural lanes of Warwickshire, and from the Malvern Hills I 
have seen the broad prospect stretching over thirteen counties in 
woodland ridges, rising like waves upon a shadowy sea, with 
"hamlets brown and dim-discovered spires!" But before all 
these I remember most vividly some evening walks in the Broad 
Ing and Towneley Holme, between sunset and moonrise, when 
a light lingered on the low hills and brown woods that seemed 
hardly to come from sun, or moon, or star, and I knew not if 
they who were with me there saw what I saw, or whether it were 
indeed that other light, which " never was on sea or shore, the 
consecration and the poet's dream." The horizon is not always 
crowned with this light, this glamour from beyond the sun, or if 
it were we could not bear to see it, and be the things we are. It 
is these rare, and shall I say supernatural glimpses that make 
our happiest moments of communion with that transcendent 
apparition we call nature, but which is something more. But 
the apparition is always present, always waiting, and every day 
of our lives, if we go forth to meet it with pure thoughts, and 
taking with us no taint of the sordid cares or the foolish vanities 
of towns, we shall find its fairy glamour on the wayside flower, 
or trace its shining footsteps on the distant hill. Even in dull 
weather and dark days, when a pall of sombre cloud covers sky 
and earth, at the end of a long ramble I have had a glimpse of 
that loveliness that redeems the darkest day, as it does the 
darkest life on which it is permitted to shine. In the following 
lines I have attempted to give expression to thoughts which took 
their colour from 

A DAEK DAY, 

There are no daisies in the grass 

Through which I walk to-day, 
Nor do I hear the little burn 

That sings beside the way : 



61 

There is no fragrance in the hreeze 

That comes from woodlands old, 
No glory in the kingcups fine 
That flush the field with gold : 

The violet and lady smock 

To-day I do not see, 
Nor yet the white flower of the thorn. 

Nor yet the willow-tree. 

I heard the lark sing yesterday 

That all the world was fair, 
Now there's a shadow on the earth 

And darkness in the air. 

There are no whispers in the wood, 

No glamour in the skies. 
No splendour on the forest falls, 

Nor on the river lies. 

Round me I look on moorlands dim, 

A solitude so vast, 
Ridge behind ridge, hill beyond hill, 

And there — behold at last 

A lonely summit far away. 

One hill, the last of seven. 
As it might be a cloud, a mist. 

Touched with a gleam of heaven. 

All else is dark but where I see 

The far off glory shine — 
And if the darkness is my own. 

So is the splendor mine ! 

But it is not often the lover of nature has such days as these. 
For whether the darkness he upon the day or upon himself, if 
it is not the shadow of his own selfishness or fear, it will melt 
away, or take to itself heauty from the sun and comfort from the 
sweetness of the flower. " Some shape of beauty moves away 
the pall from our dark spirit." An experience of this kind is 
the motive of the following verses which were suggested by the 
first primroses of early spring, gathered in a briery dingle at the 
foot of Pendle. As Rosalind says, tliey grew " in the borders 
of the Forest, like fringe upon a petticoat." 

PRIMROSES. 



" What is good for a bootless bene ? " — Wordswm-th. 



If thou art weary of sorrow. 

If thou art weary of strife. 
Of all the noises of folly. 

And all the madness of life ; — 
Arise in the early dawning, 

Hasten thy feet and go 
Down to the briery dingle 

Where the primrose-blossoms blow. 



62 

If thou art weary of watching 

Faces so haggard and gray, 
Sordid, and callous, and cunning, 

Passing thee day by day ; 
Faces furrowed, and careworn, 

And loveless as thine own ; 
Eyes that look out upon thee 

From the depths of a trouble unknown ; 
If thou art weary of pity 

For the ways of human-kind. 
For the pride of the rich that are poorer 

Than beggars kin! ess and blind. 
For the pride of knowing that knows not, 

For the boastful science of fools, 
For the rattle and prattle of emptiness, 

And the wisdom of the schools ; 
If thou art weary of folly. 

Weary of wisdom's strife, 
Weary of knowledge that cannot know 

The mystery of life ; — 
Arise in the early dawning. 

Hasten thy steps away. 
And learn in the briery dingle 

What the primrose-blossoms say. 

If thou art weary of reading 

All that is said and done. 
The doleful tale of sorrow and death 

Since the making of the sun ; 
How the people perish in myriads, 

By famine, and fire, and flood, 
Fighting the battles of guile and greed. 

In toil, and tears, and blood ; 

If thou art weary of praying 

For the light of a milder day. 
That peace may yet be on the earth 

Ere the heavens have passed away, 
That greed may not always triumph, 

Nor cunning for ever rule. 
Nor the gilded hoop of honour ring 

The forehead of a fool ; 

If thou art weary of sorrow, 

Weary of earth-born care, 
Weary of pride and folly. 

Weary of bootless prayer ; — 
Arise in the early dawning. 

Hasten thy feet and go. 
And learn in the briery dingle 

What the primrose-blossoms know 1 

Do these thoughts seem impertinent in the presence of the 
primroses ? "A thing of beauty is a joy for ever." Why should 
we cross that joy with the shadow of darker tilings ? Because 
we cannot help it. The contrast between our human lives and 
surroundings and the calm and loveliness of nature, is and 
always must be painful to the lover of this tranquility and 



beauty. Any lives that we know seem altogether unworthy of 
this great house of nature, " so royal-rich and wide," and what 
must we say of the lower forms that disgrace humanity itself, 
the deformities and horrors of towns ? The Greeks people nature, 
the hills, and woods, and seas, and streams, with the beautiful 
creations of fancy, thereby indirectly acknowledging that the 
race of man was not worthy to dwell in so magnificent a man- 
sion. They had no literature or poetry of nature such as we 
have, but they would not thus have peopled it, if they had not 
felt how supremely beatiful it was. This tendency to people 
space with ideal forms " the fair humanities of old religion," is not 
confined to one race or to one period, it is the universal tendency 
of mankind. The beauty and loneliness of nature seem to suggest, 
seem almost to force from the imaginative mind this effluence of 
creative energy, and in that way the desolate places of the earth 
have been made glad. Coleridge complains that these fair ideals 
"live no longer in the faith of reason,'" but they live in the 
imaginative mind, "they belong to the soul of man, which pro- 
phesies in this way that the lonely places shall not always be 
lonely, and this magnificent abode shall yet have its fit inhabitant. 
"Life is mean," says Emerson, " but how did we find out that 
it is mean ? " Probably in moi'e ways than one. But amongst 
others in one way certainly, by comparing the inhabitant with 
the house he inhabits. The figure is not worthy of the landscape. 
Who has not felt this? What poet of nature does not make us 
feel this ? Walking on the dusty highway, on the market day, 
amidst the crowd of plodding wayfarers towards the setting sun, 

" Whose cloudy skirts, with brede etherial wove, 
O'er-hang his wavy bed," 

have I not seen, plainly written upon every toil-writhen face, 
blindness to the great vision that shines for them in vain ? 

And yet it may be urged that it is hardly fan to the actual 
world, as we call it, to suggest these contrasts. For what is 
this nature of which we have these glimpses ? It is itself an 
ideal, and not the real nature, the nature of science. In form- 
ing om' ideals we make selections fi-om the best or loveliest. 
The painter does not literally copy nature. He follows nature, 
but not as a slave. Nor does he always follow ; in his highest 
moods he goes before, not only selecting, but suggesting and 
elevating. So Wordsworth says of the poet, he half perceives 
and half creates. And so the nature of which I am speaking is 
not every field in the township of Cliviger, or Habergham-Eaves, 
or Pendle Forest, or the Burnley valley. It is a summer's after- 
noon at Holme, a few serene twilights in Towneley, a sunrise 
from this hill or a sunset from that ; it is just a few ' local 
glimpses,' gathered in the intervals of an anxious life preoccupied 
with sordid cares, and stored up in the still chambers of the soul. 



64 

I call it nature, but what it is I cannot tell. It is not the nature 
of science, it is an ideal I have gathered and helped to make. 
I do not know whether it would exist without the perceiving vie. 
I think I do know that it would not so exist as it exists in me. 
The eyes of a cow or a horse looking over a field rest upon the 
same outward objects as mine do, I suppose, but does the cow 
see this nature that so entrances me ? The man who meets or 
overtakes me on the road, and whose homely greeting is half 
query, half exclamation, "yo're comin' on! " — does he see it? 
He turns his eyes neither to this side nor that, never stops to 
look up at the soft colours and shadows upo]i the hill- side, or at 
the exquisite motion or stillness of the trees in the wood. As it 
was to Peter Bell, 

" The primrose by the river's brim 
A yellow primrose is to him, 
And it is nothing more 1 " 

Is it at all probable that he sees the nature I see ? " Could 
he see it and walk on as he does, " sullen-eyed and lifting never 
from the earth one conscious glance ? " Well, if it is an ideal, 
is it fair to compare with it the actual men and women coming 
from market ? They are not in it. They are not ideal ! They 
are in Cliviger and Pendle Forest, not in this Arcady of mine, 
which is a selection from all days and nights of the loveliest 
glimpses, caught at rare times and seasons and in rare moods, 
for forty years. But how then shall I get men and women to 
people this beautiful Arcadia ? How but as I get the Arcadia 
itself, by a selection from the loveliest and 'noblest human 
beings. But these are hard to find, whereas this nature 
is not hard to find. I speak of my own experience. Such 
men and women as would be fit inhabitants for this select 
nature are very rare, very much rarer than the nature is, 
and tlie best hardly seem worthy of it. This fact then, 
if it be a fact, is the justification of the poet when he looks 
from his fair world of vision to the world of man, and finds 
in this way, by a comparison which seems forced upon him, 
that " life is mean." This also is his justification when he 
peoples his glorious land with ideal forms, spirits, kindred of a 
higher race, not so much selected and idealised from actual life 
as from his dreams and his best books. This also is the reason 
why he makes nature a vestibule or portal to a world beyond, 
perfectly beautiful and whole, and not a lonely world like nature, 
nor peopled like the natural world with apes, and satyrs and 
men a little liigher, and sometimes hardly a little higher, than 
these, but peopled — with what he cannot tell — it may be with 
an ideal, or shall I say a real ? as much beyond his ideal as his 
ideal is beyond his actual experience. So does nature lead her 
worshippers on and becomes — a religion. And this is all done by 
a process of selection, or so it seems, if it matters how it is 



65 

done. I do not pretend to explain the process. My purpose is 
rather to ilhistrate it, to show by these ' local glimpses ' how 
nature seems ever to lead us to something beyond nature, " as 
far as the incommunicable." This short piece is an attempt to 
say only what a certain river said. I give it to you, here, as 
nature gave it to me — there. 

BY THE EIVEE. 



I walked in a lonely place 
Where ferns and mosses grow, 

Where with a wild and pendulous grace 
The tall sedge droopeth low. 
Over the brim of the river. 

I lay beneath the trees 
Aid heard the low winds sigh 

For the far, forgotten centuries 
Whose summer suns went by. 
Over the brim of the river. 

I saw on either side 

The woods shut in the scene, 
And the evening clouds above them glide, 

And the moon look down between. 
Over the brim of the river. 

I heard the cuckoo mock 

The echoes of the hill ; 
The throstle from below the rock 

The vale with music fill, 

Over the brim of the river. 

I waited till the moon 

Grew brighter, and the air 
Still, save for a mystic rune 

The low wind murmured there. 
Over the brim of the river. 

Save for the peaceful sound 

Of the water as it rolled. 
Filling the air above, around. 

As it had done of old, 

Over the brim of the river. 

I waited till afar, 

So lonely and serene. 
Looked large and bright the evening star, 

Adown the dark ravine. 

Over the brim of the river. 

I waited, lingering still. 

In that enchanted dell. 
And the thoughts that did my spirit fill 

My tongue can never tell, 

As I walked by the lonely river. 



66 

Let me give another illustration of the way natural objects 
lead us on to an ideal beyond nature. This is a very common 
theme. The eye seeks ever the horizon. The near landscape 
may be very beautiful, but the point of interest is ever in the 
distance. We wish to go there, for we think that there we shall 
be nearer to that perfect beauty we seek. But we go there and 
still the beauty we seek flies on before, and is still on the horizon. 
There are the delectable mountains which we can never climb. 
It is an illusion, we say, but it is also a law of the mind — it is a 
law of things — for " all experience is an arch where-through 
gleams that untravelled world whose margin fades, forever and 
forever, as we move." Everybody has felt the power of this spell, 
from which we cannot escape by thinking, for, as Hamlet says, 
" thinking makes it so." 

EDEN. 

Among the distant mountains, 

Beneath the setting sun 
There is a lonely Eden 

Where peace may yet be won. 

Unseen in yonder forest 

There bloom enchanted bowers, 
Beyond the gleaming vistas, 

Where joy may yet be ours. 

And by the winding river. 

Far-shining in the west, 
There is a land of Beulah 

Where wandering hearts may rest. 

Oh, if we could but find it, 

By forest or by stream, 
This land, this lonely Eden 

And find it — not a dream 1 

May I give an illustrati(>n of a different kind ? I have spoken 
of the music of streams. For nature enters not only through 
the eye, but through the ear, into the soiil. And here also there 
is selection and an ideal. We know that music is not always 
heard when it is heard. The ear hears it, and often that is all. 
But sometimes the soul hears it, too. It greatly depends upon 
the mood. " The world is too much with us." We are seldom 
unpreoccupied. At the crowded and fashionable watering place 
we may never hear the sea. On a lonely shore, when no other 
sound is nigh, we may hear that mighty voice and say, with 
Elizabeth Browning, " sweet, sweet, sweet, Pan ! " So I 
believe few people ever hear the voice of streams. Once I heard 
it, on the occasion commemorated in the lines I have read, " By 
the River," and again recently in two places, one in the country 
and one in the town. There is a place of meeting streams a 
little behind Habergham Hall, and there one day last summer I 



67 

heard the sound — and the spirit of the sound. And a few days 
after, passing at night over the bridge near the water-meetings 
in Salford, I heard it again, and perhaps only those who have 
so heard it will care to hear my verses. 

WATEE-MEETINGS. 



I know a place of meeting streams 

Where the pure waters flow, 
And in a sylvan valley make 

Sweet music as they go. 

These waters flow where wild-flowers grow 

The tufted ferns between, 
And underneath the forest boughs, 

With aU their waving green. 

And oft when to that lonely place 

I fly from evil dreams, 
I linger, listening to the sound. 

One sound of many streams. 

And, lingering, I seem to hear. 

Far inward and divine, 
A voice, as of the soul of things 

Were singing unto mine. 

I know a place of meeting streams 

Where the dark waters flow 
Through a thickly-peopled town, and make 

Strange music as they go. 

By sordid homes and alleys dim. 

By haunts of crime and wrong. 
These waters flow, and as they go 

They sing the same sweet song. 

They whisper of the solitude 

In moorland valleys found, 
They sing a song of violets 

Hid in the mossy ground. 

They sing all day the old sweet song 

To woodland wanderers dear. 
But in the busy hum of men 

No soul hath ears to hear. 

Only when night is on the streams 

And silence in the street, 
Lingering, I listen for that song 

Where the dark waters meet : 

And, Ustening, I seem again 

To hear the mystic tone. 
As if a kindred spirit sang. 

And sang to me alone. 

Sometimes nature suggests a diviner Hfe beyond nature, but 
sometimes it suggests a more intimate divinity, as if itself were 
divine ! and then tree, and flower, and stream, and forest speak 
to us in language which it is impossible to translate into words. 
We know so little. "We move about in world not realised." 



68 

We see and feel more than the clown, but what we see and feel 
is so little of the great life of which flower, and grass, and stars 
and man are but fragments. We are part and parcel of a great 
movement which is going on around us and within us, and this 
groping after the ideal in nature and man is part of it also, " the 
spirit of the years to come yearning to mix itself with life." We 
know nothing, but sometimes we feel as if not nature, not our 
thoughts, not ourselves, were realities, but as if all were mani- 
festations of one power, 

" Whose presence is the light of setting suns, 
And the round ocean, and the living air, 
And the blue sky, and in the mind of man 1 " 

There is a mystic union between the outward vision and the 
inward seer, a " knot intiinsicate " which no metaphysical 
analysis can untie. "Nature is the bride of the soul." " ' Tis 
her privilege to lead from joy to joy." There is poetry and 
romance in eveiy field, and in every tuft of reeds and waving 
grass : there is health, and healing, and highest spiritual min- 
istration at all times and everywhere, in winter as in summer, 
in storm and calm, by night and day, and not more in May 
flowers than in December snows. 



THE LATER GEOLOGICAL VICISSITUDES OF 
THE NORTH WEST OF ENGLAND. 

By R. H. TIDDEMAN, Esq., M.A., F.G.S., of H.M. 
Geological Survey. October 6th, 1885. 



We are sorry that owing to the position Mr. Tiddeman holds 
under the Government, we are not permitted to publish a report 
of his interesting lecture. 



A TRIP TO THE YELLOWSTONE PARK. 

By J. MACKENZIE, M.D. October 13th, 1885. 



This paper was a descriptive account of a visit paid to the 
Yellowstone Park in the summer of 1885. The rail-road route 
taken to reach the park from San Francisco through California 
and the territories of Nevada, Utah, and Idaho was first described. 
Apart of the journey extending over 100 miles had to be made 



69 

in a primitive waggon, tlirough a country practically uninhabited, 
so tliat camping-out requisites had to be conveyed with us. 
Though it was the month of June when the journey was made, 
frequent snow storms were encountered, and much difficulty was 
experienced from the huge snowdrifts that blocked the roads in 
many parts. The region in which the park is situated lies at a 
considerable elevation, the park itself being over 6,000 feet above 
the sea level, while some of the neighbouring mountains — spurs 
of the Eocky mountains — attain a height of 12,000 feet, and are 
covered with pei-petual snow. The tract of country which has 
been euphemistically termed a Park, comprises more than 3,000 
square miles, and is situated in the north-west corner of the 
territory of Wyoming. On account of the wonderful natural 
phenomena contained in this district, the United States Congress 
in 1872 decreed that it should in perpetuity be reserved for the 
benefit and enjoyment of the people. " Since then surveys have 
been made of the park, and among other objects of interest the 
localities of which have been fixed, we may mention 1500 hot 
springs among which are at least fifty geysers of the first magni- 
tude, any one of which would cast into the shade any other in 
the known world. The region abounds also in pictm^esque water- 
falls, caiions and lakes, rendering it beyond question the most 
interesting region in the world." 

The scope of the paper was limited to a description of the few 
objects seen in a sojourn of three days in the park. The first 
visit was paid to the valley of hot springs and geysers. Starting 
£i"om the primitive log-house, that does duty for hotel in the 
Firehole Basin, for a few miles om- road lay through marshy flats, 
and then we struck a bare patch whereon no vegetation would 
grow. There were several hot springs here, and the waters being 
impregnated with salts chiefly silicious, the overflowing waters as 
they cool leave a deposit on the ground, and slowly raise that 
part above the surrounding plain. The aspect is very dreary 
and desolate when that has taken place to a great extent, but is 
only a setting which more vividly displays by contrast the beauty 
of those hot springs. The springs vary in size from a few feet 
to 30 or 40 yards in diameter — most of them being 20 to 30 feet 
and in-egularly circular. The springs contract in irregular ter- 
races untfl the deepest part is but a few feet in diameter, and 
looking thi'ough the blue translucent water it would appear as if 
vast caverns extended beyond. The walls seem constructed of 
the pm-est ivoiy. Arising from the surface are faint clouds of 
steam, while the waters of a few are gently bubbling and boiling. 
There are a few where the deposited salts exhibit a variety of 
colours and the walls then assume the appearance of choicest 
mosaic, while one huge ugly hole is filled with dark and gruesome 
fluid. Other places presented a more awesome and oppressive 



70 

appearance, one place in particular which bears the felicitous 
title of " Hell's half-acre." Here there is a hot spring of great 
size, and as it continually overflows the deposited salts have 
raised its mouth considerably above the neighbouring stream, 
down whose banks the collected waters rush in brooiis with beds 
and sides of garish yeUow. But the character of this vast spring 
we cannot discern as the water is very hot and the cloud of steam 
so dense that our view is limited to a few feet of its margin. 
Close beside this is a smaller but still more awful spring. We 
dare not approach its edge, as what little the dense cloud per- 
mitted us to see, we saw that the cracked and seamed edges 
were hollowed under and its troubled waters seethed some six or 
seven feet below the brim. There was another place where small 
mud geysers were in active operation, but there was nothing 
terrifying about them. Un a slight eminence surrounded by 
stunted pines and low shrubs was an irregular patch 30 yards 
square. Here Neve numerous small cauldrons, their sides built 
up of soft coloured earth and in their centre a thick liquid kept 
continually rising in heavy bubbles and bm'sting and bespatter- 
ing the sides with mud. These were of various hues, from a 
deep pink to a pure white. As we went up the valley we forsook 
our waggon and the track, and wandered wherever the curious 
manifestations attracted us. Sometimes it would be to discover 
a lonely spring in a sheltered wooded nook or attracted by a 
hissing sound to find a jet of steam issuing from a fissure in the 
soil, or by the locomotive-like panting of some puny geyser throw- 
ing its little jet of water a few feet in the air. At last we reach 
the Upper Geyser Basin, and a weird looking place it is. The 
ground slopes backward to the hills and a portion about a mile 
square is barren and covered with a silicious deposit. Many of the 
trees that fringe this place have then stems bleached, while 
others lie uprooted sodden and without then bark. A stream 
divides this barren portion, and is fed by tiny rills from overflow- 
ing springs and geysers. Some of the geysers have their mouths 
surrounded by irregular walls, and these bearing fancied resem- 
blances to other structures give to the geysers distinctive names. 
None of the larger geysers were in action when we arrived, but 
jets of steam at intervals were thrown out of the craters. None 
of these large geysers are continuous in their action, the intervals 
varying from one hour to days, weeks or months in some cases. 
One of these large geysers became active shortly after our arrival. 
Premonitory of the eruption there is a deep rumbling noise and 
the earth in the neighbourhood quivers, then with a loud roar a 
column of hot water is projected suddenly nigh 200 feet in the 
air. The temperature of the water being at or above boiling 
point, most of it is immediately dissipated uito steam, which 
arises in a cloud from the whole length of the column, and as it 



71 

is borne away on the breeze expanding and rising higher and 
higher it adds a most majestic and impressive grandeur to the 
scene. After playing about ten minutes, the geyser quickly 
subsided. 

Next day we had a rough jom-ney of 33 miles, to see the 
famous Caiion of the Yellowstone Eiver. We approached the 
river where it peacefully sped through meadow-like ground. By 
and bye the banks became more rugged and pine trees clothed 
them, while huge moss-covered boulders, some also bearing pines 
lie amid stream, until the whole river dashes over a precipice 
100 feet in height. The river hurries on through steeper and 
ever contracting banks for a short distance where it dashes over 
another precipice 360 feet in height and immediately enters the 
Grand Caiion of the Yellowstone. This immense gorge lies like 
a huge panorama of coloured rocks spread out before the spectator. 
The erewhile mighty river looks but a mere brawling brook as it 
threads its way at the bottom. On either side the banks rise up 
in irregular gradations, parts gently sloping and covered with 
grass of softest green, other places huge rocks arise, or pillar- 
like crags jut many huudi-ed feet above the stream. These rocks 
are of varied hues, some are of brilliant red, while over others grey 
Uchens have crept as if to hide the brilliant hues. Large spaces 
of sulphm: yellow are streaked with pink, while the upper stra- 
tum — 1,600 feet above the river — is formed of pure white 
crumbhng limestone, and above all the dark pine trees crowd 
to the Caiion's edge as if spectators peering into this wondrous 
abyss. For ten miles the river flows between banks of these 
varied colours. 

A number of maps and drawings was exhibited to illustrate 
the paper. 



A SHORT HISTORY OF BANKING. 

EKOM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PASSING OF 
THE JOINT STOCK BANK ACT, 1826. 
By J. T. MARQUIS. October 20th, 1885. 



Under the term Banking, in its History, is included money 
changing, money lending, pawnbroking, discount of bills and 
promissory notes, and also the issuing and taking up on demand, 
of promissory notes to bearer called "bank notes." In the 
present day the banking estabhshments proper, confine tliem- 
selves principally to collecting cheques, discounting bills, and 
paying the bills and cheques of their customers, also in issuing 
di-afts, and paying them in the legal tender of the country in 



72 

wbicb they carry on business. Tbey also lend money at interest 
by way of overdrafts, and receive money on deposit. The lend- 
ing of immense sums for a long term of years on mortgage is 
not considered good banking now. It is done in these days by 
Loan and Building Societies and through the medium of solicitors. 
Though permission to lend money on goods is granted in the 
Charters of the largest Banks it is now left entirely to the pawn- 
brokers who have adopted the ancient sign of the Lombards, 
"three golden balls." There are firms in London now who 
lend money on nothing but short dated bills. They are not 
called bankers, but bill-brokers. Discounting bills, however, 
will always form part of a banker's legitimate business. 

I. Early Banking. 

Under this head reference was made to that disputed question, 
the origin of the word " Bank." The reader was of opinion 
that the two words "Bank" and "Bench" are derived from a 
barbarous Latin word " Bancus," which denotes a high seat, 
hillock, mound, or heap — in law, a seat of judgment. This is 
confirmed by Blackstone, who speaking of Florence, says ^'that 
government owed £6,000, and being unable to pay, formed it 
into a principal sum called metaphorically a mount or bank." In 
an Italian dictionary of 1659, the word ' bank ' is explained " a 
standing bank or mount of money." Evelyn in his diary speak- 
ing of the "Monte Pieta " says "this is a foundation of which 
there are several in Italy, where there is a continual hanque of 
money to assist the poorer sort." Having referred to the money 
lenders of the times of Moses and Jeremiah, and those of the 
New Testament, the paper mentioned some of the laws which 
governed loans amongst the Brahmins, one of which was that 
the interest on gold was not to rise higher than double the debt, 
but on substances from which spirituous liquors are extracted, 
and a few otliers, the interest was unlimited. The paper then 
referred to currency amongst the Chinese and Eussians, the 
former being the inventors of Bank Notes called "feytsien" or 
flying money, in 800 A.D. Over issue caused their use to be 
abandoned for over 200 years. Banking amongst the Assyrians, 
was referred to. From this nation we get the name of the 
earliest bankers on record, " Egibi & Co.," of Babylon. Mr. 
Marquis gave a translation by Mr. Pinches of a negotiable 
instrument in baked clay, belonging to the firm. By these 
instruments the firm can be traced from Sennacherib B.C. 712, to 
the reign of Darius. Banking amongst the Greeks and Romans 
was fully described until the fall of Eome, when it would appear 
that Banking was confined to the Jews, some of whom emigrated 
to London and settled in Lombard Street. 



73 

II. EuROPE^vN Banking. 

Mr. Mai-quis referred to the magnitude of the transactions of 
the Florentine Bankers who lent Edward III. of England 300,000 
marks at a time when a mark contained 50s. more than at the pres- 
ent day, and when the value of silver was quadruple what it is now. 
The Bank of Venice was founded 1157, but the Bank of Barcelona 
1401, was the first real Bank in the modern sense of the term. 
Its liabilities to the public were secured by City property. It 
discounted bills and allowed interest on deposits, but it knew 
nothing about notes or cheques. The paper then gave a short 
sketch of the principal Banks on the Continent, concluding with 
a not very favomuble reference to the Imperial Bank of Eussia. 

III. English Banking. 

The usurious practices of the Jews from the Norman Conquest 
to Edward I were referred to, also those of the Lombards who 
in their turn were banished in the reign of Elizabeth for usury. 
The early goldsmiths and the goldsmith-bankers were mentioned, 
amongst whom was Sir Thomas Gresham. The History of the 
transactions by which the Govei'nment of Charles II relieved 
itself from its financial diflflculties, and the consequent loss to the 
Goldsmith-Bankers of London was given, also a history of the 
principal Goldsmith-Bankers. The sum of £661,263, being hall 
the original sum paid to the exchequer by them, and refunded in 
later years, forms the first item in our National Debt. Mention 
was made of all the principal private Bankers of London, the 
Bank of England, and the Savings Banks, and the paper con- 
cluded with a sketch of the Clearing House, which now turns 
over about £6,000,000,000 per annum. 



SHORT ANONYMOUS CONTRIBUTIONS. 

October 27th, 1885. 



I. "ON SHAVING." 

In this paper " E.rperientia " related the story of his first shave, 
how though he had long withstood the temptation of commencing 
so troublesome a habit and exacting a custom, he in a weak 
moment yielded to the repeated sohcitations of friends. The 
scenes enacted within the barber's room were humorously de- 
scribed, and the writer dwelt upon the catalogue of disastrous 
results which followed the detestable practice he had been 
prevailed upon to adopt. 



74 

n. "THE STATELY HOMES OF ENGLAND." 

Attention was drawn in this contribution to some of the Old 
Halls in Burnley and the neighbourhood. Some were remark- 
able for the beauty of their situation, others for their historical 
associations, or as being the residences of men of solid worth. 
Tliere was a wealth of interest attaching to many an antiquated 
mansion in our locality, and a picturesqueness of position which 
failed to be adequately appreciated by the people of Burnley. 
The object of the writer was to induce a greater regard for these 
" stately homes " which so abundantly adorn our district. 

in. "THOUGHTS ON THIMBLES." 

This paper was a cleverly written treatise upon the little 
domestic instrument, the Thimble — by the invention of which, 
humanity through its womankind has profited, and which in 
spite of the introduction of Sewing Machines will yet hold its 
own in future generations. After regarding this emblem of fem- 
inine industry as an •' armouric " bearing, the author inquired into 
the antiquity of the fragmentary panoply, and gave conjectures 
as to its origin. Thimble was evidently a corruption of Thumble, 
and has doubtless been currently adopted from motives of 
euphony. The researches of Archfeologists have failed to dis- 
cover any traces of the use of thimbles among the great nations 
of antiquity, though there are, in our museums numerous relics 
of other implements of refined social life. Tradition furnishes 
a story wliich accounts for the invention of the thimble. A Dutch 
goldsmith who lived 300 years ago is said to have invented the 
instrument, the invention being the outcome of ardent afi'ectiou 
for his bride. The thimble nifiy therefore be considered as an 
emblem of devoted love, as well as a symbol of protection, and 
a badge of woman's untiring industry. 

IV. "COMMENTS." 

The purpose of this paper ■« as to point out certain shortcomings 
of the Club, and its failure in some respects to realize the ideal 
of those who have its best welfare at heart. The author con- 
ceded that the Club had become a recognized institution of the 
town ; and did not wish to disparage its past achievements. But 
many of its members did not accurately appreciate the position 
and work designed for the Society ; nor their own responsibilities. 
It Avas desifable that the circle of contributors should be further 
widened, that more exhibitions illustrating the many departments 
in science and art should be inserted in the sessional programmes. 
There was often a lack of seriousness and dignity in the debates ; 
and a disposition to concentrate attention on trivialities, and 



75 

discuss important matters with levity. Occasionally the just 
recoguition of the merits of some contrihution was omitted, 
whilst the effect of extracting fun and satire out of almost every- 
thing tended to check the desire to speak in debate. Comment 
was also made on the lack of sociability and friendly intercourse 
at the Club's meetings ; and recommendations were submitted 
with the view of redeeming the Club's character from well-founded 
charges, and rendering its future brighter, more dignified, and 
more useful. 

[This paper gave rise to considerable discussion,] 

V. "A PHILOSOPHICAL STUDY OF A FOEM OF 
EECEEATION." 

The particular recreation here alluded to was " Lawn Tennis," 
which despite prophetic utterances as to its evanescence, grows 
in strength, and yearly increases the number of its adherents. 
The varied sources from which recruits for the game are drawn 
were humorously enumerated : and the author in entertaining 
style, pictured some of the peculiarities which the game manifests. 
The sundry antics performed, the freaks of fashion as set forth in 
costume, and the conceited utterances of unskilled enthusiasts, 
were touched iipon ; and it was observed how Tennis brought 
into strong relief man's mental peculiarities. The writer claimed 
for the pastime that it secured gentle exercise and healthful 
excitement, and amongst other ways in which Tennis apx^ealed 
to human nature, it afforded onlookers opportunity for expressing 
then- private opinions upon the incidents and progress of the 
game. 

VI. "THEEE LEAVES FEOM AN OLD CHRONICLE— 
THE HIDDEN TEEASUEE." 

This was the stoiy of a legend, in three chapters. The legend 
centred round some old church and churchyard, and related the 
fulfilment of a mysterious prophecy which had been expressed 
in quaint poetic verse. 



THE REBELS OF 1715, AND THEIR LANCA- 
SHIRE FRIENDS. 

Bu ALBEBT XICHuLSOX. November 3rd, 1885. 



This subject is one which, both from a national and local point 
of view, is of the greatest interest and importance. It has been 
very fully treated by Dr. Samuel Hibbert Ware, in his book 



76 

Lancashire Memorials of 1715 (Chetham Society, vol. v.), and I 
shall, as far as possible, avoid going over the same ground, as I 
pi'esume the members of this Society have read or have easy 
access to this volume. My object is to lay before you certain 
facts and evidence unrecorded by Dr. Hibbert-Ware, which, I 
venture to think, very considerably increase our knowledge, and 
will lead many to differ with the doctor in his conclusions. It 
will be necessary to glance at the political state of the country 
in the years preceding 1715. 

No soor.er had the Eevolution of 1688 taken place than plotting 
began, and in 1689 a Jacobite rising would undoubtedly have 
occurred in Lancashire and Cheshire had not Lord Delamere 
promptly called a muster of the militia on Bowdon Downs. 

Again, in 1694, Manchester was the scene of the trial of con- 
sjoirators, who, though guilty, got off by a curious chance. 

The High Church Tory party in the town and neighbourhood 
was dominant and active, and when the excitement caused by 
the trial of Dr. Sacheverell spread over the country it found 
men willing and ready to lead a thoughtless rabble to acts of 
folly and violence. The elections of 1715 all over the country 
had been much influenced by mobs. In Manchester, a mob 
under a mob colonel, whose name is unknown, and a mob captain 
named Siddall — a blacksmith by trade —for three days had the 
town virtually in their hands. On June 20tli they destroyed 
Blackley Chapel, and on the 21st Monton shared the same fate. 
The fine meeting-house in Redcross Street, which cost tlie nation 
£1,500 to repair, was also wrecked. Then came the outbreak in 
Scotland. The Earl of Mar took the field, backed by many of 
the Scotch nobility, highland chiefs. Catholic gentry, and Pres- 
byterians, and James III. was proclaimed. The reason of this 
alliance of High Church Tories, Roman Catholics, and Presby- 
terians — so strange a combination surely never was seen in arms 
together — is fully explained by Dr. Hibbert-Ware. The Duke of 
Argyll, in command of the Royal forces, could barely hold his 
own, and Mar detached a body of highlanders under an experi- 
enced officer, Brigadier Macintosh, to join the lowland Scotch 
under Lord Kenmure, who were out near the border, and also 
with the north-countiy gentlemen, who, with Lord Derwentwater 
and Mr. Forster, had proclaimed King James. These three 
bodies joined, and, after dodging about to keep out of the way 
of General Carpenter, were led by a promise, made by the High 
Church Tory party in Manchester that 20,000 men would join 
them should they come into Lancashire, to march south. To 
conciliate the feeling of the Presbyterians and Churchmen, 
Forster, a Church Tory, was made general. There is no doubt 
his incompetence contributed greatly to the early collapse of the 
rebellion. Of their march south it is enough to say they entered 



77 

Lancaster unopposed, Sir Henry Houghton and 600 militia that 
he had collected retreating to Preston. At Lancaster the droop- 
ing spirits of the rehels were raised not only hy the flight of the 
Government troops, hut also by some few gentlemen and their 
servants joining them, only five in all, but they were men of 
position, including John Dalton, Esq., of Turnham Hall, and 
Edward Tyldesley, Esq., of The Lodge, to whom I shall refer 
later on. No Lancashire Protestant was here enlisted except 
the mob colonel fi-om Manchester and the mob captain, Tom 
Siddall, who, along with all the piisoners from the castle on the 
Crown side, were liberated. But though no Lancashire Protestant 
here joined, " one Mr. Paul, . . . habited in a blue cloak, 
with a long wig and sword, accompanied by Mr. John Cotton, of 
Cambridgeshire, ... in a flourishing manner, made a tender 
of their services for the cause, which were accepted." This was 
"Parson" Paul, a clergyman of the Church of England, who 
paid for his folly with his life. The only interest further to us in 
this man, from a local point of view, is that he and Jack Hall, 
of Otterburn, were executed together at Tyburn, and that their 
dying speeches were written for them by Dr. Deacon (then a very 
young man), afterwards so long resident in Manchester. Two 
very clever productions they are. 

On November 8th, Paul read prayers in Lancaster church. 
There is no doubt that though many here joined whose names 
are unknown, many others here deserted the rebels whose names 
are also, for obvious reasons, unlikely to be recorded. According 
to the diary of Lord Derwentwater's servant, Peter Clarke, the 
afternoon before they left Lancaster, " the gentlemen soldiers 
dressed and trimmed themselves up in their best clothes, for to 
drink a dish of tea with the Laydys of this towne. The Laydys 
also here appeared in their best riging, and had their tea tables 
richly furnished for to entertain their new suitors." On November 
9th the horse advanced to Preston, the foot to Garstang. At 
Garstang it is recorded that one High Church Tory joined (Mr. 
Muncaster) and some Papists. When the horse arrived at Preston 
they found the town undefended, and rode up the street, and, 
entering the church, had to listen to the rector, the Eev. Samuel 
Peploe, read the prayers for King George. This spuited conduct 
on the part of the young divine is said to have led to the only 
intentional joke recorded of the king. Being informed of the 
act, and being given his name in answer to his inquiry, the king 
said in his bad English: "Peep-low, Peep-low; we will make 
him Peep high ! " and he did ; for when opportunity oflered, 
Peploe was rewarded with the wardenship of Manchester church, 
and ultimately held that office with the bishopric of Chester. 
On the 10th the foot arrived, and many Catholic gentlemen and 
their servants joined, including Eichard Towneley, Esq., of 



■78 

Towneley. There is little doubt that some 1,200 men gathered 
to the standard of the rebels between the 9th and 12th. Little 
effort, however, was made to get this force, now numbering near 
4,000 men, into fighting order. The gentlemen soldiers seem to 
have had a good time of it, for, says the diary of Peter Clarke, 
" The ladys in this towne, Preston, are so beautiful and so richly 
attired that the gentlemen soldiers, from Wednesday till Saturday, 
minded nothing but courting and feasting." For the story of 
Preston fight, I must refer you to Dr. Hibbert-Ware. It will be 
sufficient to say that tlie Government forces, under General 
Wills, arrived before Preston on the morning of the 12th of 
November. Acting under the instructions of the Duke of Marl- 
borough, not to give the rebels time. Wills had pushed on from 
Chester to Manchester, where he found it necessary to not only 
seize some suspected persons, but also to leave a regiment of 
dragoons. He was met at Wigan by Sir Henry Houghton, who 
had great influence with the local Presbyterians, and on the 11th 
a note was sent to certain ministers to raise all the force possible 
of their able young men, arm them as best they could, and meet 
next morning at Cuerden Green. The response this met with 
from Parsons Woods and Walker is well known, but it seems 
not to have come to the knowledge of Dr. Hibbert-Ware that 
even a greater service was rendered by the Eev. John Turner, of 
Preston. The following extract is from a note to " The Life and 
Times of the Rev. James Woods, commonly called ' General ' 
Woods, a discourse commemorative of the centenary of his 
death, delivered at the Presbyterian Chapel, Chowbent, by the 
Eev. Franklin Baker, M.A., February 20th, 1859," p. 25, quoted 
from the Rev. AV. Wood's Memoirs of Rev. W. Turner, of Wakefield. 

" The Rev John Turner, at that time Protestant Dissenting 
minister there [at Preston] , was, upon the breaking out of the 
first rebellion, eminently serviceable to the cause of the reigning 
family. Firmly attached to the principles of the revolution and 
the succession of the crown in the House of Hanover, he left 
his wife and infant child, and with many of the younger part of 
his congregation joined the army under General Wills; by whom 
they were with great propriety, on account of their knowledge 
of the country, employed as scouts ; to procure information and 
to observe the motions of the rebels. In one of these nocturnal 
excursions Mr. Turner had the good fortune to fall in with, and, 
being of a strong athletic constitution, to take prisoner and bring 
safe back with him to the camp, a confidential servant of one 
of the principal Roman Catholic gentry, who was going from 
his master with some important intelligence to the rebels. For 
this service he had the public thanks of General Wills." 

Marlborough, with a woirderful foresight, had indicated this 
place as the point where the enemy would be met, and, obeying 



79 

his instrnctions, Wills at once invested the town and made many 
but unsuccessful attempts to carry it by storm. Old Macintosh had 
been allowed his own way, and by ^veil-placed barricades in the 
naiTow streets in the centre of the town he was able easily to 
hold his own against the dismounted dragoons, for Wills was 
almost without infantry. Luckily General Carpenter with 2,500 
horse arrived early next morning. He at once saw a grave error 
Wills had made in carelessly leaving a way open at the Fisher- 
gate side of the town by which numbers were leaving and had 
left the place. This he promptly put right. Now the motley 
crew of fox-hunting squires, gentlemen soldiers, ill- armed foot- 
men, and Highlanders found themselves face to face with an 
enemy whom they must either conquer or surrender to. Forster, 
urged it is said- by Lord Widdringtou, and without consulting 
with many of his gallant comrades in arms, sent Colonel Oxburg 
to negociate, and ultimately on tlie next day — November 14th, 
1715 — the little army, now only 1,650 men, surrendered at dis- 
cretion. As far as can now be gathered there fell in this fight 
some 18 or 19 on the rebel side, and probably about 800 of the 
King's men were either killed or wounded. The prisonei's were 
at once sent under strong escort — the rebel lords and principal 
gentlemen to London, others of the commoner sort to Liverpool, 
Chester, and Lancaster. 

[A number of portraits of those whose names are known in 
connection with these troubles was exhibited by the writer, who 
gave a brief account of some of them.] 

Of the Earl of Derwentwater it is unnecessary to say much, 
as the subject has been so fully and carefully treated in a recent 
notice of him [The last of the Derwentwaters, by J. F. Crosthwaite. 
Cockermouth. 1874.) It was his misfortune that, by the ties of 
religion, acquaintance, and near relationship to the exiled royal 
family, he v\'as drawn into this affair. And there is little doubt 
that a fear that his personal attachment to the Stuarts must 
again inevitably lead him to espouse their cause, together with the 
danger the Government felt from his vast wealth and territorial 
influence, made him a special object of punishment. This was 
carried even beyond justice in the case of his relations, in order 
that the family fortune might be reduced — more than one private 
Act of Parliament being passed to make this possible. The Earl 
of Derwentwater and Viscount Kenmure were executed on Tower 
Hill, February 24th, 1716. 

The gallant Colonel Oxburg was a Eoman Catholic officer of 
good family, who, under pretence of a tour in search of the 
beautiful in art and nature, had during the early part of the year 
been stirring up tJie Jacobite party in many counties, and making 
all anaugements for this rising. It is somewhat curious his life 
was not spared on account of his honourable conduct of the 



80 

negociations and his general character. His ill fortune was 
caused, there is little doubt, by the escape of so many of his 
fellow-prisoners and the necessity the Government felt of making 
an example of someone. 

George Colliugwood, of Northumberland, a Roman Catholic, 
was executed at Liverpool February 25th, 1716. Captain John 
Bruce, a Scottish Episcopalian, suffered at Lancaster October 
2nd, 1716. 

Captain Philip Lockhart was one of the four officers executed 
at Preston by order of the court-martial on a charge of desertion 
and having taken up ai'ms against King George. He had served 
in Lord Mark Keir's regiment. He denied that he was guilty of 
desertion, since he had no commission from, nor trust under, 
the present Government, the regiment to which he belonged 
having been broken up several years ago in Spain. Yet he was 
condemned to be shot, and on December 2nd the sentence was 
carried out. 

Richard Gascoigne was a Catholic gentleman of good family, 
whose ancestors had served the Royal side during the troubled 
times. He found no mercy, and was executed at Tyburu in the 
usual horrible manner. 

John Dalton, Esq., of Turnham Hall, Lancashii'e, was tried 
on May 30th, 1716, at the Marshalsea. He seems to have been 
an inoffensive, quiet man, and though a Roman Catholic, sevei'al 
Protestants came forward to speak for him. After a long trial, 
in which every effort was made to save him, he was found guilty. 
"He begged the King's pardon and desired the court to interceed 
with him for mercy." This the Lord Chief .Justice Parker pro- 
mised to do, though he told him clearly he ought to have taken the 
step earlier on and not have given them the trouble of a defence. 
His life was spared, and eventually he was liberated. Afterwards 
he redeemed his forfeited estate (an entailed one) for i'6,000. 

Besides this trial of John Dalton, I have in my collection 
reports of the trials (on broadsides) of Richard Towneley, Esq., 
of Towneley, and Edward Tyldesley, Esq., of The Lodge. 
Towneley endeavoured to show he was amongst the rebels by 
accident and kept there by force. After half an hour's consider- 
ation the jury acquitted him. Tyldesley adopted much the same 
line of defence, and he was also acquitted. The real reason for 
their lucky escape was that their trial took place the day after 
the execution of Colonel Oxburg at Tyburn, which ha.d been 
carried out in the usual barbarous and horrible manner, and his 
head placed on Temple Bar. So unwilling were the jury to have 
another such scene that thej' acquitted both prisoners, calling 
forth afterwards a strong reprimand from Baron Montague for 
their conduct. 



81 

Jack Hall, of Otterburn — whose trial is also on the broadsides, 
thou^-h under the name of Thomas Hall — was not so fortunate ; 
be was condemned, and being specially exempted from the 
general reprieve, suffered the extreme penalty of the law along 
with the Rev. William Paul. 

Robert Talbot's trial will also be found on the sheet. He, 
along with that fine old soldier Brigadier Macintosh and six 
others, knocked down the warders, seized the guard, and escaped 
out of Newgate ilie day before their trial was to have taken place. 
As ill-luck would have it, he was retaken, tried, and condemned ; 
the others got clear off. I think I am correct in saying that his 
life was spared by the general reprieve of .July 7th, 1716. Only 
six in all were executed in Loudon, and most if not all of these 
would have saved theii- lives if they would have consented to take 
the oath of allegiance. 

We now return to Lancashire. Eai'ly in January, 1716, a 
commission of oyer and terminer was sent down to the Whig 
town of Liverpool to try such of the prisoners as were there and 
at Chester. The choice of Liverpool as a Whig stronghold seems 
to us in these days rather a curious one, as, during the nineteenth 
century, except perhaps in the fh-st few years, it has been notori- 
ously Tory. But in 1716 the opposite was the case, and it was 
in Manchester that High Church non-jurant Toryism held sway, 
and was continually a thorn in the side of the Hanoverian 
Government. On the outbreak of the rebellion the townspeople 
had roughly fortified the place, the sailors dragging up cannon 
fi"om the ships for the defences. As showing the hberal and 
tolerant sentiment of the Church party in Manchester, I may 
mention that within a few yeai-s of this time, on the deaths of 
my ancestors, Matthew Nicholson and his wife Dorothy, which 
occurred within a week — they belonging to the Presbyterian 
body, as the Arian Congregation was then called — a funeral 
sermon was preached for them by the rector in the parish church. 

On January 11th, the Rev. Samuel Peploe, M.A., vicar of 
Preston, preached before the judges, high sheriff, gentlemen of 
the grand jury, the mayor, and other gentlemen. A copy of this 
discourse, and others that I propose to read you notes from, were 
presented to the Free Reference Library by Sir Thomas Baker, 
with a number of rare and curious tracts and books, which form 
a collection of extreme value to those interested in the history or 
literature of this time. 

Peploe points out the evident advantage to Papists in joining 
in this rebeUion, but that for Protestants and Churchmen to sup- 
port a Roman Catholic Pretender is inexcusable. We find him 
alluding to the Pretender (as do all these writers) as "indeed of 
a disputed family." The supposititious birth of the son of James 
the Second seems then to have been treated as a fact by the 



82 

Whig party. The foUowmg passage shows the temper in which 
the gentlemen were asked to sit down to the trial of the prisoners. 
It is only fair it should be borne in mind that at this time James 
the Second's son was actually in Scotland, and half that kingdom 
in the hands of his armed followers. " While the Bishop of 
Eome has disciples among us, we must expect designs against 
our religion and liberties ; and without all doubt, 'tis our Wisdom 
and Interest to observe their motions witli all possible care and 
vigilance. Their separate strength indeed is not very formidable, 
but by their restless Application, and the Influence of their 
Estates, in this and a few other countries, they are capable of 
disturbing the Publick Peace, as Ave find by the late Insurrection. 
The nation seems now to have an Opportunity of 
putting it out of the Power of our enemies, so much as to 
threaten us with Danger for the Time to come." He further 
says "that it is necessary that justice should be done to the 
present Eebellion," and asks "how far favour or impunity to such 
persons may effect the peace and felicity of this Kingdom . . . 
and especially because we cannot be ignorant how far Jesuitical 
evasions of oaths and other obligations to the government have 
of late been in reputation among us." He lays the blame for 
the outbreak on the laxity in punishing the late riots and tumults 
in the couiitry, and hints that many were ready and willing to 
join the enemy but for "the late seasonable Victory." In the 
assize that followed probably 7i persons were tried and con- 
demned, and most, if not all,- were executed either in Liverpool, 
or sent in batches to the towns of Manchester, Preston, Wigan, 
Garstang, or Lancaster. Three — Wm. Harris, shoemaker, 
Stephen Seager, Jos. Porter, labourers, Burnley — were executed 
at Manchester, February 11th, 1716. 

On the 24th day of May following we again find the Eev. 
Samuel Peploe preaching a sermon before Judge Dormer at 
Lancaster. It is a most remarkable disquisition from an un- 
doubtedly able man, and shows to what an extent it is possible 
prejudice may blind a partisan. He attributes the civil wars and 
the death of Charles I. to Catholic designs to subvert the Pro- 
testant religion and government. Again, according to his theory, 
after the Piestoration, " they early obtain'd this step to gain their 
point, viz , in preventing that Prince wlio then came to the 
throne having any legal issue." He hints that the Papists 
caused the death of Charles II., and argues at length against 
Popery and its intolerance. He then turns to tlie providential 
preservation of William III on all occasions, the glory of Anne's 
reign, till a change was wrought by the wicked designs of the 
High Church Tory party who betrayed their country in foreign 
parts, and had not the Queen died before they had concluded . 
their designs would have done so at home. Speaking of the 



88 

King he describes him as "a wise, sober, valient, and rich 
monarch." He aHudes to the groundlessness of the outcry of 
cruelty when only one in a hundred of the prisoners had suffered 
the penalty of their crime. He concludes by desu-ing that there 
may be only two sides known in this country, those that are for 
King and Constitution and those who are for Popery and the 
Pretender. 

I shall next notice a sermon preached at Manchester on May 
8th, 1716 (in the chapel in Cross Street), by the Rev. James 
Grimshaw. After speaking of their providential deliverance 
from what he describes as the worst of the many bloody attempts 
to subvert the Protestant religion in the eleven reigns since the 
Reformation, he urges unity and readiness to meet the enemy. 
After congratulating them on their newly-restored meeting-house, 
he refers to the punishment meted out to the rebels, and does 
not think it a whit too severe, but, like all the Presbyterian 
writers of his time, has a lively sense of the great dangers they 
have so narrowly escaped. On the first anniversary of the victory 
at Preston, November 14th, 1716, the Rev. Jeremiah Aldred 
preached an able sermon in the Cross Street Chapel. After a 
brief history of the preceding thirty years he points out how '• in 
these parts there was but a step between us and death." The 
thanksgiving sermon preached on the second anniversary, No- 
vember 14th, 1717, was by the Rev. Charles Owen. This is a 
masterly and well-written address, which points out that had 
they — the rebels — siicceeded " they would have put a full period 
to all civil and religious Privileges, such a spreading ruin would 
have been the genuine issue of those fatal doctrines." 

In 1718 the Rev. J. Mottershead was the preacher ; and again, 
in 1719, we have a thanksgiving sermon from the Rev. Joshua 
Jones. 

In all of these discourses the clear fact is set forth that, in the 
minds of these mature and thoughtful men, should the Jacobite 
cause prevail, there was no doubt of the total loss of all rights 
and liberties, the utter ruin of their country, and that life itself 
would be in the utmost jeopardy. And on the other hand 
it is evident that they and their audience were and had been 
ready, as one of them says, to oppose the common enemy " even 
unto blood." 

It would, I feel, be wearisome to go at further length into this 
question ; but let anyone who cares to get at the truth on this 
point read some of this literature, and carefully consider if he 
can then endorse the oft-repeated explanation of Dr. Hibbert- 
Ware of the reasons which prevented this High Church Tory 
party fi-om performing their promise to join their Roman Catholic 
friends when the hour of trial came. Dr. Ware asserts — " The 
true cause of, the feeble support which, when the rebellion 



84 

actually broke out, tlie High Church Tories gave to the Jacobite 
cause," was "the humiliatiug reflection which must have often 
intruded itself, that their party was in a false position " (p. 267). 
Whether the position was a false one or not, there is no doubt of 
the fact that it was maintained for another thirty-five years. At 
the outbreak in 17J;0, the diminished number of the Eomau 
Catholic adherents of the Jacobite cause was more on account of 
the repressive measures taken after 1715 than in a loss of friend- 
ship with the High Church Tories. We must assume that they 
had some knowledge of history, yet for fifty years they never 
ceased plotting to place on the throne a prince who, even if he 
ruled the state to their liking, would be a consistent and bitter 
enemy of their Church. Was not the fact this — that they found 
the blood of their fellow-citizens up ; their hands were not only 
on their swords, but they had in some cases actually drawn them. 
They meant to fight, and in these parts, with Liverpool held by 
a bold and defiant garrison of staunch supporters of the king, a 
regiment of dragoons quartered in Manchester, and Wills ad- 
vancing quickly through the county to meet the northern Lords 
and their followers, they saw clearly, as we do now, that the 
game was too dangerous. With their promises they had misled 
many brave and gallant men to an awful fate ; but with a cow- 
ardice that nothing can justify, the members of the High Church 
Tory party of Lancashire stopped at home and kept their heads 
on their shoulders. 

The broadsides containing reports of the trials of some of the 
Lancashire Jacobites of 1715, referred to hi the paper, and which 
are of great rarity, if they are not indeed unique, were exhibited. 



SOIREE.— BURNLEY OLD AND NEW. 

November 10th, 1885. 



I J. AETHUK WADDINGTON. 
T^ ) ALFRED STRANGE. 

i;iRECTORS .. j^jyjES LANCASTER. 

' W. LEWIS GRANT. 



The object of this Soiree was to bring together for exhibition a 
collection of Maps, Plans, Prints, Photographs, Portraits, &c., 
throwing light upon the past history of Burnley, or illustrating 
its aspect at the present time. 

The members of the Committee above mentioned were very 
greatly assisted by Mr. Wm. Waddington, Market Inspector, and 
take this opportunity of recording their obligations to him, 



85 

During the evening, Mr. J. Arthur Waddington, Mr. Strange, 
Mr. F. J. Grant, Mr. Wm. Waddington, Mr. J. Langfield Ward, 
and others, gave such explanation as was thought necessary con- 
cerning the more important exhihits, a hst of which is subjoined. 

The Council Chamber was thrown open from 10 o'clock to 1 
on the following day, and many visitors availed themselves 
of this opportunity of making a more careful examination of the 
exhibits than was possible upon the evening of the Soiree. 



MAPS AND PLANS. 

Lent by 
Plan of Bdrnlet, 1819.— A tracing "copied by 

T. C. (Thomas Chafier ?) 1836 J. Arthur Waddington. 

Plan of Bdrnley, 1827, by Hy. H. Fishwick. . . . F. J. Grant. 

Plan of Burnley, 1841, by Horatio Merryweather Joshua Rawlinson. 

Plan of Burnley, 1882, by F. Walsh, A.I.C.E... 

" Plan op Habergham-Eaves in the County of Lan- 
caster, 1836. Reduced by E. Lovat, Surveyor, 
Burnley " George Storey, J.P. 

" A Map of lands belonging to Lawrence Ormerod of 
Ormerod, Gent., lying in the townships of Cliv- 
iger and Worsthorne in ye Parish of Burnley, 
and Eossendale within the Parish of Whalley 
and County of Lancaster, by R. Lang, 1834 " — 
with a view of the " South Prospect of ye 
Ormerod " F. J. Grant. 

" A Plan of the intended Aqueduct pipes and Reser- 
voirs for supplying the inhabitants of the town 
and townships of Burnley and Habergham- 
Eaves, in the County of Lancaster, with water." 
Lovat, del., 1818 G. Storey, J.P. 

" Plan of " Bull Croft " — set out for building upon 
with public and private improvement, by Edward 
Lovat. "^Upon this plan is a view of the Jail 
known as the " Stone Jug " which was situated 
opposite the Bull Hotel, in Manchester Road ; the 
site is now occupied by Hy. Holdsworth, Butcher.. T. Chaffer Holden. 

' A Map and survey of Bank House estate, by order 
of the Rev. Mr. Standish, Minister of Burnley," 
R. H. MDCCLIX E. Chaffer. 

"A Plan of the Intended Navigable Canal from 
Liverpool to Leeds " — shewing that as first pro- 
jected the canal did not pass through Black- 
burn or Burnley." J- Arthur Waddington. 

" Plan of the Proposed Improvements at top of the 

town, at Burnley," by E. Lovat, 1823 J. Arthur Waddington. 

A Geographical Sketch of the Principal Hills and 
situation of the townships in the County of 
Lancaster ; and a Geological Section of Lan- 
cashire shewing the variety of strata, by E. 
liovat, Surveyor, Burnley, 1886 J. Arthur Waddington. 



DOCUMENTS AND MANUSCRIPTS. 

Leut by 

Original Deed belonging to Small Hazels, (Burnley 

Moor) 1306 ! A. B. Creeke. 

Survey of Burnley and Rate Book 1800 James Hargreaves. 

Edward Robinson's Petition to P. E. Towneley, Esq.. 

for the office of Bellman T. Chaffer Holden. 

Recommendation of Edward Robinson as Bellman 
to P. Towneley, Esq., with autographs of old 
Burnley men T. Chaffer Holden. 

Application for the oiKce from Egerton Stott to P. 
Towneley, Esq., with the autographs of Rev. 
Mosley Master, Rev. \Vm. Thursby, and others T. Chaffer Holden. 

Deed conveying to the Corporation of Burnley the 
right of appointing a Bellman, dated Dec. 31st, 

1808 The Corporation of 

Burnley. 

The Charter of Incorporation granted 24th October, 
18G1 

Grant of Arms to the Borough of Burnley by the 
Heralds' College, dated May 17th, 25th Victoria 
(A.D. 1862) 

Deed Poll returning Richard Shaw, Esq., to Parlia- 
ment, Postmaster's receipt and Mayor's declara- 
tion as Returning Officer, November, 1868 .... „ 

DOCUMENTS arranged by J. Langfield Ward, M.A... J. Fold:^, J. P. 
An old greave book for the Manor of Ightenhill, 

no date but before, 1618. 
Surrender of Dancerhouse and 6 acres to Wm. 

Folds, 1624. 
Surrender of Wheatley-in-Pendle, by Robert 

Brereeliffe, son and heir of Lawr. Brerecliffe, 

1 680, circ. 
The Fifteen Book of Burnley, n.d. 
Sherburne of Stoneyhurst to pay for the services of 
Simon Whipp, constable, Preston Sessions, 1691. 
Letters of C.Halsted of Rowley, to J. Folds. 1720 circ. 
Oliver Ormerod's accounts for Cliviger, 1717. 
Monthly Payments to the Poor of Burnley, 1725. 
Warrant of arrest of 4 men for entering a house 

and barn called Tarleton's House, signed by 

Edmund Townley, of Rowley, 1723. 
Third double Poor Lay Assessment, 1725, men- 
tioning Old Grammar School, disused from 

1693. 
Rules of Burnley Races, Aug. 12th and 13th, 1731. 
Transfer from T. Eastwood to L. Ashworth, of 

Burnley Moor Tenement, 16 acres, Sept. 15th, 

1731. 
Counsel's opinion respecting a deed of Feoffment, 

touching Burwains, 1735. 
Bond of Banastre Halsted, of Rowley, 1737. 

And several others of miscellaneous character. 



87 

Lent by 
Autograph List of Subscribers to a Testimonial given 
in 1819 to the late Colonel Hargreaves for his 
conduct during the popular agitation of that time F. J. Grant. 

Manuscript in Latin, 1674, supposed to have been 
written by one of the Towneley Chaplains, in 
defence of Eoman Catholicism Alfred Strange. 

A Diary of one of the Towneleys (date 1702) con- 
taining notes in shorthand G. Storey, J. P. 

An Account Book of one of the Towneleys from 1707 

to 1710 G. Storey, J. P. 

Manuscript (foolscap folio) by Christopher Towneley; 
Catalogue of Towneley Deeds, Charters, Family 
Documents, Ac Alfred Strange. 

Catalogues of the Library of John Towneley, 1807. The property of the 
with fragments of his diary B. L. & S. Club. 

Undertaker's Order of Procession to be observed at 

the funeral of P. E. Towneley, Esq , 1847 .... T. Chafier Holden. 

King Edward III.— fine of Gilbert de la Leigh of 
Hapton, for having acquired one fourth part of 
the Bailiwick of the Wapentake of Blackburn 
from the Duke of Lancaster, without royal 
license (from the original at Towneley) with a 
translation W. Waddington. 

Final proof sheet with corrections and additions for 
the second edition of " Craven " of the Pedigree 
of Koundells of Gledstone Hall, with holographic 
letters on the back, by Dr. Whitaker, Nicholl the 
printer, and the Rev.' Wm. Roundell W. Waddington. 

Letter by Dr. Whitaker to the Kev. Mr. Roundell, 

requesting loan of MSS W. Waddington. 

Summons signed by Dr. Whitaker, and the Rev. 

Thos. Collins W. Waddington. 

Sermons by the Rev. John Raws, Master of the 
Grammar School, and Assistant Curate at St. 
Peter's Miss Greenwood. 

Manuscript on " Devotion " by Archdeacon Master, 
written during his first curacy at Huyton, Liver- 
pool, 1815 S. E. Howarth. 

Poem by Ormerod Shaw, commemorating the good 
qualities of Wm. Greenwood, of Well House. . . . 

Copy of Satirical Lines on the Rev. Henry Haliiwell, 

Dean of Brazenose College, Oxford, and son of 

the Rev. Wm. Haliiwell, of Holmes Chapel, 

Master of the Burnley Grammar School ; by 

Reginald Heber, the Poet, afterwards Bishop 

of Calcutta W. Waddington 

Valuation of Timber at Towneley and Hapton, 1706 W. Waddington. 
Valuation of Lands in Habergham-Eaves, 1800 .... W. Waddington, 



88 

BOOKS, &c. 

Early Specimens of Burnley Printing : - 

, Lent by 

Articles of Agreement of a Society meetiiiR at the 
Hole-in-the-Wall at Colne, in Lancashire, es- 
tablished 1762. Burnley : printed by Henry 
Spencer, 1781 Alfred Strange. 

Arguments in Favor of the Universality of Christ's 
death, by John Akroyd. Burnley : printed by 
S. Thornton, St. James's Street, 1807 Alfred Strange. 

Poems and Dramatic Pieces by L. 0. Shaw, (uncle of 
the late E. Shaw, Esq., M.P.) Vol. I., printed 
by Thomas Sutcliffe, Burnley, 1814 Alfred Strange. 

Play Bill of Theatre in Bridge Street, 1798 F. J. Grant. 

Bill of Musical Performance at St. Peter's Church . . Jas. Howorth. 

Ballad—" The Burnley Haymakers," sung by Eobin 

O'Green (Vixit 1790) W. Waddington. 

The First Volume of the Burnley Advertiser, com- 
mencing March 1st, 18.52 W. Waddington. 

A diary of one of the Towueleys (date 1702) contain- 
ing notes in shorthand G. Storey, J.P. 

Eules of the Keighley Green Sunday School, 1813. . T. Eiding. 

Scheme for a Canal from Burnley to Todmorden, by 

E. Lovat, in 1824 W. Waddington. 

An account of the expenses of the Township of 
Habergham-Eaves from March 25th, 1831, to 
April 10th, 1832 G. Storey, J.P. 

Balance Sheet of the Burnley Commissioners in 1837 W. Waddington. 

The " Compote " of Henry de Lacy W. Waddington. 

Large paper copy of the History of Burnley Church, 

illustrated with original pliotographs W. Waddington. 

The Scrap-Book of the late T. T. Wilkinson, F.R.A.S., 
containing many newspaper extracts relative to 
local Antiquities and Folk-Lore, Lancashire Bal- 
lads, &c. (Now in the possession of J. Arthur 

Waddington) Jas. Howorth, 

Waterfoot. 

THE GEAMMAE SCHOOL. 

Christmas Scrips written in the year 1797 Miss Tate. 

Christmas Scrip, 1817 Thos. Riding. 

Short Poems on " The Snowdrop," one of them by 

P. G. Hamerton J. Arthur Waddington. 

Petition on behalf of the Eev. James Butler, Register 
of Scholars with Rank Card of Election of Two 
Representatives W. Lewis Giant. 

Photograph of the Porch of the Old Grammar School B. H. Cowgill. 

Sundry Books and Manuscripts from the Library . . J. Langfield Ward, M.A. 

Portrait of the Rev. Henry Halsted, Prebendary of 

St. Paul's, donor of a large portion of the library J. Langfield Ward, M.A. 



89 

VIEWS, PHOTOGRAPHS, &c. 

Lent by 

Large old Oil Painting of Gawthorpe Hall Sir U. Kay-Shuttleworth, 

^ M.P. 

Copy of an old Oil Painting of Sandy-Gate from 

Trafalgar Street to the Hole-in-Wall Inn Robert Harker. 

(The oriqinal is in the iwssession of J. Launder, 
Herbalist.) 

Lithograph— St. James' Street, 1852 Joshua Rawhnson. 

Burnley from Manchester Road, 1852... Joshua Rawlinson. 

Photographs. 
Photographic enlargements of local views: — The 

Brun at Hesand Ford, The Calder at Duckpits, 

Ancient Market Place of Burnley, shewing base 

of Grots and Stocks, Danes House, Old Hall at 

Worsthorne Wm. Waddmgton. 

Platinotype Prints :— Hurstwood Hall, The Lodge, 

Farm House in Byerden, (3 views). Old Cross 

in Godley Lane, Old Red Lion Corner, A-c Wm. Waddmgton. 

Photographs of St. Andrew's Church, Bank Hall 
Grounds, Sand Holme Bridge, Towneley Hall 
and Grounds, Extwistle Hall, &c Joseph Pickles. 

Photographs of The Foldys Cross, Towneley Hall, 
Ormerod House, St. Matthew's Church, Old 
Finsley Bridge, Old Red Lion Corner, Howorth 
Fold, &c B. H. Cowgill. 



PORTRAITS. 
Oil Paintings. 
Rev. Lawrence Shuttleworth, the builder of Gaw- 
thorpe HaU SirU.Kay-Shuttleworth 

^ M.P. 

Wm. Greenwood, Esq., of Well House, Burnley, 
owner of the library afterwards presented to the 

Church of England Literary Institution Church of England 

Literary Institution. 

Miss Ellen Greenwood, sister of the above do. 

Archdeacon Master "O. 

Dr. White H. Briggs, M.D. 

General Scarlett H. Briggs, M.D. 

Engeavings. 

Robin O'Green, Ballad Singer, 1790 G. Storey, J.P. 

Peregrine Towneley, Esq H. Briggs, M.D. 

Col. Charles Towneley — Culshaw. 

Col. John Towneley H. Briggs, M.D. 

Archdeacon Master W. M. Grant. 

Rev. W. Thursby H. Briggs, M.D. 



90 • 

Miniatures. 
Col. Charles Towneley and Lady Caroline Towneley — Culshaw. 
Wm. Greenwood, Esq., Well House Miss E. Haworth. 

Photographs, &c. 

Benjamin Chaffer, Esq., of Eowley F. Chaffer. 

Richard Chaffer, Esq F. Chaffer. 

Col. .John Hargreaves W. M. Grant, 

Dr. James Haworth Mrs. Grant. 

R. Townley Parker, Esq Joshua Rawlinson. 

Rev. John Raws Charles Sutcliffe. 

P. Rylands, Esq., M.P Joshua Rawlinson. 

R. Shaw, Esq , M.P Joshua Rawlinson. 

Mr. Thomas Sutcliffe, Publisher Charles Sutcliffe. 

The Original Members of the Borough Lodge of Free 

Masons (group) Alfred Strange. 

The Parliamentary Candidates for the Borough of 

Burnley J- Arthur Waddington. 

GENERAL. 

Ancient Urn containing human remains, dug up on 

Worsthorne Moor in the year 1843, by Mr. 

Studley Martin Col. Thursby. 

Carved Oak Panel from Ormerod, containing the 

Arms of Spencer de Hurstwood Col. Thursby. 

Ancient Watchman's Rattle Mrs. J. Langfield Ward. 

The Burnley Halfpenny Token, the only one known, 
found in pulling down houses opposite the Old 
Church. On the obverse the inscription is 
" Laiorence Townley ;" in the field surmounted 
by a dotted circle, is a shield bearing the Arms 
of the Mercers' Company. " On the reverse ; — 
" of Burnley, 1669," and in an inner circle " His 
Half-penny." W. Waddington. 

The Town Criers Bell- 
Inscription '• P. E. Towneley, 1827." The Burnley 

Bill Posting Co. 

The Mayor's Chain and Badge The Corporation of 

Burnley. 



91 



THE ADVENT OF THE FRANCISCANS IN 
ENGLAND. 

By the Rev. W. S. CAIGER. November 11th, 1885. 



There has grown up a general conviction that in comparison 
with the present age there is an absence of movement and 
development in all other eras of the history of Europe. We are 
apt in this age. to lose imperceptibly our sense of proportion. 
Yet a careful study of the Middle Ages reveals to us the fact 
that there was as much movement then as now. Men strove as 
strenuously for great social and rehgious objects, and felt as 
passionately the pressure of wrongs and disorder as they have 
ever striven and felt in any succeeding age. Mighty movements 
affecting many nations and many races, overpowering enthusi- 
asms, world-wide aims and aspirations form the characteristics of 
that past which seems to us so dim and so difficult to under- 
stand. It must be remembered that the modern world is 
characterised by a wonderful variety of contending interests and 
thoughts and feelings. The tendency is for each nation to live 
its own hfe without regard to that of others, as shewn in political 
and social institutions, in language and religion. But in medice- 
val times there was a singular unity of thought throughout 
Christendom in which differences of nationality, rehgious belief 
and language were almost entirely lost. There was one Church 
governed by one spiritual leader having universal authority, and 
to which every conscience was directly responsible. There was 
one universal empire which in theory at least claimed the obedi- 
ence of all the nations. There was one language by which all 
differences of race and nation were obliterated at least between 
educated men. It was owing to the unity of thought which 
characterised European history before the Renaissance that all 
great movements instead of affecting certain races or groups of 
nations like the Eeformation passed over the whole of Western 
civiHzation. All the great movements of medioeval times are 
characterized by magnitude and universality. Among the most 
impoitant of these, as well in their effects as in their interest 
and immediate influences were the Crusades, and the religious 
revival coeval with the rise of the Franciscans and the Domini- 
cans. In the Crusades one saw a universal religious movement 
which impelled all the populations of Europe to move in suc- 
cessive waves eastward to the Holy Land. 

In the Franciscans and Dominicans and more especially in 
the former there was the rise of a missionary movement which 
moved men to forsake all that made life worth having in order 



92 

that the iuflueuces of religiou might be brought to bear upon 
the outcasts of society and even upon heathen hxnds. It was the 
martial spirit of the Crusades transformed into the missionary 
zeal of the preacher. The Franciscan movement which did so 
much for the ignorant and poor in the great cities and towns of 
Europe had its origin in what at first siglit seems almost an 
accident. One evening Pope Innocent III. was pacing the terrace 
of the Vatican palace engaged in deep meditation upon the world- 
Avide schemes in which he was perpetually engaged. Suddenly 
his thoughts were interrupted by the appearance of a mendicant 
dressed in the foulest rags, and who asked permission to reveal a 
scheme for the promotion of Religion among the lowest orders 
of mankind, and who offered to dedicate all his zeal and his 
best energies to the service of the Papal See. Innocent gave a 
ready ear to the story, Francis of Assisi then proceeded to tell 
the story of his life. He told how there was a time when he 
was the life and soul of a band of dissolute companions, of how 
his course had been stopped by a dangerous sickuess, and how 
he had risen fi-om his bed conscious of a great change which had 
come over him. At first there was only the sense of large, vague 
desires for the welfare of mankind and for the promotion of true 
religion. Then he called to mind the masses in the great towns 
oppressed by nobles and burghers, and uncared for by the prelates 
in the great monastic establishments. The enthusiast warned 
the Supreme Pontiff that amongst these neglected masses the 
influence of the Church was slowly, but surely passing away, 
and that the hearts of the people were being turned from the 
accredited ministers of religion by those who taught hitherto 
unknown doctrines, and who lived the life of the poor among 
whom they worked and taught. 

Aided by the approbation and fortified with the benediction of 
the Church, Francis of Assisi proposed to found an Order which 
should rival and surpass both the labours and the sufferings 
of those who were thus tu)'ning the affections of the people 
away from the Eoman Pontiff'. The wealth, power and mag- 
nificence of the great monastic orders had to a serious extent 
paralysed their spiritual influence, and he proposed that the new 
order should be wedded to poverty in its most repulsive form. 
Tliere should not be in any of the worst parts of the poorest 
towns of Christendom any who should be poorer than these new 
teachers. So strict was to be their rule of life that even a 
breviary was to be forbidden them. A robe made fi'om the 
coarsest possible materials and fastened round the waist with a 
common rope was to constitute all the wealth that any member 
was to possess, and they were to depend for their food entirely 
upon the alms of the faitliful poor. It was forbidden that their 
churches should ever become stately, or be decorated in any way, 



98 

and the use of stone was prohibited ahke for sanctuary and 
dwelhugs. The poor that were eveiywhere neglected were to be 
their special care ; and even the leper, from wliich the ignorant 
terror of the age stood back appalled and regarded as outside 
the pale of christian charity, was to be tended and niu-sed. 

At first Innocent rejected the offer with contempt. On re- 
flection however he sent again for S. Francis and gave his 
approbation to the scheme. The prospect of these teachers gaining 
the afiection of the people, and the conviction that the new 
Order would serve as a vast standing army throughout the world, 
pledged to advance the interests of the Papal See, doubtless 
influenced the mind of Innocent. 

The new Order grew with astonishing rapidity even within 
the hfetime of its saintly founder, and made its way into every 
corner of Europe. It imdertook missions to the Saracens, and 
strove to win its victories with spuitual weapons. The members 
of this Order entered into the intellectual arena provided by 
the great universities, and became teachers of Philosophy and 
Theology. Very early in the history of the Order, in the year 
1225 A.D., a number of the Franciscans made their way to 
Dover, headed by a native of Pisa, named Agnellus. It would 
appear as if they had been part of a mission sent to France, for 
Thomas de Ecclestou, one of the earliest disciples of the Order, 
speaks with gratitude of the assistance which the friars received 
from the Monastery of Fescamp, a religious house of great 
historic interest in Normandy. This mission consisted of nine 
persons, of whom four were clerics, and the rest were laymen. 
After landing at Dover, they went to Canterbury, and thence 
some of them went to London. The accommodation which they 
received at Canterbury was certainly not of the best. During 
their repasts one of the brethren would make a few remarks, 
dwelling upon the spiritual advantages of poverty and the great 
work that was before them. Two of the friars went to Oxford 
and establisbed a mission in that city. In a short time they 
received such additions to their numbers that missions were 
established at Cambridge, Lincoln and Norwich. Gradually as 
their numbers increased the friars made settlements and built 
churches in all the provincial towns, and by their poverty, their 
sympathy with the sufi'eriug and oppressed classes, and by their 
deep devotion and earnest practical preaching affected the lives 
and consciences of thousands of the people. 

Mr. Caiger then described at some length the picture of a 
medioeval town in England. The great religious houses which 
were established in the country districts were the centres of 
education, while the masses of the town populations were extreme- 
ly ignorant, and almost altogether neglected. In the suburbs of 
the towns, dwelt a large population which was neglected by both 



94 

the civic aiithovities and the great rehgious houses. It was in 
these parts that the Mendicant Orders estahUshed themselves, 
built tlieir houses and churches. The hovels were rudely built, 
the streets ill-formed and dirty, with no attempt at sanitation, the 
signs of destitution and disease everywhere abounding. Amongst 
such surroundings the Franciscan friars erected their church, 
dwelling-house and hospital. The friai's wore coarse gowns and 
with feet bare they pursued their labours. Their preaching was of 
rough and homely style. They had in most cases belonged to the 
cultured classes, but had sacrificed all in obedience to a divine 
voice which led them to devote their lives to the poor. The 
friar was to be found hearing confessions and giving advice, and 
helping the people in many ways. He was to be found also by 
the bedside of the sick and in the hospitals tending the sick and 
ministering to their necessities. 

As may be readily imagined the Mendicant Orders were not 
popular among members of the aristocratic monastic houses, 
and many are the complaints to be found in the pages of the 
chroniclers referring to the intrusion of the friars, as it was 
termed, into their parishes. It was a special grievance that 
they seduced the hearts of their people by hearing confessions 
and granting absolution for nothing. It soon became evident 
that even this evangelizing work would not suffice for the 
energies of the new Order. The chief officials of the state and 
the judges were taken from the ranks of the clergy. The fact 
tliat an aptitude for aftairs and a knowledge of the civil law 
were more essential qualifications for promotion than profound 
theological learning or religious zeal had led to a comparative 
neglect of the study of divinity at the universities and cathedi'al 
and monastic schools. Schools where theology and afterwards 
philosophy and the Canon Law were taught, were opened at 
Oxford and Cambridge. The movement was materially helped 
at Oxford by one who has a special claim upon the affection of 
Englislmien, Kobert Grossetete, afterwards Bishop of Lincoln. 
Under the protection of Bishop Grossetete the Franciscan move- 
ment made great progress, not only at Oxford but also through- 
out the comitry. Roger Bacon, the greatest natural philosopher 
of his day, was a Franciscan, and a pupil of Bishop Grossetete. 

To this Order, as Avell as to their colleagues, and afterwards 
their rivals, the Dominicans, is to be ascribed the revival of 
theology at the Universities, and perhaps that wonderful im- 
provement in the higher ranks of the clergy, which impels the 
present Bishop of Chester to style this peiiod of History the 
golden age of the English Church. 

The Order subsequently became degraded, the members thereof 
being mere instruments of the Papal See to collect funds, carry 
ou wars and fulfil similar functions. Chaucer spoke of tliem 



I 



95 

with contempt. Indeed the Franciscans forgot their first works ; 
their rehgious enthusiasm passed away, and they hecame event- 
ually a race of greedy and sturdy beggars. 



CELTIC, ROMAN AND SAXON FOOTPRINTS 
IN THE PENNINE RANGE. 

By TATTERS ALL WILKLYSOy. December 8tlt, 1885. 



It was well for them to endeavour to rescue from the mists of 
antiquity relics of the different races which have at various 
periods inhabited the hills and valleys in their immediate neigh- 
bourhood. The district extending from Boulsworth southwards as 
far as Eossendale, offers a rich field to the ethnological student. 
The wild and inhospitable aspect of this portion of the Pennine 
Range offered no allurements to the Saxon invader, but the 
Celts, driven by the force of circumstances from the lower and 
more fertile regions, held their own in these out-of-the-way 
places up to within a siiort time of the Norman conquest. The 
different races which inhabit modern Eui'ope seem to have rolled 
fi-om east to west like waves of the ocean, each pushing forward 
its predecessor, the Celtic branches first in the following order — 
Gadhelic, or Irish : afterwards their later brethren the Cymric, 
or Welsh ; then Saxon and Dane, succeeded by the warlike tribes 
of the great Sclavonic race, who occupied the country eastward 
beyond the limits occupied by the Teutons, extending from 
Bohemia to the banks of the Danube. 

CELTIC. 

On the summit of Boulsworth is a large block of millstone 
grit, named the " Lladd Law." The prefix " Lladd " is a pm-e 
Celtic word signifying to kill or slaughter, wliile the affix "Law" 
is from the Saxon " Hleow " or hill, " The killing hill," pointing 
in an unmistakeable manner to the time when the Druids oflered 
up human sacrifices on this holy rock. Looking southward 
across "Widdop valley, on the summit of the hill opposite the 
embankment of the reservoir, there stands an enormous pile of 
gritstone rocks, in appearance like the ruins of an old feudal 
castle. This group is called " The Cluthers," an indelible foot- 
print of the ancient Celts. In Hugh's Welsh dictionary this 
word is spelt " Cluder," a confused heap or pile, a description 
corresponding to the character of the mass of rocks. Clitheroe 
seems to be derived fi-om the same root, the mass of limestone 
rocks on which the castle stands being tilted up fi-om beneath, 



96 

with the stratification broken up in all directions. Turning to 
the north, " Penygent " lifts up its head to the clouds, forming 
a line background to lovely Ribblesdale. The name of this 
mountain is derived from the Cymric or Welsh, " Pen," head or 
top, and gent from " g\mit,'" white, i.e., "the White Hill," 
probably owing to its snowy crown in winter. A little beyond 
Skipton is Kilnsey Crag. The prefix " Kill " is from an Erse or 
Irish derivation, one among many proofs of Gadhelic migration 
that appears like a solitary island amid a host of Cymric and 
Haxon names. The word "Kill" from the Erse is "Holy;" 
Cragg from the same source, " Carreg," a rock — " Holy rock." 
Leaving the rocks and hills, and coming to the streams that 
pour out of the deep ravines of the Pennine Eange, we again 
cross the footprints of the Cymry. The turbid stream, once so 
clear and limpid, that flows through your town, feeding the 
mighty machines that manufacture fabrics for the four quarters 
of the earth, is derived from two pure Celtic roots — Calder from 
Cymric " Cul," Gaelic "Gaol" — narrow, and der fi-om " dwr," 
water, " Narrow Water," a peculiar feature of the four Calders 
that exist in the British Isles. Another interesting Celtic root 
records their existence in Thursden, and marks the path of Celtic 
migration across the European continent, from east to west — I 
allude to the river " Don." This stream springs from the bowels 
of Boulsworth, passes through Thursden Valley, and finally joins 
the ('alder near Pheasantford. The word " Don " is Celtic, to 
flow or spread. These ancient Celtic names stand forth in bold 
relief, an indestructible record of the forgotten past. Conquest 
after conquest has rolled over our land, Eoman, Saxon, Danish 
and Norman have successively established themselves, and still 
they live, breathing the spirit of a brave and warlike people who 
gave us the names of these momitains, rivers and rocks, cor- 
responding to their nature and peculiarities. 

EOMAN. 
Descending from the top of Boulsworth I arrive on the summit 
of Pike Law, — " pic," from the Celtic, a high peak, and " Law," 
Saxon, — hill. It is a prominent hill in the township of Extwistle, 
and contains the remains of an entrenched camp that overlooks 
the vast chain of Eoman Camps that stretch across the base of the 
Pennine Chain from Caster Clifi", near Colne, to the upper part of the 
Forest of Eossendale. Caster Clift', or Tum-hill (which seems 
to spring from the Latin Tumuhis,) the most northern camp, is 
composed of three circular tiers of breastworks, clearly defined. 
The outer circle is 200 yards in diameter, and is one of the most 
perfect in Britain, and according to the rules of ancient v\'arfare, 
must have been almost impregnable. The Eoman road over 
Widdop Head to Cambodunum commences at the south-eastern 



97 

limit of this camp. Proceeding south, in almost a straight hne, 
on the top of a hummocky knoll near " Broad .Bank," and over- 
looking Thursden Valley, is a circular camp, with a fosse in a 
remarkable state of preservation. Its diameter is fifty yards, 
and there are likewise the remains of a small reservoir for water 
some fifty yards westward. Crossing Thursden Valley in the 
direction of "Jerusalem Farm," reclaimed from the moor by 
the eccentric Jonas Lee, about half way up the slope on the 
Extwistle side, there is a small and seemingly temporary circular 
camp about thirty yards in diameter, probably an outlying camp 
to keep up a communication between the " Twist" and "Broad 
Bank " camps. A short distance from here to the south-west, 
on the summit of one of those hUls that stands 

As if the ocean with its billowy swells 
Stood still and motionless for ever, — 

there is a cu'cle of seven stones. About the year 184:1 or 1842> 
an antiquarian, named Spencer, from Halifax, opened the centre 
of the cu'cle, and found three unglazed urns filled with calcined 
human bones, evidently the remains of an officer of superior 
rank, probably the commander of troops in the adjacent camp. 

Striking off due west, on the summit of the " Twist," at a 
place where the rounded hill forms a promontory overlooking 
" Holden Clougli," (one of those pretty little sylvan scenes we 
often meet with in these out-of-the-way places, teeming witli 
botanical treasures), we come to a square entrenched camp with 
its eastern and western gates or openings, which are in a good 
state of preservation. The mound of the prtetorium stands in 
the middle of the square, while the stones which faced the em- 
bankment inside the fosse lie buried in the face of the breast all 
round the outer vaUum. Looking north, across Holden Clough, 
in a direct line with Caster Cliff, on the top of " Beardley Hill," 
are the remains of another large camp, in the form of a square 
eighty yards across, while to the south, still following a dn-ect 
line to a spot on Worsthorne Moor there is a camp an exact 
facsimile of the "Twist" camp. Crossing Worsthorne Moor, 
and over by the contemplated reservoir bank to within a short 
distance of " The Maiden's Cross," there is another camp of a 
similar construction to that on Worsthorne Moor, in a good 
state of preservation. This is within a short distance of the 
Eoman road over the " Long Causeway." Several more camps 
exist to the southward. 

The sanguinary struggles which took place during the century 
after the departure of the Eomans ended in the complete conquest 
of the Celts, and it is to the Saxon occupation of the district 
embracing the Pennine Range to which I wish more particularly 
to draw your attention, and to some of the footprints they have 
engi'aved on the book of time. In studying the roots of names 



98 

of places we often find a Celtic prefix joined with a Saxon aflBx, 
both words having the same meaning. For instance, Pendle 
Hill — Pen (Celtic) hill, and die, a phonetic change of hill — so 
that Pendle Hill really means hill, hill, hill. I wish to mention 
this because I shall have to deal with matters of this description 
in speaking of the following subjects. Commencing with Wy- 
coUar in tlie uorth we come in contact with a curious but very 
frequent problem for the etymologist. Cymric words applied to 
water, running water, rivers, brooks, are Aw, Iby, dwr ; Avon — 
flowing water; Wysg — water in rapid motion; Khyd — a stream, 
and Aar — a river, WycoUar is composed of three pure Celtic 
words — wy, water, col, narrow, and ar fi'om Aar. Thus 
we get : Water — narrow water. Trawden from Treu, Saxon — 
Tree, and dean, ibid, valley — Valley of Trees. Silsden in Airedale 
— fc^il, Saxon — a plough; dean, ibid — ploughed valley. Thursden 
— Thor, Saxon — a god ; dean, ibid, valley — a valley dedicated to 
the god Thor. Haggate — Hag, Saxon, an enclosed wood, gate, 
geht, road — road to the wood. Eonklehuist — Eunck, Saxon, 
closely packed together ; Hurst, ibid, Hyrst, a wood — thickly 
planted wood. Extwistle. — Aac, Saxon, an oak ; tAvistle, an 
enclosure — an enclosure of oaks. "We find " twistle " in Oswald- 
twistle ; Entwistle, etc., having a similar meaning. 

SAXON. 

There is a place near Mereclough called the "Battle Stone," 
and the ground in the immediate neighbourhood, the " Battle 
spot." On the brow of the hill overlooking the beautiful valley 
of the Calder to the west, and within a short distance of the 
Roman road at Steop Cross, in the centre of a field and detached 
fi'om any other rocks of a similar kind, there stands in a vertical 
position a large unhewn block of fine sandstone rock. From the 
peculiarity of its position it has evidently been placed there by 
the hand of man. This mass of rock is the celebrated " Battle 
Stone." Tradition, which has no doubt been handed down 
through successive generations, says that a great battle was 
fought here between the Saxons and Danes. I remember visiting 
this spot in company with several of your local antiquarians, and, 
with a view to test the existence of the tradition, we sought for 
information from the first man we met on the road. He was 
evidently a native, and he immediately informed us that it had 
been always said that a battle was once fought there between the 
Saxons and Danes. I, for one, have great faith in these traditions ; 
they are the unwritten history of many a battle-field. The pro- 
bable site of the battle of Brunanbm-g— or, literally translated. 
Hill by the Brun — has long been a bone of contention among 
local antiquarians. In my humble opinion this subject is worthy 
of serious consideration. Here we have the stone marking the 



99 

site of a battle on the top of the hill, with the river Brun flowing 
at the foot on its way through the dense woods that surround 
Ormerod House. It is a remarkable circumstance that the deep 
valleys and ravines that intersect the Pennine Eange from Trawden 
to the Todmorden valley are named " Deans," from the Saxon — a 
valley, while across the hills, in the Forest of Eossendale, we find 
a great number of doughs , stalls , lamids , and booths , names given by 
the Danes. History informs us that the ancient and original Saxons 
who landed in swarms on the east and northern shores of Britain 
were pagans, or heathen-men, and that two of their principal or 
supreme deities were Odin or Woden, and Thor. The lonely and 
secluded valley of Thorsdean, or " Valley of Thor," with its high 
precipitate rocks, rismg up perpendicularly to the height of three 
or four hundred feet from the bed of the river, seems to bring to 
the remembrance the idea of this solitary valley having been at 
one time dedicated to the worship of the titular deity. " Hell 
Scar " and " Hell Clough " (from the Saxon " Holy ") lead out of 
the valley on the Extwistle side. Cant Clough — Can from the 
Celtic means light-coloured — and Clough, Danish, Cleugh, light- 
coloiu'ed valley. This seems to be the probable derivation, the 
ground being covered with bent or moor grass, there being almost 
total absence of heather. Passing on along the foot of Black 
Hambleton, we come suddenly in view of a fine section of 
ganister rock, called the "Eagle Eocks." The ravine is named 
" Black Clough." On the top of the hill that overlooks Todmor- 
den Dale, at a short distance from Keb Cote, there is a high pile of 
grit-rock, which forms a prominent feature in the neighbourhood, 
called " Whorlaw," — Wheorl, from the Saxon Whael, Slaughter; 
law, hill — " Slaughter Hill." The position and otlier circum- 
stances seem to indicate its probable derivation. I will now give 
you a few more names out of the many that abound on all sides : 
Stiperden, (Saxon), Steop ; Dean, ibid, steep valley. Gorple : 
Gor, (Celtic), wild; ley, (Saxon), a field or enclosure, wild 
enclosure. Hurstwood : Hyrst (Saxon), a wood ; wood, wood. 
Within a short period of time, before a beerhouse was known 
in Widdop, the local vernacular contained a purer Saxon element 
than any other part of Lancashire and Yorkshire, but all these 
locahsms are fast fading away, and soon will become a thing of 
the past. 

It is well that the successive waves have passed away, and 
that their traces are almost obliterated. The hot, fiery, and 
impetuous Celt, blended with the cool, calculating, pertinacious 
Saxon, has produced one of the finest and most intelligent races 
of mankind, whose language and influence overshadows the 
earth, and on whose possessions the sun never sets. Long may 
they continue to advance in the foremost ranks of civilisation, 
giving peace and plenty to the four quarters of the earth. 



100 

DINNER. 

December 11th, 1885. 



A Dinner attended by twenty- six of the Members of the Chib 
was held at Mr. Cronkshaw's Hotel, on this date. The following 
were the principal toasts : — 

1. The Loyal Toasts. — Proposed by The President, Mr. Henry 

Houlding. 

2. The Burnley Literary and Scientific Club. — Proposed by 

Mr. A. Strange, and responded to by the Secretary, Mr. 
W. Lewis Grant. 

3. Literature. — Proposed by Mr. Wm. Thompson, and respond- 

ed to by Mr. F, J. Grant, 

4. Science. — Proposed by Mr. James Lancaster, and responded 

to by Mr. A. E. Tovey, D.Sc. 

5. Art. — Proposed by Mr. B. Sagar, and responded to by Mr, 

-James Kay, JiP. 



SOIREE : MUSICAL AND ELOCUTIONARY. 

Director : CHARLES PARSONS. December 15th, 1885. 



The following was the Programme performed. 

Song..." Angus 'MacAoimli " . . . Roechel Miss Nuttall. 

Eeadiug..." The dying Alchymist " . . . TFr/Zis Charles Parsons. 

■^r- ^ 11 r, 1 f " HoDC told a flattcriug talc " ) tt tt 
Violoncello Solo {. .^j J ^^^^p^^^ of Summer "f^- Hargreaves. 

Eecitation..." Out o' the fire "...Will Carleton... G. B. Eawcli£fe. 
Song..." The Pilgrim of love "...Bishop E, Hartley. 

Reading.." The King of Bohemia and his Seven Castles "..Sterne. 

J. L. Ward, M.A. 
Duet..." Hark ! the goat bells ringing "...Smart. ..Miss Hamilton 

and Miss Nuttall. 
Eeadiug. ..A chapter from "David Copperfield ".. Dickens... 

Charles Parsons. 
Song..." The Golden West " ...Cruickshank Miss Hamilton. 

Eecitation (Serio-Comic)..." Mary Miles the Telegirl " . 

Hans Breittuiann ..G. B. Rawclifife, 

Song..." Alice where art thou ?".... J ic/ic/- E. Hartley. 

Accompanist : P. Pickup, 



101 

ART IN THE MANUFACTURING DISTRICTS. 

By PHILIP GILBERT HAMERTOX. March 27th, 1877. 



The silent course of change has been going forward in our time 
more rapidly, perhaps, than in the time of our fathers, certainly 
much more rapidly than m the time of our grandfathers. You 
know better than I can tell you the nature of the change that 
has long been going on in the manufacturing districts. Quiet 
countiy places that were little better than sleepy yiUages have 
become active and populous communities hke so many minor ^lan- 
chesters. They are not generally pleasant places to look at, and 
strangers always wonder how anybody can live in them. But 
the inhabitants find ample compensations in the interests of 
business life, or in the maintenance of old habits, old friendships, 
and associations. Then as these towns increase in wealth and 
population, they also gradually become centres of intelligence. 
In a very small place a man of any high intellectual culture is 
miserably isolated, but in a lai-ge town he finds opportunities for 
intercom'se with men as well informed as himself, so that the 
painful sense of isolation is removed, and his mind becomes 
healthier and happier by iniercourse with his intellectual equals. 
The necessity for such intercom-se is the cause which always 
inevitably produces such societies as yours in towns of any con- 
siderable importance, at least in aU the intelligent countries of 
Europe and America. The good done by such literary and 
scientific clubs is that they make life better worth having. 
Better fifty years of Em-ope than a cycle of Cathay! — which 
being interpreted into plain prose may be expressed as follows. 
It is better to hve a moderate number of years in an intelligent 
place than any length of time in a stupid one. People may ask 
what is the use of knowledge. Few ask that question in these 
days, but some do, and others who do not ask it openly show 
their perfect indiflerence to mental culture by all the habits of 
their lives. Tlie answer to such a question or to such indifference 
is easy, and may be made plain to anyone. We cannot think 
rightly and justly about anything in the world without having 
sound and accurate knowledge about that particular thing, and 
we may always assume tliat it is desirable to think justly if we 
think at all. Now in many situations of life knowledge of certain 
kinds is not necessaiy simply because in those situations men 
are not called upon to think of tiie things to which knowledge of 
those kinds refers. In a veiy simple state of society knowledge 
itself is simple and limited. A savage knows that boiling water 
produces steam, but it is not necessary that he should have any 
scientific knowledge of the expansive force of steam. In modern 



102 

England such scientific knowledge is practically necessary to all 
who have to deal with steam engines, for without it they would 
blow themselves up, and it is intellectually necessary to all who 
ever think about steam engines, for without it, they would think 
erroneously. A.11 knowledge has these two sides or aspects — the 
practical and the theoretical, or critical — the first concerning all 
who have to do with the subject, the second all who are ever 
compelled to tliiuk about the subject. Now there are many 
subjects which the mind encounters in a simple state of society 
and that it is utterly unable to escape from in a highly civilised 
one I am comhig to art jn-esently, as you perceive, but before 
coming to art I prefer to give literature as an instance of this. 
The idlest young gentleman in Burnley cannot escape from 
literature, because printing has so disseminated it that books are 
in every house in a wealthy English town. He must of neces- 
sity either have true notions about literature, or erroneous 
notions ; he cannot possibly in these days have no notions at all. 
About poetry, for example, he may think that it is rhymed non- 
sense, but he cannot have absolutely no conception whatever 
about poetry. You see now the drift of my argument. I say 
that in a simple state of society when certain classes of sub- 
jects, or objects, do not present themselves, it is not a 
matter of intellectual necessity that people should be taught 
to have accurate notions about them. Perfectly pure ignorance 
is not always from the intellectual point of view an evil to be 
deplored. The mind is not necessarily injured by it when it has 
other motives for a healthy activity. We all know that a master 
who has to teach anything to a new pupil prefers the clean white 
paper of simple ignorance to a confusion of erroneous notions 
and prejudices difficult to efface. We are all of us quite absolutely 
ignorant of an inconceivable quantity of things and not a bit the 
worse for it. But I do think that we are seriously the worse for 
every false conception that lingers within the recesses of our 
minds. And I venture to atfirm very decidedly that when the 
state ol society is no longer that of primitive simplicity people 
are very much exposed to the danger of having false conceptions 
which may crystallize into prejudices and distort their views upon 
a variety of subjects with regard to which their simpler ancestors 
had never any views at all. Our grandfatliers lived in a state of 
civilization really much more primitive than ours. Regions of 
mental activity which we labour in familiarly were either little 
known to, or "absolutely unsuspected by, them, I mean in the 
ordinary provincial life in and about a town like Burnley. It 
requires a great mental effort to throw ourselves back into their 
simpler state, and however we try to do it we are not likely to 
succeed quite perfectly. Of the three great divisions of human 
culture — literature, science and art, the first alone was in any 



103 

appreciable degi'ee familiar to tliem. I am not forgetting that a 
Towneley of Towueley made one of the finest collections of 
ancient Sculpture ; he was au exception to the rule, and he was 
not strictly provincial, for men of his wealth and station lived so 
much in the capital and abroad that they often imbibed the best 
cultm'e of the world. The ordinary couutiy gentleman at tlie 
beginning of the present century was not the illiterate squire of 
an earlier period ; he had not the feudal contempt for letters ; 
he thought it a credit to be well educated in the classics ; he 
sometimes learned French, and he desired to give the advantages 
of education to his sons, which he did to the best of his ability 
when he could afibrd it. The English poets who were contem- 
porary with Wordsworth found readers in rural England. The 
older English literature was still valued in places remote from 
the culture of the capital. This, of course, is rather a favourable 
picture, for I am describing the better specimens of the class. 
Many in the higher circles of a provincial town in those days 
would know very little about literature of any elevated or 
elevating kind. Let us be charitable to our grandfathers as we 
may wish our grandsons to think chai-itably of us. But however 
charitable we may be I think we must admit that of the three 
divisions of culture, — literature, science, and art, our grandfathers 
had only literature — when they had literature. Science has had 
very hard work in getting anything like one acknowledgment 
from the authorities who direct the education of the upper classes 
in England ; and art, as a serious study, seems to be even less 
recognised by them. We very seldom find an English gentleman 
who has the triple education which Goethe gave himself, and 
which, at an earlier period, Leonardo da Vinci gave himself, — in 
literature, science and art. It may even be questioned whether 
people generally are aware that science has claims at all com- 
parable to those of literature, or that art in its turn has claims 
comparable to those of science. My argument in favour of the 
triple education may be compressed into a sentence. Each of 
the three teaches what the other two cannot teach, and opens a 
range of perceptions which the others would leave closed. To 
have the three is like having three different senses. Literature 
deals best witli thought and narrative, science with positive truth, 
and art with the knowledge and the pleasure which are to be 
derived fi-om the perfected tise of sight. The three open to us 
three distinct fields of human exertion and they enable us to 
profit by the labours and productions of three distinct orders of 
human genius. It is only quite recently that this has been 
adequately acknowledged or understood. Not only did our im- 
mediate forefathers ignore science and art but they positively 
despised them, with the single exception of mathematical science. 
Even medical studies in spite of their visible utility were not 



104 

esteemed so highly as they deserved. The natural sciences were 
followed by a few devotees and amateurs, but there was no 
general conception prevalent in society of the enormous import- 
ance of science to a higlily civilized community or of the power 
which it was very soon destined to exercise over the thoughts and 
opinions of mankind on all sorts of important subjects. The 
ideas about art were still farther from what we now know to be 
the trutli. Art was looked upon as a harmless but trifling and 
rather feminine amusement or else as a degrading profession. 
There was no conception of art as an important means of national 
and individual culture. Even at the present day, it is only the 
more intelligent people in any class who have this conception of 
art. It is generally, but surely, extending itself, and the time will 
surely come when people will wonder how they could ever have shut 
their eyes so long. You have established a Literary and Scientific 
Club in Burnley, but the fine arts do not seem to be especially 
included amongst the subjects of your attention. You have 
followed in this, the natiu-al order of things. Literature is the first 
culture, then science of some kind is added, and finally come the 
fine arts. It is a safe prediction that if Hurnley goes on prosper- 
ing either your own club will include the fine arts amongst the 
objects of its particular solicitude, or else there will be a separate 
club for them, like the tine arts clubs which are now sprmgiug 
up in London and the largest towns. Industry and manufac- 
tures lead to the tine arts in a curiously inevitable way. See 
how it comes about in a place like Manchester. Men produce 
earnestly and laboriously for many years in the purely industrial 
way, and this plodding industry seems to waken in them a 
curiosity about tiner and higher kinds of work which leads them 
ultimately into the region of pure art. All the noblest tine arts 
have been gradually developed out of simple handicrafts, 
(Sculpture comes from masonry, painting from house-painting, 
engraving from the work of the silversmith, and great artists in 
old times usually began by being quite simple workmen This 
humble origin of the fine arts does not prevent them in their full 
development from expressing the very highest conceptions of 
human intellect and genius, but it must always keep them related 
in a more or less distant way to many of the commoner industries. 
For my part, I like this relation sliip. It is good for the mental 
health of a man to have to use his hands and deal with matter 
even when expressing the highest conceptions of his mind, for 
however unreliable talent or genius may be, the laws of matter 
are always reliable, and give a man something to depend upon. 
Now in an industrial district like the manufacturing districts all 
the handicrafts are kept up to a very high state of perfection, and 
even continually improved by advancing experience. It is 
therefore simply inevitable tliat the inhabitants of a busy centre 



105 

should be led to asb whether handicraft and manufacture are the 
ultimate attainment of human skill and thought, or Avhether 
there may not be something beyond them and above them, yet 
still related to them. The answer is — Yes, there are the fine 
arts. Then come the questions what the fine arts are, and what 
is the good of them '? It has been said that the fine arts are the 
expression of man's delight in God's work. Well, so no doubt 
they are. but they are also the expression of man's delight in his 
own genius and skill. The human element in all true fine art is 
enormous ; and the more we know of the subject the more clearly 
we perceive this human element where others only see a reflection 
of the natural world. Nature and man combine in every good 
work of fine art. Nature gives the original suggestion, and 
teaches man how to organise things in the mimic world of art 
according to natural law ; how to make a figure that will look 
as if it could move, or a tree that will look as if it had grown. 
But beyond all this, which is the scientific half of art, lies the 
purely artistic half, which, is the free and masterful action 
of human genius expressing its preferences and tastes both by 
arranging material as it likes in that harmonious manner which 
is called artistic competition, and by laying stress or emphasis 
upon what it likes best in nature, and sacrificing what 
it does not care for so much. The fine arts are therefore 
both studious and arbitrary ; studious of natural truth and 
beauty, arbitrary in their adoption or rejection of it in their 
own human work. It follows from this double natm'e of 
the fine arts that they can only flourish in those places 
where there is a delight in nature and a delight in the 
highest and most perfect exercise of the human faculties. Now 
do you in the manufacturing districts take any unfeigned pleasure 
in natural beauty and human genius '? Industrial occupations, 
by what seems a fatal and inevitable law, are the destroyers of 
natural beauty everywhere. They destroy it both in landscape 
and in man. The landscape, in many parts of your manufactur- 
ing district, was formerly very beautiful, but it is now spoiled, as 
you know, in various ways. Pure air, pure water, and the 
luxiu'iaut growth of trees and other plants are three essential 
elements of landscape beauty ; a fourth, not less essential, is 
suflicient light. In a manufacturing town, and for a certain 
distance around it, the air is made impure, the streams are con- 
taminated with refuse, the trees wither and die, the plants cannot 
grow on the river's banks, and the light is diminished by an 
opaque cloud of smoke which hangs perpetually between earth 
and sky. Then, as to the population, aU medical authorities are 
agreed that the factory system has diminished the strength and 
beauty of the race. I remember that, when Mr. Byug came 
many years ago to get recruits for the Coldstream Guards, he 



106 

told me that lie was quite snrpi-ised by the fine physical qualities 
of our Lancashire race, so long as it kept to the hills, and to 
rural occupations ; but so soon as it got down into the mills, its 
fine qualities were diminished. I will not dwell any longer upon 
this painful and somewhat delicate subject. Let us hope that a 
wise care for health both public and private, better sanitary 
arrangements, and better habits amongst the population, may, 
in course of time, render the factory system compatible with the 
preservation of human strength and beauty ; and let me assure 
you that, besides being infinitely precious in themselves, the 
strength and beauty of a race have much to do with its possibili- 
ties in the fine arts. The influence of coal-smoke upon art is 
very direct in the case of architecture. The whole subject of 
architecture is discouraging in modern England, on account of 
coal-smoke, and that not merely in places like Burnley, Oldham, 
or Rochdale, but even in the capital itself. You cannot really see 
a piiblic building in London, because it is so blackened with soot 
in patches, that its relations of light and shade are utterly 
falsified and contradicted. Take St. Paul's, for example, or 
Somerset House. The parts which have been particularly 
exposed to the rain and wind are washed white, and kept so by 
successive tempests year after year ; the sheltered parts are as 
black as the inside of a chimney. Nobody can see architecture 
under such conditions. On the continent a fine building simply 
mellows with age. In Paris the stone is, when first cut, almost 
as white and soft as plaster, so that it is easily sawn and carved, 
and presents, when perfectly new, an appearance of dazzling 
freshness and cleanliness. I recollect an Englishman who 
denied that it was stone at all, but said that it was a sort of 
stucco. Stone it is, however, and the effect of the Parisian 
atmosphere upon it is simply to harden the surface — to case- 
harden it, as one would say of a metal ; and at the same time 
to change its colour gradually from white to a beautiful golden 
grey, infinitely agreeable to the eye ; and this is the present tint 
of the old court of the Louvre. You can see architecture under 
such conditions ; but it is no use making beautiful buildings 
when all the relations of form and light and shade are to be 
falsified by soot in the sheltered parts, and violently contrasting 
white in the exposed parts. I believe, however, that a kind of 
architecture may be ultimately perfected which will be suitable 
for the manufacturing districts ; a kind of architecture depending 
more for its beauty upon the decoration of flat surfaces in coloured 
tiles and marbles and mosaics, than upon projections and recesses. 
Coal-smoke interferes much less with the decoration of interiors, 
and there is no reason why Lancashire interiors should not be 
models of artistic taste. Painting is always the most popular 
of the fine arts in manufacturing districts, to the comparative 



107 

neglect of architecture and sculpture, both of which seem to 
require purer air and brighter sunshine. Manchester has had 
an immense influence on modern painting, and has encouraged 
it in the direction of honest studies and purposes ; though I 
think that the encouragement has been, on the whole, better in 
its influence on landscape than on figure painting. The sort of 
figure painting encouraged by Manchester has been, I should say 
(so far as my recollection serves me), rather that which tells a 
story or incident cleverly than that which sets forth the figure 
itself with a view to its best and noblest treatment. Modern 
engraving has been immensely encouraged all over the manu- 
factiuing districts, but generally more for the subject of the print 
than for the artistic qualities of the engraving itself. 

Not wishing to trespass too long upon your time, I will now try 
to answer briefly my own question — What is the good of art, 
especially with reference to the manufacturing districts ? Pardon 
me, if what I say may seem to you inadequate and imperfect. It 
is always difficult to compress anything that has to be said about 
art into a small space, because the subject is such a vast one 
and has so many ramifications. The good of art is simply that 
it educates the perceptive faculties pleasiu-ably. A good artist, 
or a good art critic, is always a person who can perceive very 
delicate distinctions, a person of keen and subtle perception. 
Many who have educated themselves, by means of art, in care- 
fully distmguishing one thing fi-om another, find afterwards that 
the powers of analysis and of synthesis which have been so 
educated can be transferred to other fields of action, — to intel- 
lectual or social matters, — or even to political. Art is, therefore, 
a mental training of a very valuable kind. But besides this, 
the practice of art educates both the eye and the hand as 
nothing else can. A workman who is at the same time an 
artist is never as hkely to spoil his work through inaccurate 
perception or clumsy manual labour, as another. His eye will 
be true and his hand will be delicate. Besides these advantages 
as a part of education, the fine arts open to us very wide fields 
of perfectly healthy and innocent enjoyment which add greatly 
to the interest of hfe, and which are in themselves like a rich 
estate. The enjoyment of the fine arts leads to a far higher 
enjoyment both of natm-al beauty and of human history. Hardly 
any scene in nature is too simple or commonplace to be beneath 
the notice of great artists ; and there is hardly any period in the 
history of mankind which has not its own special interest in the 
histoiy of the fine arts. I should say then, that to take an 
interest in art is at the same time to awaken or enhance oiu* 
interest in very many other things : for, in one way or another, 
the fine arts are bound up with almost everything that either is, 
or ever has been, visible ; and things visible, in their turn, are 



108 

bound up with things invisible. I have some right to speak 
authoritatively on this subject, since for the last twenty-five 
years the fine arts have been the special subject of my studies ; 
and I can tell you honestly, that for me they have enormously 
enhanced the value of exiatence. I cannot remember a day 
during the last twenty years which has not been made more 
interesting and profitable to me, directly or indirectly, by my 
knowledge of art, which, though of course, very small at first, 
and limited even yet, has given the constant pleasure which 
attends a gradual increase. There is hardly any subject worth 
studying at all which is not connected in some way with the fine 
arts ; — hardly any subject in which the student of art will not be 
able to find something which bears more or less directly upon 
his own pursuit. Almost all history, and at least two-thirds of 
the sciences, can teach an art critic something that he is the 
better for knowing. And I may add, that no people are likely 
to be benefited so decidedly by the love and knowledge of art, as 
those who live in manufacturing districts. Some of the manu- 
factures themselves, all manufactures which involve design or 
colour, or either design or colour taken separately, — and ail the 
trades in which either beauty or good taste is of any consequence 
whatever, may be helped most directly by a knowledge of art ; 
and besides this, the very destruction of natural beauty which 
industrial establishments cause, is of itself quite a sufticient 
reason for seeking that compensation which the fine arts, and they 
alone, can give. Only imagine a great city, shut out from the 
sight of all that is refreshing in the natural world, and at the 
same time including within its own borders nothing more 
beautiful than factories and rows of cottages ! Such a place 
would be simply uninhabitable by properly constituted human 
beings. Having now occupied enough of your time I will con- 
clude with a few very brief observations on what ought to be 
done. Every town the size of Burnley ought to have an Arts 
Club, having for its special purpose the advancement of what 
may be called the artistic interests of the place. The Arts Club 
would naturally be composed of men rather superior to the 
majority of their fellow townsmen either in wealth, or culture, or 
both, and tlieir opinion, deliberately expresaed, would generally 
be listened to. One of their objects would be the formation and 
preservation of a local art museum for the pleasure and instruction 
of the town. I do not think that a museum such as 1 recommend 
ought to lay out its limited funds in pictures, because too much 
money would go at once for a small result, but of course it ought 
to accept gifts of good pictiires, and there is not the leaat doubt 
that if such a museum existed there would soon be gifts and 
bequests which would gradually enrich it even in the department 
of painting. Such a museum ought to be open every night till 



109 

ten, and well-lighted, as that at Kensington is, for the convenience 
of the working classes. I will not go more into detail at present. 
All that I need say just now is to assure you that such a museum 
might be started with limited funds. Casts of the most magnifi- 
cent statues in the world may be procured for very little and 
equally faithful reproductions of drawings by the greatest masters 
are now extremely cheap. As for engravings more than two 
thousand of the finest pictures in the Louvre have been engraved 
at the cost of the French Government which sells good impres- 
sions at tlie most moderate price for the encouragement of art. 
The French provincial museums are by no means perfect as 
models, but they generally contain casts from the antique, some 
good original drawings, some autotype photographs from other 
drawings by great masters, besides a quantity of pictures, amongst 
which may be found a few, if only a few, really good ones. 
Almost every French provincial town of any importance has its 
art-museum. I do not wish for one moment to exaggerate the 
value of these little provincial collections which are generally got 
together merely by haphazard, as gifts happen to come in from the 
Government or from private individuals. There is a great deal 
of inferior and even positively bad art in them, but in spite of 
all that can be said against them the fact remains that a French- 
man at a distance h'om the capital can get some notion of what 
art is without traveUiug very far to see it. There is no part of 
England in which art museums, judiciously organised, would be 
more generally appreciated or more useful than in the manufac- 
turing districts, because the connection between decorative art 
and manufactures is so very close. The worst bit of calico 
printing that was ever executed is still a very near relative of 
figure drawing, and leads you up straight to Raphael himself. 
"Whenever a cabinet-maker carves an ornament on a sideboard 
he is doing something in which the greatest artist who ever lived 
would have taken a keen and eai'nest interest, something which 
is related to all the decorative sculpture in the world, which 
in its turn is related both to figure sculpture and architecture. 
The fact is that however various may be the manifestations of 
what we call art, it all hangs together in such a way that an 
intelligent man, in whatever station of life he may be, if only 
he has to do work in the slightest degree either decorative in 
itself, or representative of anything in nature, is sure to take 
some interest in an art museum, and to be able to derive benefit 
from it. There is another thing to be said in favour of such 
collections as the one I propose. The sight of beautiful things 
is often very efficacious in relieving feelings of depression which 
many people try to relieve by means that only increase the evil. 
Life in a manufacturing town in the north of England is often 
depressing from the state of the climate and atmosphere. The 



110 

general ugliness of the streets adds greatly to that feeling. One 
of the most effectual means of contending against such intiuences 
is to call in the help of the line arts. Houses occupied by persons 
in moderately easy circumstances can always be made interest- 
ing and attractive by means of the tine arts, without any 
extravagant expenditure ; but for the poor the benefit of them 
ought to be of the most public character. If you had not so 
much coal-smoke the example of certain old cities might be 
mentioned where art was an out of door luxury possessed by 
every citizen like the uncontaminated sunshine. In Lancashire 
I fear such examples would be nothing but an unpractical 
mockery. But there is no reason in the world why you shoi;ld 
not have simple and spacious public rooms where the humblest 
of your townsmen might bring iiis mind into contact with the 
very greatest minds of past and present times which have 
expressed themselves through the arts of design. Besides those 
works which belonged to the museum permanently you might 
admit others which would be lent to it, and wealthy people in 
your own neighbourhood might be induced to i^art with interest- 
ing things for a limited space of time. South Kensington owes 
much of its attraction to its loan collections, which are changed 
often enough to keep up the public interest. I have not advocated 
the purchase of paintings, yet I may observe that by waiting and 
watching opportunities a few examples in oil and water colour 
might be got together if the object were merely to have specimens 
of what good work is like, and not to have showy pictures by 
famous men. Studies are easily bought, and they are often even 
more iuatructive than huished pictures. With regard to modern 
art manufactures, nothing in the world is easier than to procure 
examples, and there has never been a time when so much study 
and taste and cultivated artistic skill went into manufacture as 
at the present day. You may even get copies of many tine old 
designs in modern materials. Let me observe that mere quantity 
in a public collection is a good thing in itself, because when 
there is quantity people can always hnd something that they 
have before overlooked, so that a large collection is practically 
inexhaustible, whereas a little one is not. The object of a 
provincial museum ought not to be the possession of a few very 
costly rarities, but rather to place within reach of the townspeople 
as many interesting and instructive examples as can possibly be 
got together, even though some of them may be of little pecuniary 
value. You will be tired of hearing me talk about iSouth Ken- 
sington, but 1 am hrmly convinced that in the South Kensington 
Museum an example has been set to the world of good sense 
applied to the arrangement of instructive art collections which 
may be imitated in all populous places with the very greatest 
advantage. The youth Kensington principle, in a word, is this — 



Ill 

to get together things which are instructive in themselves, and 
doubly instructive when they can be compared with each other, 
independently of all consideration of rarity or cost. When a 
thing is dear the museum buys it, if the outlay appears judicious ; 
and when a thing is cheap the museum buys it also, if it is 
wanted to complete an instructive series. And although instruc- 
tion is the main pui-pose pursued at South Kensington, the 
result has been that the museum fully satisfies at the same time 
the desire for beauty. It is indeed very lich in beautiful works 
of art. In the management of the National Gallery a different 
principle has been pursued, and quite rightly. A national collec- 
tion of pictures must include authentic works by as many of 
the great masters as can be procured, at whatever cost. To 
organize a collection on that principle requires a long time and 
an enormous expenditure of money. It is right that there should 
be one such national collection in a great and wealthy nation, 
but if the minor provincial towns wei-e to tiy and do anything of 
the same kind, the result would be mere uselessness. A few 
second-rate or third-rate pictures by old masters might be got 
together at a heavy expense, and nobody in the place would be 
much the happier or better for them. On the other hand, a 
museum establislied on the South Kensington principle would be 
an inexhaustible source of instruction and enjoyment to all the 
different classes of the community. It would have a direct 
practical influence on the work done in the place, and on the 
mental culture of the place. The good of it would penetrate 
into hundreds of private liouses like gas from your gasometers 
and water from your reservoirs. It needs little prophetic 
insight to see that art museums of some kind will ultimately 
be established in the provincial towns of England ; and it 
will depend upon the wisdom and judgment of men like 
yourselves whether such institutions are to be dead things from 
their first establishment, or living and fructifying things. It is, 
perhaps, fortunate for England that her movement in the direc- 
tion of public art museums has been somewhat late. She may 
profit by the example of France in avoiding some mistakes which 
have gone far to neutralise the effect of the French provincial 
collections. Those collections are not the living influences 
which, under more consistent and purposeful management, they 
might have been. I will not tax your patience by going into 
further detail on the present occasion. It is always best, when 
plans and projects are in a very early stage, to recognise general 
principles only, and leave the application of them in detail to 
those who may have to carry them out. The suggestions of 
local wants and circumstances have to be listened to and con- 
sidered. For this work the local mind is naturally more 
competent than any other, but whatever may be the means 



112 

employed by it in detail it may be acting upon a right or a wrong 
principle. The right principle for a museum in a minor pro- 
vincial town is to get what is most instructive, most charming, 
most interesting, in the greatest possible quantity and variety, 
and not to despise beautiful things because they liap])en to be 
cheap, or can be easily seen at some place hundreds of miles 
oflf that the ]ieople never go to. The wrong principle is to buy 
things out of pride, because they are reputed to be very fine and 
are known to be rare and expensive. 

LIFE IN LANCASHIRE IN THE TUDOR REIGNS. 

Btj JAMES CROSTON, F.S.A., Septewher 27th, 1881. 

Lancashire has many characteristics that are peculiar and dis- 
tinctive, and which seem to give it a history of its own, yet it is 
somewhat remarkable that, though in dignity a royal palatinate, 
and at the present time the most populous, and with perhaps 
one exception, the most wealthy of the English shires, it had no 
existence as a separate county until long after the others had 
been constituted. There is no mention of it in the Doomsday 
survey. At that time, the whole of the country lying between 
the Kibble and the Mersey — the Christ's Croft as it was called in 
the old Law, 

" When all England is aloft, 
Weel are they who are in Christ's croft, 
And where should Christ's croft be 
But between Eibble and Mersee ; — " 

a district of moss and moor, of forest waste and fell, embracing 
within its limits the now populous hundreds of Salford, West 
Derby, Leyland, and Blackburn, was then intended in Cestre-scire 
or Cheshire ; while the country extending northwards from the 
Eibble to the Lune, comprising the hundred of Amounderness 
and the southern portion of Lonsdale, belonged to Eiirwic-scire 
or Yorkshire : the remaining portion of Lonsdale, that north of 
Morecambe Bay was accounted as part of Westmoreland. It was 
not till long after the Conquest and when the lords of the honor 
of Lancaster had enriched themselves out of the forfeited 
possessions of the leader of the vanguard at Hastings that 
Lancashire as a County had a separate existence. 

It is not the early history of the county, however, that we are 
now about to consider, but the condition of society, the life and 
habits of the people, during the reigns of the Tudor sovereigns. 
When Henry of Eichmond came out of the field of Bosworth a 
victor, it was to rule over a nation weakened and bleeding at 
every pore. It is however remarkable that this county was never 
once made the scene of the contest between the houses of York 
and Lancaster, 



113 

Compared with other portions of the kingdom the county was 
at the time tliiuly peopled and intUfferently cultivated. On the 
eastern side the rocky defiles, the wild gorges, and the sterile 
moors, of Todmorden, Burnley, andPendle, afforded little facility 
and less inducement for intercommunication: broad trackless 
wastes stretched away in the direction of the Fylde, which had 
not yet been brought under cultivation, and in the south the 
country was for the most part made up of uncleared forests, in 
which the lordly stag roamed at will, and extensive mosses and 
fens such as Ashton Moss, Barton Moss, and Chat Moss, where 
the stranger seldom or never adventured himself. Indeed a 
century later the Bishop of Chester found the country so in- 
accessible that he was afraid to hold a Diocesan visitation in it, 
and when compelled by a peremptory letter from Queen Elizabeth 
to do so, the poor man bewailed his fate in piteous tone,^ and 
complained that "provender for his horses was very scarce" and 
the country in some parts " so very wild and dangerous that had 
it not been for the kindness of some people he would have lost 
his horses." 

The Flemish immigrants who, in the reign of Edward III., 
had been tempted to settle m the county, revealed the secrets of 
then- craft, and thus planted the sapling of that industry which 
gradually extended itself through the Lancashu-e valleys, and to 
the development of which the commercial greatness of the 
country is due. The people made the most of the knowledge 
and skill they had acquired; trade had thriven, wealth had 
increased, and several small towns had sprung into note. In 
the reign of Henry VIII. Lancashire had become famous for its 
cottons, which, by the way, were not cottons at all, the word 
being only a corruption of coatings, for the " light gossamer 
thread," was then unknown, and the cotton manufacture, pro- 
perly so called, did not rise from its cradle till more than a 
couple of centuries later. Manchester was the chief manufactur- 
ing town. Leland, in 1533, described it as " the fairest, best- 
builded, quickest [i.e., busiest), and most populous town in 
Lancashire." What the actual population then was we know 
not, but m 1578, when Queen EUzabeth granted a new charter 
to the CoUegiate Church, it was said to be 10,000, though this 
number probably included the whole parish, and not the town 
only. An old chronicler tells us of a famous clothier in 1520, 
one Martin Bryan (Byrom, probably), of Manchester, who" kept 
a great number of servants at work, as carders, spinners, 
weavers, fullers, dyers, shearmen' to the great admiration of all 
that came to behold them." The example he set was largely 
followed by others, and the importance to which the trade 
attained is curiously illustrated by an enactment in the 33rd 
year of Henry VIII.'s reign. In 1540-1 an Act was passed con- 



114 

stituting Manchester a place of sanctuary, but the privilege was 
one the inhabitants do not appear to have very highly appre- 
ciated, for in the following year they made a representation to 
Parliament that the immunity was very prejudicial to the wealth, 
credit, and good order of the town by encouraging idleness, 
unlawful games, unthriftiness, and other enormities ; and so in 
the following year another Act was passed transferring the 
sanctuary to Chester, which, being poor, was not likely to offer 
much temptation to thieves and felons. This Act (33 Henry 
VIII., c. 15) sets forth that Manchester was " well sette a worke 
in making of clothes as well of lyuneu as of woUen, whereby the 
inhabitants have obteyned, gotten, and come unto ryches, and 
welthy lyvings, and have kept and sett many artificers and pore 
folks to work within the said towne." 

Lancaster was the oldest corporate borough, and was then as 
now, the chief town of the county, though so far as population 
was concerned it was surpassed by several towns of more recent 
growth. It had then however become a decaying town : Leland, 
writing in the reign of Henry VIII., describes it as " falling into 
ruin," and Camden half a century later says it was " but 
thinly peopled '' and " all the inhabitants are farmers." 

Preston, the priests' town as its name denotes, exceeded in 
population the chief town of the palatinate and rivalled it in 
honour and dignity, being the capital of the duchy. 

Liverpool had risen into considerable importance during the 
Plantagenet reigns, but its fortunes were then on the wane, and it 
had come to be accounted as a kind of dependency on the more 
important port of Chester. In 1565 its population was only 
about 900, less than one-third of that of Preston. Bolton was 
the great rival of Manchester, and at one time bade fair to outrun 
it in the race for wealth. When Leland described Manchester as 
the most populous town, he added " Boltou-upon-Moore market 
staudeth most by cottons : divers villages in the moors about 
Bolton do make cottons :" and so the two towns became the chief 
resort for both woollen and cotton manufactures. 

Warrington was a thriving town with a population of over 2,000, 
the inhabitants being for the most part engaged in the manu- 
facture of sailcloths. It was protected by a fortified residence, 
and its church was accounted the most important in the hundred. 

Wigan. which at one time was the most populous as well as 
the most wealthy town in the West Derby hundred, could boast 
considerable antiquity, and had the honour of sending two 
representatives to Parliament in the time of Edward III, but it 
had passed the heyday of its prosperity, and like Liverpool had 
for long abstained from exercising its privilege on account of its 
poverty. 



115 

Of the smaller towns, Burnley, Buiy, and Eoclidale, were 
rising into importance and each becoming a centre of the trade 
that contributed to the wealth and importance of the county. 

Before the suppression of monasteries the heads of the two 
religious houses of Furness and Whalley were the most important 
personages in the county ; their establishments were maintained 
with regal splendour, and each had a retinue of servants that a 
prince might envy. The Stanleys were their great rivals in 
magnificence and the display of sumptuous hospitality. When 
the fierce war of the Eoses was ended Lord Stanley was the only 
baron who came out of the great struggle with added power and 
splendour. The Earldom of Derby was conferred on him, and 
his immediate successors in the title more than sustained the 
reputation for magnificence which he acquired. The old 
chronicler Camden, on the death of Edward, the fourth Earl of 
Derby, said that " with him the glory of English hospitality 
seemed to have passed away." In Lancashire, and also in the 
adjoining county of Chester, a style of architectm-e prevailed, 
which, if not peculiar, was nowhere else jDractised so commonly 
or on so grand a scale. The great di£fei"ence between the timber 
mansions of Lancashire and those in other parts of the kingdom, 
were, that while using a material common to all, the former 
were distingiiished by their extravagant solidity and their strength 
and ingenuity of construction. While the upper classes were 
living in the full enjoyment of their wealth, the thrifty manufac- 
turers in the prosperous inland towns were accumulating riches, 
becoming themselves small landowners, and by their enterprise 
establishing a new world of commercial energy. Though trade 
increased, and their gains were large, it was long before refine- 
ment and luxury found their way into their dwellings, and in 
their habits and education they were but little removed from the 
common people who were ignorant and superstitious, but as 
merry and boisterous as they were illiterate and rude. Before 
the Reformation education had made but little progress. When 
the first of the Tudors ascended the throne there was not a single 
public school fi'om one end of the county to the other, and had 
Shakspeare's Jack Cade been there he would have had no cause 
to reproach Lancashire men, as he did Lord Say, with having 
" most traitorously corrupted the youth of the realm in erecting 
a grammar school." When the Eeformation had been accom- 
plished only three such schools had been founded — Farnworth 
in 1507, Manchester in 1515, and Warrington in 1526. Before 
the close of Elizabeth's reign the number had been increased 
to 24. For the boy of " pregnant wit," as Hugh Oldham phrased 
it, there were the schools attached to the monasteries where he 
might obtain some kind of learning better or worse, and be 
trained for the priesthood; but those of the middle class had 



116 

little chance, unless they had the good fortune to be admitted to 
the houses of the nobler and better born, when, with the 
younger members of the family, they might receive scholastic 
teaching from a properly appointed teacher, and be fitted for the 
universities. As a consequence, there were few of the trading 
classes in the towns who could read, and still fewer who could 
write. Colonel Fishwick, in his history of Kirkham, tells us 
that so late as Elizabeth's reign of the 30 sworn men who had 
control of the affairs of that parish, only one could write, and 
when he failed to attend the meetings the business had to be 
postponed. The religious condition of the people both before 
and after the Reformation was little better. The parochial 
clergy were few and their parishes were extensive, justifying the 
remark which Fuller made a century later that " some clergymen 
who have consulted God's honour with their own credit and profit 
could not better desire for themselves than to have a Lincoln- 
shire church, as best built, a Lancashire parish as largest 
bounded, and a London audience as consisting of the most 
intelligent people." The heads of religious houses had succeeded 
in obtaining for themselves the larger portion of the rectorial 
endowments, and hence the majority of the parishes were left to 
the spiritual care of vicars — oftentimes men with little learning 
and still less piety, who were content to accept the small tithes 
as a miserable means of subsistence. The "parson" of Wigan 
was a great man in his way, and it is recorded that on one 
occasion at his house in London " he feasted two kings and two 
queens with their attendants, 700 messes of meat scarce serving 
for the first dinner." But with the exception of the rectors 
of Wigan and Winwick, the Vicar of Rochdale, and the 
Warden of Manchester, there were few of the parochial clergy 
who were not sprung fi-om the lowest of the people — men rude 
and illiterate, who could read their breviaries and no more, and 
whose lives were scandalously immoral. After the Reformation 
the condition of things was but little better, and the state of the 
clergy was positively worse. James Pilkington. a native of 
Rivington, and the first reformed Bishop of Durham, on visiting 
his native county, found the state of things so deplorable that he 
addressed a letter of remonstrance to Archbishop Parker, who 
was patron and rector of the three large parishes of Rochdale, 
Blackburn and Whalley. The state of the Church was lament- 
able. William Downham was at the time Bishop of Chester, a 
Protestant of very mild type, and not much troubled with scruples 
of any kind. The Archbishop of York had covenanted with him 
for the visitation of the diocese, and Downham, good easy man, 
was content to receive the visitation fees which were collected by 
a deputy. The Vicar of Rochdale was an avowed Papist, who 
kept out of the way and retained a deputy to officiate for him. 



117 

The Vicar of Blackburn eventually resigned on account of liis 
ignorance, and the " ill Vicar " of Whalley, as Pilldugton styled 
him, is said to have been a man of low habits, loose morals, and 
so little learned that he was unable to read inteUigibly. Burnley, 
Colne, Padiham, Hasliugdeu, Samlesbury, and Eossendale, were 
in no better plight, and in most of the chapelries the coniplamt 
of ignorance, drunkenness, and Hceutiousuess was general. The 
curate of Stretford, near Manchester, kept an alehouse, and his 
neighbour, the lector, or reader, of Chorltou, eked out a miserable 
subsistence by doing a httle pawubroking privately, but being 
found out, he was required to pay 2s. to the poors' box. The 
endowments of these small chapelries were very inadequate, 
many of the benefices being worth no more than £4 or £5 a 
year. Tlie curate of Blackley when prosecuted in 1581, for 
teaching without a licence, pleaded poverty, and affirmed that 
his stipend was only £2 3s 4d. a year. The Vicar of Eochdale 
paid the "preste""^of his chapel of Saddleworth £3 every half- 
year and thought he had done handsomely, while many had to 
depend on the voluntary principle, and be content with the small 
offerings of their flocks. In many other places the clergy were 
equally ill-paid and the people as badly served. With such 
laxity in the Church it is no wonder that immorality should pre- 
vail to so large an extent among the people, the masses of whom 
it is to be feared were neither very refined nor very virtuous. 
Dehghting in cruel sports, such as bull-baiting, bear-baiting, 
and given to all manner of unlawful gaming, lewdness, and 
boisterous revehy, the alehouses to which the more dissolute 
resorted — and they were innumerable — were the scenes of riots 
and feuds, which not only caused annoyance and scandal to the 
better disposed, but endangered the public peace to a greater 
decree than we can now easily conceive, and in the interests of 
morahty it became necessary for those in authority to suppress 
by all lawful means such disorderly proceedings, and to punish all 
itinerant bearwards, vagrants, and other such disorderly persons. 
In August, 1585, the Magistrates of Lancashire passed a series 
of resolutions respecting the government of ale-houses, the prin- 
cipal of which were, that no alehouse should be kept without a 
license being first obtained at the Quarter Sessions, a rule not 
before observed : no ale was allowed to be sold for more than 
one penny for a quart. " Eogues and valiant beggars " and 
" strange beggars of foreign shires " were not permitted to exercise 
their vocation in the county, and warning to this effect was to 
"be given opeulie in all parish churches" ■v\ithin the county, 
and none were to have hceuse to beg except in their own hundred, 
and none were to use " begginge " who were able to work : no 
licenses were thenceforth to be granted for begging except at the 
General Quarter Sessions. 



118 

Though Grammar Schools had been foimded in various parts 
of the county long before the end of Elizabeth's reign, their 
effect was not yet felt on the general population. Education had 
made but comparatively little progress, and the men of Lanca- 
shire, though the merriest of Englishmen, were ignorant and 
superstitious. Nowhere was the belief in witchcraft and super- 
natural agency more rife than in the palatinate. The shaping 
power of the imagination had clothed every secluded clough and 
dingle witli the weird drapery of superstition and made every 
ruined or solitary tenement tlie abode of unhallowed beings who 
were supposed to hold their diabolical revelries within it. 

Many sumptuary laws for regulating the conduct of society 
existed in the towns and in the court rolls of the several manors : 
much valuable information is to be gleaned i-elative to the usages 
and the mode of local self-government that prevailed among our 
forefathers, before the last traces of the mediaeval system and 
mediaeval manners had disappeared. Such records are further 
valuable as pictures of the habits and modes of life of the period, 
showing how the people in small communities lived and bought 
and sold, cleared and cultivated, built and pulled down, and also 
the fines and punishments they were subjected to for those lighter 
offences of which the common law failed to take cognizance. We 
learn fi-om these records how each man took his part in the 
business of his own locality ; how the tenantry of the several 
estates attended at the manorial courts at which the business of 
their respective districts was transacted, how they discharged the 
various offices pertaining to the manor, served on the juries 
empowered to decide causes, and reconcile differences among 
their neighbours, and to determine agreements as to meadows, 
lands, and pastures : how they also awarded satisfaction for 
trespass, and decreed the fines and punishments that should be 
inflicted for other minor oft'ences, and misdemeanours. 

[Mr. Croston here quoted a passage fi-om Mr. Harland's volume 
of " Court Leet Records of the Manor of Manchester from 1552 
to 1586," published by the Chetham Society, which reproduced 
the picture of the capital of the Lancashire manufacturing in- 
dustry in its everyday dress in the Tudor reigns, and concluded 
with the following remarks] : — 

In those days every man was taught to feel that he was a unit 
in the community in which he dwelt, that he had duties to per- 
form, and that he owed the time necessary to the discharge of 
those duties as his contribution to the common good, and if he 
was conscious of the privileges he was not forgetful of the 
responsibilities of citizenship. When those constitutional prin- 
ciples were active, the people grew up among them and learned 
what they themselves, as responsible members of the community, 
would have to do ; and so, when their time came, each man, 



119 

foUowing the habitual practice, took his part in the business of 
his own locahty. The moral state even of the highest classes of 
society was not of a flattering character in the days of the Virgin 
Queen, while the great mass ol the common people were rude, 
ignorant, and disorderly, and oftentimes scandalously immoral. 
But amid the social darkness there were many flashes of glorious 
heroism, and no lack of brave hearts and noble minds. But 
those times with all their shortcomings have passed away, the 
age of feudalism has gone by, and in the long centuries of change 
and progress that have intervened, time has mellowed and 
widened our social institutions, and raised the lower stratum of 
society to a nearer level with the higher. Yet while we boast 
ourselves of the present, let us not be unmindful of what we owe 
to the past, for those times were instinct with noble and true 
ideas, and with Carlyle we say that, " in prizing justly the indis- 
pensable blessings of the new, let us not be unjust to the old. 
The old was true if it no longer is." And after all it is never a 
profitless retrospect this looking back into the past. In looking 
over the old landmarks we may learn something of our country's 
history, and of those who played theii- parts in our " rough island 
story." Our thoughts and fancies will be stirred anew, and our 
sense of patriotism be nothing lessened by the contemplation of 
the memorials of that past on which oui- present is securely 
built. 



THE OLD HALLS ON THE WESTERN 
SLOPES OF PENDLE : 

THEIE HISTOEY, ASSOCIATIONS AND PEESENT 
CONDITION. 



By ALFRED STRANGE. November 6th, 1883. 



The Ancient HaUs nestUng in the undulating combs on the 
western base of grim old Peudle, — present no very striking 
features so far as their architecture and present appearance are 
concerned. They are without exception all of the smaller type 
of domestic dwelling common to the 16th and 17th centuries, 
and exactly what might be expected to accommodate the lesser 
class of gentry. They all show decided indications of architectural 
relationship, being built of stone quarried in the neighbourhood, 
and possessing capabilities for endurance which modern houses 
do not possess. Notwithstanding these advantages, not one of 
the six halls I purpose referring to, remains intact at the present 
date, their adaj)tation to the pm-poses of the modern farm house 
having done much to rob them of their original character. Three 



120 

of them were certainly Manor Houses, viz : — Coldcoates, and Great 
and Little Mearley, and these lialls occupy more commanding 
situations on the slopes than those of their neighbours — Wiswell, 
Pendleton and Worston. All are close to streams, tributaries of 
the Kibble, and it is easy to see that the situations were chosen 
because of their contiguity to these refreshing waters. But though 
they are all more or less shorn of architectural attraction, no one 
who takes an interest in the past can fail to be influenced by the 
bygone events connected with their weather-beaten walls and the 
parts which their respective inhabitants have played. 

The now insignificant building known as Wiswell Hall will 
recall the effete rebellion in which the imperious ecclesiastic 
John Paslew, B.D., (the last of the abbots of the proud monastery 
of Whalley), took part. Coldcoates is associated with the family 
of Judge Walmsley ; Pendleton is the home of a branch of the 
Hoghtons, of Hoghton Tower. The mansion house of Mearley 
Magna saw a daughter's birth, who was the mother of the 
Nowells of Read, from whom Dean Nowell sprang, and whose 
representatives are with us to this day ; and that of Agnes 
Greenacre, whose knightly father became in the course of events 
seized of the ancient estate, and who stood in patriarchal rela- 
tion to the Earls of Sussex, a noble family now passed from tlie 
peerage. Little Mearley — perched on an abrupt, narrow eleva- 
tion of land at the foot of a gorge-like chasm, and favoured with 
a fine and noble view over some of the fairest portions of 
Kibblesdale — had for its first resident the wily old Henry Nowell, 
who in 1472, with one Johanna his wife, became partaker of the 
revenues of a charitable institution at Wisbeach, which sinecure 
he enjoyed for nearly half a century, and whose daughters in 
ancestral descent became the wives of illustrious men, one of 
whom presented a Library to the fair town of Preston. Worston, 
the last hall of our series, was the home of a family who furnished 
a representative in Parliament for tlie neighbouring borough of 
ClitJieroe when that town was first enfi-anchised in the 16th 
century. 

WISWELL HALL. 

To take these domestic relics seriatim, leaving the main road 
leading from Whalley to Clitheroe almost half a mile from the 
former town, and passing along a leafy lane, itself the old high- 
way to Clitheroe and Yorkshire, we ai'rive at the village of 
Wiswell and its central point of interest, "Wiswell Hall," the 
birthplace of the illustrious and illfated Abbot of Whalley. 

We have to travel back to the reign of Henry V., of Agincourt 
fame, to rescue from oblivion the earliest recorded progenitor of 
the Paslew family. In the reign of that monarch it is believed 
that one Francis Paslew, probably a native of Wiswell, acquired 



121 

the estate and erected on it a building of modest proportions. 
According to Dr. Whittaker, the first dwelling must have been 
erected prior to 1450. 

The modest dwelling was pleasantly situated, embowered 
among trees. Francis had a son John, who is alleged to have 
been " John," the Abbot of WhaUey. There is no evidence to 
show the exact date of his birth, but tradition asserts that, born 
in this old mansion, he spent his earlier years beneath its roof 
'until he was finally sent away to prepare for clerical life. Judging 
from its j)resent appearance only, the Wiswell home seems to 
liave been originally of a very plain primitive character, and its 
internal accommodation somewhat limited ; though I iucliue to 
the opinion that very little of the original dwelling is still in 
existence. Much of the present building is of a later type than 
the latter part of the 15th century, and it is certain that it 
miderwent great alterations in the 17th, the principal additions 
consisting of the porch and small room over it which still 
remain. It wiU be noted that the usual finials of Tudor days 
adorn the angles at the top ; a muUioned window of three lights 
is over the dooi-way while the porch contains the usual stone 
seats found in these structures. Above the entrance are the 
Paslew Arms, set in a sculptured panel within a mould, giving 
the date of erection 1636, and the initials of the owner F. P. 
(Francis Paslew.) 

It is probable that the northern side of the western end is the 
oldest part, but it, hke the eastern side, has been much patched, 
receiving in the course of years many barbarous and incongruous 
additions. Noticeable among these is the long round-headed 
staircase window over the venerable muUioned window. The 
substantial chimneys are worth noticing, as they probably are 
remains of the oldest part of the mansion. 

There is nothing inside to attract attention, the rooms on the 
ground floor are low, and hghted by mulhoned windows ; the 
walls are thick, and here and there recessed, with a fragment or 
two of wainscot and oak panellmg still remaining. 

John Paslew was hanged at Hole Houses on the 20th of March, 
1536, on a pretty mound, now covered with trees, on the south 
bank of the Calder, from which a pleasant peep could be caught 
of the ancient Abbey over which he had presided so long. His 
body was interred in the Parish Church of Whalley, and the 
rudely sculptm-ed sepulchral stone over the grave can still be 
seen with a chalice and inscription on it in the north aisle. 
Some years ago I was informed by the Sexton, who, when a lad, 
had been into the vault, that he had seen the coffin, a plain one 
of lead, and it had evidently been undisturbed since the day when 
the venerable abbot, amid the sincere regrets of a whole pro- 
vince had been laid to rest. 



122 

The rest of the associations of the family with the present 
homestead, so far as they can be gleaned, are soon told. A John 
Paslew, of Wiswell, on the 18th of December, 1007, sat with one 
James Massye, Escheator, and another gentleman at Chorley, 
at an inquisition to report on the possessions of Simon Haydock, 
of Fesonforth in Bm-nley, deceased ; and forir years later one 
Francis Paslew was a juror at a similar inquiry upon the death 
of John Baron, at Over Darwen. A careful examination of the 
registers at Whalley would no doubt reveal more particulars 
concerning later generations, but it appears the family had ceased 
to live at Wiswell Hall at the beginning of the 18th century, 
when it was occupied by a Thomas Tomlinson, who had married 
a daughter of the house. 

When the Paslew Cross was erected on an older base just 
below, on the road side leading to Whalley, and which still 
stands, one Henry Tomlinson lived at the Hall. He belonged 
to the ancient faith, and the old people in the district can still 
remember him ; subsequently his sou Thomas succeeded him 
and died there. His widow still lives and resides at A.ccrington. 
The land is now farmed by a Mr. Moore, who also occupies the 
Hall. Here also the late venerable George Foster, J.P., of 
Sabden (and partner of Richard Cobden) was born, a man who 
from humble birth and parentage rose to a high position of 
eminence and wealth, and became a blessing to the neighbour- 
hood in which he first saw the light. 

COLDCOATES. 

The Manor House of Coldcoates stands high on tlie right of 
the road leading direct from Wiswell. This manor comes into 
prominence in the usual records about 1212, when one Thomas 
de Coldcoates, as mentioned in the Coucher Book of Whalley, 
was living. It then formed part of the Abbey lands, but 
subsequently, for a time at least, was alienated from the 
monastery, only however to be restored later on. It eventually 
became the property of the Walmsleys, a branch of the 
Dunkeuhalgh family, and related to the famous Judge Walmsley. 
From what remains of the two wings (E. and W.) the house, I 
think, would date from about the middle of the 16th century, 
and evidently was built in the shape of the letter E, an archi- 
tectural arrangement said to be indulged in out of loyalty to the 
reigning sovereign, good Queen Bess. 

It faced due north, sheltered however from the winds by a 
very large and substantially built outbuilding, not unlike in 
size and appearance to the knightly stables standing to the 
North-west of Hoghton Tower. This building is still almost 
intact. On the easterly side of this, and facing that wing of 
the mansion, the view embraced the pleasaunce or garden of 



123 

wliich, though now converted into pasture, there are some 
indications. Externally, Coldcoates Hall presented in its palmy 
days the customary central portion connecting two wings or 
gahle ends, but this portion of Coldcoates has entirely dis- 
appeared, and the two gable ends are now isolated, the 
"Western gable becoming the Farm house, and the Eastern 
being used for agricultural purposes. Most of the original 
windows are bricked up, but as the labels and jambs remain, 
their size and appearance can be ascertamed. But few sculptured 
stones are now to be found ; there is one in the original kitchen 
with I W on it ; and built in the wall of an outhouse ; there is 
an octagonal ornamental stone head of a down spout, having the 
initials E. W. The gable end of the eastern wing fi-om the eaves 
line to the ridge of the roof is half timbered, looking very 
pictm-esque, and is a pleasant contrast to the cold grey stone of 
the opposite gable. 

Some of the massive and somewhat stately farm buildings 
still remain. The Orchard Barn is gone, though Mr Briggs 
(father of the present tenant), who died in 1876, aged 94, could 
remember it standing in the field known as the Orchard field ; 
it had a thatched roof. The " meal and turfe " house still exists, 
with the chambers over. All the indications of the existing 
remains proclaim the Manor House to have been a fair domestic 
dwelling of its time and the groups as well as the fragments of 
the appurtenances now standing^surrounded as they are by 
umbrageous woods and park-like laud and pasture — show it to 
have been worthy of the admiration bestowed upon it by the 
escheator, James Massye, and his jury when they, in solemn 
inquiry, met in Blackburn to draw up their report to King James 
on the death of its proprietor, Robert Walmsley, on the 28th of 
August, 1612. 

PENDLETON. 

Continuing our jom-ney northwards we next approach the 
village of Pendleton, a very ancient ville, as in the I)om Boc of 
Saxon times, and in the Domesday Book of the Norman era it, 
with two orher Lancashire to-^Tis in the Blackbmn Hundred finds 
a place, Huucoat, and Walton, being its contemporaries. Had it 
stood a mile beyond the Eibble instead of two miles soutli of it, 
it would not have been found in the great national registers. For 
150 or 200 yards at right angles with the " HUl " the houses are 
built on both sides the road, and through the village runs a 
sparkling stream. Mingled with the homesteads of this pic- 
turesque street there are a few quaint buildings conspicuous. 
The oldest I believe is Cockshutt Farm house, having date 1606, 
while its next door neighbour was built in 1692, as a tablet 
informs us which is situated over the original entrance. Not far 



124 

off are the remains of the Alms Houses estabhshed in 1672, and 
a barn 1711. Many tenements are now in a ruinous condition, 
biit the appearance of the phice cannot have altered much during 
the last 250 years. Some thatched houses still remain. The old 
Knight Sir Eichard Hoghton of Little Pendleton Hall, and later 
on Sir Henry the Seneschal, used to hold courts in the village. 
We find that Pendleton sent three of its sons to swell the force 
of 400 men demanded of the Blackburn Hundred in 1573, and 
in 1574 the noble knight of the village had also to aid in the 
equipment of the regiment. 

One branch of the Hoghtons settled in this now secluded spot. 
Sir Richard Hoghton was the natural son of Sir Adam Hoghton 
of Hoghton Tower, and lie married the heiress of E. Radcliffe, 
whose property Pendleton was. This enterprising Hoghton must 
have entered into possession of the half-timbered mansion at 
Pendleton early in the 15th century, as in 1409 he was elected 
Knight of the Shire, and is described as residing at Pendleton. 

So far as a description is concerned but little can be said of the 
capacious residence of the Pendleton Hoghtons. All that remains 
of it stands in a lovely dell immediately contiguous to the main 
road leading from Clitheroe to Sabden. On its south western side 
dashes one of Pendle's most turbulent streams, and it is suiTound- 
ed by a thick grove of trees. What is left appears to be the 
western wing of the main building, but the intelligent exjalorer 
can readily reproduce in his mind from this fragment something 
of what it must have been in the days of its prosperity. A cor- 
responding wing to the portion left would probably occupy the 
opposite side, and the two wings as at " Coldcoates," would 
be connected at right angles, but displaying a southern frontage. 
Judging from the present capacious wing Pendleton Hall would 
be an elegant mansion and worthy of its predecessors. The 
cuspated windows, a class of window in that immediate district 
very seldom met with in domestic buildings, would impart to it 
a picturesque and slightly ecclesiastical character. There are 
some examples of these windows with labels over them in the 
southern end of the existing wing, the thick muilions of which 
are in good preservation. There is a shapeless porch with a 
storey over it on the western side of the present dwelling, but 
this is evidently an addition due to the necessities of agricultural 
convenience, since the older parts have passed away. The high- 
pitched roof gives ample garret room, and the old and massive 
oak boards have little trace of decay. Some carving is conspicu- 
ous on fi'agmentary portions of boards stowed away in the attics. 
The porch conducts to a large chamber on the right hand in 
which one of the ample fire-places of Tudor times can be traced 
in the northern wall. The walls of the rooms on the ground 
floor are in some places as thick as the outer ones (3ft.) but 



125 

notwithstanding this the dweUing is damp, due no doubt to the 
lowness of the site. 

MEARLEY MAGNA. 
If I am right in my conjecture as to the original position of 
the old Hall of Pendleton facing the south, that of Mearley 
Magna situated but a short distance from it would be its direct 
antithesis ; as it also hes at right angles to the ridge of Pendle, 
but faces due north, looking towards the rich district of Craven, 
with Ingleborough's bold outline in the blue distance. The 
ground plan of the mansion is nearly complete, with central 
portions and two projecting wings. Passing through a pair of 
venerable-looking gate posts in harmony with the style of the 
building, the visitor at once comprehends that part of it must 
have been, within a century at least, the dwelling of well-to-do 
people, the restored portion and the western wing possessing an 
air of comfort not found in the halls already described. Over the 
door is a tablet with the armorial bearings of Wilham Radcliffe 
of Todmorden, who married Agnes Greenacre, the heiress. 
According to tlie pedigree in Whitaker's Whalley, he was the 
second sou of the Kadcliffe House, but the little mullet on the 
escutcheon possibly, though not quite in strict accordance with 
heraldic rule, indicates that he may have been the third. 
The most interesting portion of the Hall, that of the eastern 
wing, is partly roofless and in ruins, and the wind and weather 
are now playmg sad havoc with this relic of the past. Through 
the long muUioned and glassless windows of this end nothing 
but a scene of desolation meets the eye. A winding staircase 
leading from the large south-eastern room on the ground floor 
has been completely wrecked by the fall of the joists above, and 
fine old oak panels, nicely moulded and once bearing a rich 
pohsh, lie broken and spoiled among the debris below. But 
though there is desolation within, yet the masonry seems still 
compact and firm. The chimneys are of bold proportions and 
add much to the substantial appearance of the mansion ; they 
peer over the picturesque gables and look down upon the stone 
water spouts, or peaked gurgoyles, which project from the roof 
below the eaves. These singular and eccentric-looking stone 
water spouts are decidedly the peculiar feature of Mearley Magna. 
From an examination of the principal points in the building, I 
am inchned to assign to this Hall a very early date in the 16th 
century. 

LITTLE MEARLEY. 
This Hall is undoubtedly at present in the best condition of all 
the six historic ones on the Western slopes of Pendle, but it has 
well nigh lost all its ancient features, the south-western wing 



126 

being the oldest part. Taken as a whole, it presents a very 
mixed arcliitectural appearance. Dr. Whitaker affirrus that the 
bay windows at the eastern end were pilfered from the refectory 
at Salley Abbey. The same idea is held by Mr. Dobsou, author 
of " Eambles by the Eibble," who supports the learned Doctor 
in all his conclusions. The opinion, however, given by Mr. W. 
A. Waddington, architect, in a modest footnote in the last edition 
of the " History of Whalley " (where he points out that at least 
250 years must have elapsed between the erection of the refectory 
and of the window, the style of which latter is late perpendicular 
and totally different to the prevailing character of the Abbey) 
will be more likely to obtain acceptance among archaeologists, not 
only on account of the value attached to his idea from a pro- 
fessional point of view, but because he is known to be an authority 
in all matters relating to Cistercian Monasteries. That the 
whidow came from Salley there is but little doubt ; the sculptured 
arms in the panels reveal the Percy coat, and that is enough to 
identify it with the Abbey. But the question is : From what 
part of the Abbey was it transplanted ? The most feasible 
theory is, that the relic belonged to the Abbot's lodgings, which 
probably had been enlarged and rendered more ornamental not 
long before the dissolution, and in fact was a new window when 
the order for destruction came. The perpendicular tracery which 
belonged to it when first removed, and some parts of which now, 
form the window of an outhouse of the farm, correspond entirely 
with many sculptured fragments of a domestic character that 
may still be seen at Salley, and it can be readily understood that 
when Christopher Nowell, in the second quarter of the sixteenth 
century, minded to enlarge and rebuild a portion of his mansion, 
the knowledge that he could purchase so useful a fragment of 
the old monastery induced him to strike a bargain which, while 
it answered Jds purpose, happily has led to the preservation of 
an elegant and substantial relic of Cistercian Salley. 

WORSTON HALL 

possesses few points of architectural interest. As it appears now 
it looks like three ordinary cottages thrown into one, with a pro- 
jecting one-storied porch, in front, and were it not for the three 
armorial shields from Salley over the door, a stranger would pass 
the building without its attracting his attention. These shields 
are the badges of the Percys and Plantagenets. One certainty 
about this hall is the date of its erection, 1577, still to be traced, 
with the initials E. G. of the builder in the top stone of the early 
gateway now built in an adjoining wall. When first erected, 
the principal homestead of the clustering village of Worston must 
have been one of the most comfortable and pleasant dwellings 
of the district. Richard Greenacre, the founder, wedded Jane, 



127 

a daughter of John Hoghton, of Pendleton Hall, and though his 
bride was brought to a home less pretentious than that of her 
bu'th, yet it had its advantages on account of its brighter, warmer, 
and more j)leasant vicinity. Being situated on the limestone 
which here crops up above the millstone grit of Peudle, it fostered 
a lovelier flora and sweeter herbage than the clayey soil on which 
her parental home was built. In front of the Hall, facing the 
south-west, the ground slopes upwards in soft undulations, tree 
and verdure clad, and forms one of the prettiest and quietest 
rural prospects within the shadow of Pendle. 




128 

GENERAL EXCURSIONS: 

STONYHURST OBSERVATORY AND COLLEGE, 
JUNE 13th, 1885. 



Director: Bei\ A. L. CORTIE. 



This deeply interesting and profitable visit took place on 
Saturday, June 13tli, when a large number of ladies and gentle- 
men assembled at four o'clock in front of Stonyhurst College to 
meet the Rev. A. L. Cortie, who had lectured to the club during 
the preceding winter session on " Sun-spot Phenomena observed 
at Stonyhurst." The authorities of the College had kindly allowed 
the members the special privilege of visiting that portion 
which is not generally shown to the public, and which was 
intended to illustrate the lucid remarks of Mr. Cortie on the 
occasion referred to, when carefully made drawings of the 
observations were exhibited by the aid of the oxy hydrogen lantern. 
The party were first conducted, under the ciceroueship of their 
leader, to what may be termed the meteorological observatory 
standing in the collegiate grounds on the spurs of Longridge Fell, 
at an elevation of about 360 feet above the level of the sea. The 
day was brilliant in the extreme, and the clearness of the atmo- 
sphere in these Lancashire latitudes exceptional. From the 
terraced walks a magnificent view was obtained of a portion of 
the Ribble, Hodder, and Calder Valleys, with Thievely Heights, 
beyond Burnley, in the distance. On entering the meteorological 
section Mr. Cortie explained an apparatus called the aneuometer, 
for measuring the force and velocity of the wind. Piercing the 
roof of the building containing the instrument was a vane-like 
arrangement delicately poised, and which acted on the machinery 
in the room below. At each point of the compass where the 
letters N.S.E. and W. appear on an ordinary vane, gilt hollow 
cups were fixed, and which, collecting the wind, imparted a 
rotatory motion in greater or lesser degree of force according to 
the action of the wind. This mechanical contrivance communi- 
cated with a self- registering apparatus, so that " Nature told its 
own tale," whilst the record was left upon paper on which was a 
lithographed diagram. These diurnal records are carefully com- 
pared, and filed, copies being sent to distant meteorological 
stations ; they constitute a record of great importance and value. 
The most interesting feature of the buillding was that devoted to 
terrestrial magnetism, a peep into which mysterious chamber, 
although at the risk of disturbing the delicate instruments, was 
accorded to the members. Before descending, however, into the 
recesses of this scientific crypt the members had to eliminate 
from pocket and person all metallic substances likely to affect the 



129 

extremely sensitive appliances used in demonstrating this special 
class of meteorological inquiry. In the chamber, which is 
situated several feet below ground, are three powerful magnets — 
one pointing east and west, another north and south, while the 
tliu'd regulates the "dip." Connected with these are photo- 
graphic magnetographs, which tell the story of the earth's electric 
current. It was noted that this subterranean chamber was at 
some distance fi-om the observatory in which the large equatorial 
telescope is found ; the explanation for which can be traced in 
the fact that the magnets would have exercised an adverse 
influence upon the astronomical machinery had they been placed 
in its immediate neighbourhood. Mr. Cortie explained the power 
and influence of these magnets, and the peculiar way in which 
they were acted upon by the earth's currents. Two visits were 
paid to the Observatory, where, through the large telescope, the 
image of the sun was thrown upon di-awing paper. Here every 
day the sun is sketched, and the number of spots, their position 
and shape, and J'acuhc, are clearly dehneated by the astronomical 
draughtsman. At eleven o'clock on the morning of the visit of 
the club these observations had been taken, and the sketches 
remained upon the paper. The members had, therefore, the 
opportunity of seeing the difference in the shape of the spots on 
the sun as they appeared six hours after delineation. Some 
interesting information was imparted relating to sun-spots. That 
month (June) was about the season of then- minimum appearance, 
and it took from 13 to 14 days (according to the latitude on the 
sun when they appeared) for them to cross the disc from side to 
side. An interesting feature in connection with the drawings 
was their comparison with those made of the same spot, at the 
same hom-, at other and distant observatories. The observations 
are thus put to a crucial test, and the results are indicative of 
the highly skilled care and minuteness which the patient investi- 
gation of this class of solar phenomena is receiving at the hands 
of astronomers at the present day. It was intended on the second 
visit to the Observatory that the visitors should have been shown 
the spectrum analysis ; but there had not been time to fix the 
necessary instruments in order to secure tliis pleasm-e. Mr. 
Coi-tie, however, explained the instrument which was used in 
connection with the telescope to obtain this wonderful effect, 
Avhich has contributed so largely to our information in determin- 
ing the character of the sun's photosphere. The method of 
working the magnificent equatorial telescope itself was shown 
and a description given of the clockwork arrangement attached, 
which, by keeping time with the axis of the earth, ingeniously 
retained the celestial body under observation within the field of 
the telescope and before the eye of the explorer, though the 
rotation of the earth goes on. Space at disposal will not permit 



130 

an explanation at length of the various meteorological instru- 
ments which were to be found in the neighbourhood of both 
observatories ; the method of determining the heat of the sun, 
which tells its own story by turning the light upon sensitive 
paper, the rays being concentrated through a sphere ; the 
ingenious system of ascertaining tJie weight of the dewfall, 
and the mechanism of the rain gauge. The interest of the 
visitors in all these objects was of the highest chai'acter; but, as 
it was necessary to go through the College, it was not possible to 
linger, highly attractive as they Avere to the scientific inquirer. 
Passing through the grounds, Mr. Cortie conducted the party 
through the whole of the College, finally taking them for a walk 
upon the roof of the new portion, which is asphalted and is 
an enjoyable promenade surrounded by the most enchant- 
ing scenery. A visit to the library and a walk through the 
corridors to the church terminated a most delightful afternoon. 
Subsequently the members were called together in front of the 
College and a very hearty vote of thanks was accorded to the 
Eev. A. L. Cortie for his unwearied kindness, and to the College 
authorities in affording an opportunity for a thoroughly scientific 
visit. 



ALUM SCAR, NEAR PLEASINGTON. July 4th, 1885. 
Dlrcotor: Eev. J. SHORTT, M.A. 



This place was visited by the kind permission of James John- 
stone, Esq., J. P. The party was met at Pleasiugton by the Rev. 
J. Sliortt, M.A., vicar of Hoghton, who kindly acted as guide on 
the occasion. Leaving the railway station the party proceeded 
past Pleasington Priory, (the florid Gothic building used as a 
Roman Catholic Church, which was opened in the year 1819, 
and built at an expense of i20,000), to Woodcock Hill, which is 
700 feet above the level of the sea, and from which a magnificent 
view of the coast Une from the mouth of the Ribble to that of 
the Wyre was obtained. The Rev. J. Shortt here pointed out 
some interesting features connected with Hoghton Tower and its 
deer park, showing the place called King James's Hill, where 
during the royal visit the Sovereign stayed and witnessed the 
deer chase. The boundaries of the park on the north-eastern 
side were plainly discernible, as also the site of the building 
which was used for storing the coarse hay for the deer in the 
winter. The gorge through which the Darwen flows, at the 
eastern side of the Tower, was clearly visible, and the rocky 
eminence of Hoghton was in the full radiance of summer leaf. 
The geological features were dwelt upon. The rev. gentleman 



131 

explained that the whole series of the Millstone Grit was 
represented in the district the party was passing through. The 
first series cropped out at Hoghtou Tower, another series— the 
Hasliugden Hags — came into view between Woodcock Hill and 
Alum Scar, while the third great series was represented by the 
cliff of the Scar itselt, under which was the shale from which 
the alum was extracted, and which gave the name to the place. 
The Scar itself, which was the object of the afternoon's visit, 
is situated in the ra^dne down which a little stream, the Arley 
brook, a tributary of the Darwen, flows. Each side is covered 
with a rich growth of trees ; and the debris fi-om the mines, 
(which up to the close of the last centiuy had been worked at 
intervals for about 150 years) is now clothed with abundant 
vegetation. It was not difficult to discover the ijarticular portion 
of the mine which was last worked, the road to it still being in 
existence, but the works have long been abandoned. Once only 
in their history have they paid as a commercial speculation, and 
now, in consequence of the competition and the easier way in 
which the alum is extracted in mines where the geological con- 
ditions are more favoiu-able, they have had to be finally abandoned. 
It has been alleged that one reason for the failure was on account 
of the immense beds of millstone grit it was necessary to pierce, 
prior to meeting with the shale fi-om which the alum is taken. 
When they were in operation the alum was taken down to 
Walton on the river Darwen, and stored in a warehouse close to 
the Eibble, whence it was removed for exportation. The alum 
was extracted from the stone by boiling. During the whole of 
the pleasant ramble Mr. Shortt gave most interesting information 
not only respecting the geology of the district, but the botany, 
as well as the archaeology, and the members of the party expressed 
to him their obligations for the instructive afternoon they had 
spent xinder his kind and careful guidance. A large yellow under- 
wing, several other small moths, and also a few specimens of oak 
fern and beech fern were brought away by members of the party. 



HECKENHUEST AND CANT CLOUGH EESEKVOIR 

WOEKS. July 25th, 1885. 

Directors — 

WILLIAM WILLIAMSON and J. E. STAFFORD, A.M.LO.E. 



The party drove first to Heckenhurst Eeservoir in order to 
note the works which are in progress to make it watertight. This 
reservoir was constructed about the year 1850, for the Bui'nley 
Improvement Commissioners, Mr. C. E. Cawley being the 
Engineer. It never was perfectly watertight. The reservoir 
was however used, its supply being obtained fi-om Holden Clough 



132 

and the Tlnirstwell springs, augmented by a supply from Swinden. 
It was continued in use until 1874. From this date to the present, 
the reservoir has been of no service, in consequence partly of the 
increased leakage, and also through the coal being worked below 
the Eeservoir. — After the coal workings were finished the Keser- 
voir was partly filled with water, to ascertain the extent of the 
leak, which was found to be 425,000 gallons in 24 hours. 

The reservoir is formed by constructing embankments on the 
north, south and west sides, the natural ground forming the east 
embankment. The embankments, and also the water area rest 
entirely upon the rock. The rock is the cause of leakage, the 
water percolating tlirough, and beneath the embankments, j)ar- 
ticularly on the north side. The repairs now being carried out 
consist of taking out the puddle trench on the north, and partly 
on the east and west embankments, sinking through the rock to 
the water-tight shale below, and reinstating the puddle. The 
capacity of the reservoir is 20 millions of gallons. When com- 
pleted its supply will be from Cant Clough, and the Thurstwell 
springs. 

The party then proceeded to view the extensive operations for 
the construction of Cant Clough Eeservoir. The numerous and 
elaborate plans prepared in connection with the works in all their 
details were inspected at the office, and then a survey of the site 
and works was made. The site of this proposed reservoir is 
situated about 3^ miles in a south easterly direction from the 
town of Burnley, and about one mile from the village of Hurst- 
wood. It will be formed by constructing an embankment from 
north to south across the Cant Clough stream. The length of 
the top bank will be about 370 yards, and the height 80 feet. 
The length of cross section through the centre of the embank- 
ment, from the inner to the outer toe, will be 165 yards, and the 
cubical contents of the embankment 300,000 yards. The inner 
slope will batter 3 to 1, and the outer slope 2i^ to 1. On the 
outside slope a benching or terrace will be formed, 30 feet 
vertical fi-om the top, and 40 feet wide. The inside slope will 
be pitched from the foot to the top, a wall also running along 
the top of the embankment to prevent the water fi-om blowing 
over the top bank during storms and strong winds, and thus 
prevent injury to the outer slopes. At the foot of the inside 
slope is what is technically termed a stone toe containing 20,000 
cubic yards of rubble stone. The puddle trench is 15 feet wide 
in the valley, being gradually reduced north and south to 5 feet 
at the extreme ends, tlie sides in all cases being vertical. The 
culvert from the inlet to the valve shaft is G feet diameter, and 
120 yards long, and from the valve shaft to the outlet 7 feet 
diameter and 80 yards long. The culvert will be used for the 
purpose of emptying the reservoir, and also for the purpose of 



133 

conveying water from the reservoir to the pipes for the town. 
The water will flow through the inner tunnel to the stop piece. 
The stop piece consists of a massive piece of solid brickwork in 
cement, its position being in the centre of the puddle trench on 
the north side, at the point where the culvert intersects the 
puddle trench. A 42 inch pipe will be buUt in the stop piece, 
for the purpose of emptying the reservoir, and a 24 inch pipe 
for the purpose of conveying water to the town. This 24 inch 
pipe draws the water from nearly the bottom of the reservoir, 
another 24 inch pipe wUl connect with the valve shaft at a depth 
of 30 feet from top water level, and will always be used, when 
the water is above this level. 

Compensation will be given from this reservoir to the stream 
below, and for this purpose a gauge bason will be constructed at 
the foot of the outside slope 220 feet long. The compensation 
water will flow from the outlet culvert down a water ladder 
27 feet high into the gauge bason. The water from the Bye-wash 
or overflow, on the south side of the valley will also flow into the 
water channel immediately below the gauge bason. The length 
of the Bye-wash on the south side will be 700 feet long, and the 
length of the outlet channel on the north side 350 feet long. On 
the outer slopes of the embankment rubble stone drains will be 
formed for the pm-pose of keeping the embankment dry, and will 
contain about 3,700 cubic yards of stone. The boundary wall will 
be 2,545 yards long, with an average height of 7 feet. The 
capacity of the reservoir will be about 256 millions of gallons, 
the top water line being 924 feet above Ordnance datum. 

Mr. Alderman Sutcliffe, J.P., Chairman of the Water Com- 
mittee, had purposed accompanying the party, but was prevented 
from being present. ]\tr. Williamson, Water Manager, to whom 
we are indebted for the foregoing particulars of the two reservoirs, 
gave valuable assistance, and to him and Mr. Stafford, Borough 
Engineer, cordial thanks were given on the return jom'ney. 




134 

LIBRARY. 

The Publications of the Lancashire and Cheshire Eecord 
Society, as follows : — 

Vol. I. — 1878. — " Lancashire and Cheshire Clmrcli Surveys," 

1649 to 1655. 

,, 2. — 1879. — " An Index to the Wills and Liventories in the 

Court of Probate at Chester," 1545 to 1620. 

,, 3, — 1880. — " Lancashire Inquisitions," now existing in the 

Public Eecord Office, London, Stuart Period. 

Part I, 1 to 11, -Tames I. 

,, 4, — 1881. — " An Index to the Wills and Inventories in the 

Court of Probate at Chester," 1621 to 1650. 

„ 5.— 1881.— "Eegisters of the Parish of Prestbury," 1560 

to J 636. 
,, 6. — 1882. — " Cheshire and Lancashire Funeral Certificates," 

1600 to 1678. 

,, 7. — 1882. — " Lancashire and Cheshire Eecords," preserved 

in the Public Eecord Office, London, Part I. 

,, 8. — 1882. — " Lancashire and Cheshire Eecords," preserved 

in the Public Record Office, London, Part II. 

,, 9.— 1884.— " Eolls of Burgesses at the Guilds Merchant of 

the Borough of Preston," 1397 to 1682. 
,, 10. -1884. — " Lancashire Wills proved at Eichmon:!," 1457 

to 1680. 
,, 11. — 1885. — "Lancashire and Cheshire Exchequer Deposi- 
tions by Commission," 1558 to 1702. 
,, 12. — 1885. — " Miscellanies, relating to Lancashire and Che- 
shire," Vol. I. 
Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 
Vol. xxxiii., 1880-1 ; Vol. xxxiv, 1881-2 ; Vol. xxxv., 1883. 
Eeports and Proceedings of the following Societies : — 
Manchester Field Naturalists and Archfeologists' Society, 1860 

(the year of its formation), to 1879 (1871 excepted), 1884. 
Manchester Scientific Students' Association (Established 1861), 

1878, 1879, 1883, 1884. 
Manchester Geographical Society (Established 1885), Journal for 

1885 in 4 volumes. 
Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society (Established 1812), 

1883-4. 
Liverpool Geological Association (Established 1880), 1880-1, 

1881-2, 1882-3, 1883-4. 
Liverpool Science Students' Association (Established 1881), 

1883-4, 1884-5. 
Chester Society of Natural Science (Established 1872), Reports 
for 1878-9, 1879-80, 1880-1, 1881-2, 1882-3, 1883-4, 1884-5; 
also Proceedings, Vols. 1, 2, 3. 



135 

Cumberland and "Westmoreland Association for the Advancement 

of Literatm-e and Science (Established 1876), No. IX., 1883-4. 
Halifax Literary and Philosophical Society (Established 1831), 

1883-4. 
Hudderstield Natm-aUsts' Society, 1883, Part I. 
Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society (Established 1835), 

1883-4. 
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society (Estabhshed 1822), 

1878, 1879. 
Montreal Natm-al History Society (Estabhshed 1832), " The 

Canadian Eecord of Science," Vol. I., Nos. 3, 4. 



Year Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great 

Britain and Ireland, 1884, 1885. 
" A Synopsis of the British Mosses," by Chas P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., 

Huddersfield. 
" Art in Lancashire and Cheshire ;" a List of Deceased Artists, 

with Brief Biographical Notes. By John H. Nodal. 
Catalogue of the Towneley Library, sold in London, June 18th 

to 26th, 1883. 
Catalogue of the Towneley Manuscripts, sold in London, June 

27th and 28th, 1883 (containing prices reahsed.) 
Baptisms and Anniversaries, &c., 1705. Manuscript, evidently 

the Memorandum Book of a Priest who entered upon his 

duties as Chaplain of Towneley, on the Vigil of St. John the 

Baptist, 1705. 
John Towneley's Diary, 1807, with Catalogue of his Library. 

Manuscript. 
John Towneley's Account Book, 1601-8. 

The following papers have been read before the Club : — 

*" Geoffrey Chaucer," by Henry Houlding, read January 13th, 

1874. 
*" The Philosophy of Eecreation," by J. C. Brumwell, M.D., 

read January 27th, 1874. 
*" Edmund Spenser," by Henry Houlding, read October 26th, 

1875. 
" The Dietetic Value of Alcohol," by J. W. Annmgson, 

L.R.C.P., read September 16th, 1879. 
*" The Burnley Grammar School Library," by J. Langfield 

Ward, M.A., read February 22nd, 1881. 
" Science Two Hundred Years Ago," by C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., 

Huddersfield, read March 9th, 1881. 
" The Efficiencies of Gas and Steam Motors," by Thomas 

Holgate, read October 17th, 1882. 
" Odours, Perfumes, and Flavours," by Alfred Henry Mason, 

F.C.S., Liverpool, read February 20th, 1883. 



136 

" Some aspects of Destructive Distillation," by Thomas 

Holgate, read March 3rd, 1885. 
" Sanitary Matters — Past and Present," by T. N. Dall, read 

March 10th, 1885. 

Those marked * may be purchased, price 6d. each. 

Account of Excursion to Irlam Hall, near Manchester, June 1st, 
1878, by the Urmston and Flixton Literary and Scientific 
Society. 

Account of Excursion to Knutsford and Nether Tabley, July 17th, 
1878, by the Urmston and Flixton Literary and Scientific 
Society. 

" Technical Industrial Education in connection with 
Mechanics' Institutions and other kindred Associations," 
by Edward T. Bellhouse, a paper read before the Man- 
chester Statistical Society, April 13th, 1881. 

Photographs may be obtained of the Ancient Market Cross and 
Stocks, Chm-ch Street, Burnley, removed May 24th, 1881. 
Old Houses in Church Street, Burnley, pulled down May, 1881. 
Price Is. and 2s., according to size. 

Transactions of the Burnley Literary and Scientific Club, Vol. I, 
1883, Vol. II., 1884, may be obtained. Price 2s. 6d, each. 




137 






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138 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

PAST AND PRESENT. 
Year of 

Election. 

1874 Eev. Edw. Boclen, M.A., Clitlieroe. 

1874 Col. Fishwick, F.S.A., Rochdale. 

1874 Jas. Kerr, L.S.A.L., Crawshawbooth. 

1874 Thos. Mackereth, F.R.A.S., Manchester. 

1874 Eev. Geo. Eowe, M.A., York. 

1875 Eev. J. S. Doxey, Whalley. 

1876 William Naylor. 

1876 Philip Gilbert Hamerton. 

1876 W. B. Bryan, C.E., London. 

1877 F. J. Faraday, F.S.S., F.L.S., Manchester. 
1877 0. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., Huddersfield. 
1877 Edwin Wangh, Manchester. 

1877 J. H. Nodal, Manchester. 

1877 Samuel Laycock, Blackpool. 

1877 E. E. Bealey. 

1877 W. A. Abram, J.P., F.E.H.S., Blackburn. 

1877 D. Morris, B.A., F.G.S., London. 

1877 Joseph Hough, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

1878 Alf. H. Mason, F.C.S., Montreal. 

1879 H. Stolterfoth, M.A., M.D., Chester. 

1879 Jno. Edw. Price, F.S.A., F.E.S.L., London. 

1880 Clias. Eowley, Jun., Manchester, 

1881 Jas. Croston, F.S.A., Prestbury. 
1884 Jas. Monckman, D.Sc, Bradford. 



MEMBERS. 

Those whose names are marked * have been elected during 1885. 

Anningson, J. W., L.R.C.P., Yorkshire Street. 

Bailey, Charles, Manchester Eoad. 
* Baldwin, Alexander, Ormerod Street. 

Barlow, J. A. 2, Padiham Eoad. 
*Barlow, W. H., 18, St. Matthew's Street. 

Baron, John, J. P., 107, Manchester Eoad. 

Baron, Arthur, 107, Manchester Road. 

Bell, Thomas, 14, Grimshawe Street. 

Berry, James, Palatine Square. 

Biruie, Joseph, Post Office. 

Blezard, Walton, Eosegrove. 

Bolton, Edgar, Bank Hall Terrace. 

Booth, James, Manchester and County Bank. 
*Booth, Thomas, 22, Sand Street. 



139 

Bradley, Jolin, St. James's Street. 
Bradsbaw, Henry, 88, St. James's Street. 
Briggs, Hem-y, M.D , 68, Bank Parade. 
Brotherton, Lawrence, Express Office. 
Brown, John, M.A., M.D. 68, Bank Parade. 
Broxup, J. Greenwood, Gannow House. 
Broxup, John, Gannow House. 
Brumwell. J. C, M.D., J. P., Hargreaves Street 
Bulcock, Henry, 105, Manchester Road. 
Burrows, Thomas, 37, Padiham Koad. 
Butterwortb, John, J. P., junr., Brooklands Eoad. 

Caiger, Rev. W. S., B.A., Byerden Terrace. 
Calvert, A. E.. Nelson. 
♦Carter, J. H., M.E.C.V.S., Nelson Square. 
Clement, Leonard, Forest View, Nelson. 
Colbran, W. H., Bank Parade. 
Colbran, John, Bank Parade. 
Collinge, James, 51, St. James's Street. 
CoUinge, John, Spring Hill. 
Collinge, John S., J. P., Park House. 
Collinge, William, 110, St. James's Street. 
Cook, Samuel, 5, Carlton Road. 
Corder, Edward, Manchester Road Station. 
CowgUl, Bryan H., Manchester Road. 
Crabtree, Robert, Brooklands Road. 
Crook, Thomas, 2, Carlton Road. 
Crook, Campbell, Rose HUl Road. 
Cunningham, J. M., Manchester Road. 

Dall, T. Naylor, Nicholas Street. 
Dean, Thomas, M.D., Manchester Road. 
Dent, William, Local Board Oflfice, Nelson. 
Dickinson, Alfred, Rose Cottage. 
Dickinson, W. R., 20, Manchester Road. 
Drew, Alexander, Holme Lodge. 
Duckworth, Joshua, 6, Manchester Eoad. 
Dunkerley, Elias, 82, St. James's Street. 
Dunkerley, Ehjah, 82, St. James's Street. 

Eastwood, Henry, 40, St. James's Street. 
Edmondson, Thomas, Fern HiU. 

♦Fletcher, J. H., Hargreaves Street 

Foden, C. M., 4, Sefton Ten-ace. 
*Folds, James, J.P., Brunshawe House. 

Folds, James, junr., Fair View Road. 

Fox, Charles, 12, Nicholas Street. 



Gill, George, Woodleigh. 

Granger, H. Beresford, Craven Bank. 

Grant, Fredk. J., Bank Parade. 

Grant, W. Lewis, 22, St. Matthew's Street. 

Grant, James, 12, Manchester Koad. 

Grant, Arthur E., 14, Palatine Square. 

Gray, Nathan P., Manchester and County Bank. 

Greenwood, James, 138, Manchester Road. 

Greenhalgh, John, Heaton Norris. 

Gray, Eev. R. D. H., M.A., Briercliffe Vicarage. 

Halstead, Edmund, 40, Junction Street. 

Hardman, Albert E., Osborne Terrace. 

Hargreaves, W. Carey, Colne Road. 

Harrison, James, 24, Carlton Road. 

Harrison, J. Dilworth, Sunny Bank. 

Hartley, Job W., Thorn Hill. 

Harwood, Septimus, M.B , Wilfield House. 

Haslam, Tom, Sunny Bank. 

Haslam, W. H., Lark Hill. 

Hedges, Alfred, Healey Villa. 

Hesketh, James, 139, St. James's Street. 

Higgin, Gain, 37, Rectoiy Road. 

Hill, Fred. H., 21, Fair View Road. 

Hitchin, Robert, 54, St. James's Street. 

Hoghton, Thomas, 1, Carlton Road. 

Hoghton, William H., 1. Carlton Road. 

Holden, John, Holme View. 

Holden, Ralph, Brooklands Road. 

Holden, Thomas, Chancery Street. 

Holgate, Albert, 97, St. James's Street. 

Holgate, Thomas, Batley. 
*Hopwood, Fred. Jas., Nicholas Street. 

Horn, J. S., 15, Palatine Square. 

Horner, Thomas, 58, Rectory Road, 

Horner, WiUiam C, Manchester Road. 

Houlden, John Wm., The Cemetery. 

Houlding, Henry, Oak Mount Terrace. 
*Howard, William R., Manchester and County Bank. 

Howarth, John, J.P., Park View. 
*Howson, Chas. J., Craven Bank. 

Hudson, Samuel, Sefton Terrace. 

Jobling, Arthur, Spring Wood. 

Kay, James, J.P., Towneley Villa. 
Kay, W. E., Brooklands Road. 



141 

Keigbley, George, J.P., Woodfield. 
Kiug, Alfred S., Carltou Eoad. 

Lancaster, Alfred, Manchester Koad. 
Lancaster, James, Palatine Square. 
Lancaster, William, jnnr., Carlton Eoad. 
Lawson, Samuel, L.F.P.G., Briertield. 
Lee, Eichard, Stoneyholme- 
Lee, George, Stoneyholme. 
Lee, J. L., Stoneyholme. 
Lloyd. Thomas, Grammar School. 
Lord, Sylvanus, Colne Eoad. 
Lupton, J. T., 28, Manchester Eoad. 
Lupton, Arthur, 136. Manchester Eoad. 
Lupton, William, Manchester Eoad. 

Mackenzie, James, M.D., 68, Bank Parade. 

Marquis, J. T., Manchester and County Bank, Colne. 

Mellor, T., Hargreaves Street. 

Metcalf, Christopher, Palatine Square. 

Midgley, Tom, 50, Eectory Road. 

Moore, Benjamin, Gazette Office. 

Mossop, William, Bank Parade. 

Mozley, H., Queen's Gate. 

Myers, Fred., Westgate. 

Nelson, Eichard, St. James's Street. 
Nowell, Thomas, Hcaley Grange, 
Nutter, Hemy, Colne Eoad. 

Ogden, Geo. C, Thorn Hotel. 

O'SuUivan, D.A., B.A., L.E.O.P., Westgate. 

Parkinson, Milton W., 74, Manchester Eoad. 

Parkinson, A. W., 74, Manchester Eoad. 

Parsons, John, L.R.C.S., Westgate. 

Parsons, Charles, 9, Grimshawe Street. 

Pickles, Joseph, 34, Allen Street. 

Pickup, Peter, Bridge End. 

Folding, James B., Nicholas Street. 

Popplewell, Alfr-ed, Nelson. 

Preston, Henry, 104, Manchester Eoad. 

Preston, Thomas, 92, Manchester Eoad. 

Pritchard, Thomas, Worsthome. 

Procter, Richard, Oak Mount. 

Prudom, William, 48, St. James's Street, 



142 

Ratcliffe, Abraham, 142, Mauchester Road. 
Ratcliffe, J. R., 142, Manchester Road. 
HatcHffe, David, 9, Carlton Road. 
Rawchffe, Geo. B., 4, Forest Street. 
Rawchffe, James, Oak Mount. 
Rawchffe, James H., 65, Manchester Road. 
Rawhnson, Joshua, Oak Bank. 
*Riley, Holden, St. James's Street. 
Roberts, P.E., Carlton Road. 
Roberts, Thomas Bank Parade. 

Sagar, Benjamin, Lark Hill. 

Sagar, William, Westgate. 

Scowby, Fi'ancis, Craven Bank. 

Shaw, Smith, 11, St. James's Street. 

Shawcross, John T., Nicholas Street. 

Shuttleworth, Sir Ughtred J. Kay, M.P., Gawthorpe. 

Slater, Christopher, Manchester Road. 

Smith, Denis, 91, St. James's Street. 
-Smith, James, Yorke Street. 
^-Stafford, J.E., A.M.I.C.E., Nicholas Street, 

Stonehouse, Charles, 17, Manchester Road. 

Storey, Geo., J.P., Brunshawe. 

Strange, Alfred, Craven Lodge. 

Sutcliffe, Alfred, L.R.C.P., Trinity House. 

Sutclift'e, Edward, Holme View. 

Sutcliffe, George, J.P., Oak Hill. 

Sutcliffe, James, Bull Hotel. 

Sutcliffe, John, Hargreaves Street. 

Sutcliffe, John Stansfield, Fir Grove. 

Sutcliffe, R.T., Nicholas Street. 

Thompson, James, 26, Cuerden Street. 
Thompson, James, St. James's Street. 
Thompson, James W., Oak Bank. 
Thompson, William, Oak Bank. 
Thornber, Thomas, 14, St. Matthew's Street. 
Thornton, John, The Poplars. 
Thorp, Tliomas, Manchester Road. 
*Thursby, J.O.S., J.P., Bank Hall. 
Tovey, A.E., D.Sc, Grammar School. 
Tunstill, Henry, Oak Mount. 

Waddington, WiUiam, Thorn Hill. 
Waddington, W. Angeio, Thorn Hill. 
Waddington, J. Arthur, Thorn Hill. 
Waddington, John C, Thorn Hill. 
Waddington, James C-, 3, Ormerod Street, 



143 



Walmsley, George, Highfield Terrace. 

Walmsley, Thomas, Coke Street. 

Ward, H. T., Palatine Square. 

Ward, J. Langfield, M.A., Grammar School. 

Watson, A. A., L.E.C.S., Colne Eoad. 

Watson, Richard, Hargreaves Street. 

Whitaker, James H., Wiifield TeiTace. 

Whittaker, John, jnnr., Carr Road, Nelson. 

Whitehead, W. Eennie, Carr Eoad, Nelson. 
*Wignall, John Wm., Market Street. 

Wilks, Maurice, 24, St. Matthew's Street. 
*Willey, Eev. W., Wiifield TeiTace. 

Witham, William, Todmorden Eoad. 

Wood, Martin, Westgate. 



144 

NAMES OF READERS OF PAPERS AND 
DIRECTORS OF SOIREES, &c. 

Page. 

Brandram, S., M.A Eecital— The Merchant of Venice . . 

Brumwell, J. C, M.D., J.P Holland in the Spring Time 20 

Caiger, Eev. W. S The Advent of the Franciscans in 

England 91 

Cortie, Eev. A. L Sun-spot Phenomena observed at 

Stonyhurst 11 

Croston, James, F.S.A Life in Lancashire in the Tudor Eeigns 112 

Dall, T. N Sanitary Matters— Past and Present.. 36 

Gill, George Who Wrote •' Shakespeare ?" 21 

Grant, Frederick J Eeview — " Essays and Leaves from a 

Note Book," by George Eliot 54 

Grant, W. Lewis Christian Names 55 

Soiree — Burnley, Old and New .... 84 

Gray, Eev. E. D. H., M.A Notes on Eainfall 16 

Hamerton, P. G Art in the Manufacturing Districts. . 101 

Holgate, Thomas Some Aspects of Destructive Dis- 
tillation 26 

Houlding, Henry Local Glimpses— Nature and the Ideal 57 

Lancaster, James Soir6e —Burnley, Old and New 84 

Eeview — " The Great Eepublic," by 

Sir LepelH. Griffin, K.C. S.I 53 

Mackenzie, J., M.D A Trip to the Yellowstone Park 68 

Marquis, J. T A Short History of Banking 71 

Nicholson, Albert The Rebels of 1715, and their Lan- 
cashire Friends 75 

Parsons, Charles Soiree— Elocutionary and Musical . . 100 

Eawcliffe, George B Eecitals 21 

Ehodes. J A Chat about the House-Fly 24 

Sagar, Benjamin On Browning's Poems 50 

Eeview—" George Eliot's Life," by 

J. W.Cross 54 

Strange, Alfred Soiree— Burnley, Old and New 84 

The Old Halls on the Western Slopes 
of Pendle : their History, Associa- 
tions, and Present Condition .... 119 

Syckelmore, T. J., B.A. . , EjDigrams 18 

Tiddeman, E. H., M.A., F.G.S., of The Later Geological Vicissitudes of 

H. M. Geological Survey .... the North-west of England 68 

Waddington, J. Arthur Soiree— Burnley, Old and New 84 

Waddington, William Do. do. do. 84 

Wilkinson, Tattersall Celtic, Eoman, and Saxon Footprints 

in the Pennine Eange 95 

For Full List of Meetings held during 1885, see Page 10. 



EXCURSIONS. 

Stonyhurst Obsebvatoey and College 128 

Alum Scab, near Pleasington 130 

Heckenhukst and Cant Clough Eebeevoir Works 131 



U5 



INDEX. 

Page. 

3 

List of Officees 

5 

EtjLES 

7 

Annual Eepoet 

10 

List of Meetings 

SuMilAEIES OF PaPEES BEAD DURING THE YEAE H tO 100 

Other Papers: — 

Art in the Manufacturing Districts. By P. G. Hameeton .... 101 

Life in Lancashire in the Tudoe Reigns : 

By James Cboston, F.S.A... 112 

The Old Halls on the Western Slopes of Pendle: their History, 
AssocLiTioNs, AND Peesent CONDITION. By Alfred Steange. . . 119 

128 

134 

137 

138 



Excursions 

LlBRAEY 

Statement of Accounts 

List of Members— Honoeaey and Oedinaey 

Alphabetical List of Readers of Papers, &e 144 



BUEGHOPE & strange, PUBLISHERS, &C., BURNLEY. 




19 MAR 1936 









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